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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910823/optimized-mlaa-for-quantitative-non-tof-pet-mr-of-the-brain
#1
Didier Benoit, Claes N Ladefoged, Ahmadreza Rezaei, Sune H Keller, Flemming L Andersen, Liselotte Højgaard, Adam E Hansen, Søren Holm, Johan Nuyts
For quantitative tracer distribution in positron emission tomography, attenuation correction is essential. In a hybrid PET/CT system the CT images serve as a basis for generation of the attenuation map, but in PET/MR, the MR images do not have a similarly simple relationship with the attenuation map. Hence attenuation correction in PET/MR systems is more challenging. Typically either of two MR sequences are used: the Dixon or the ultra-short time echo (UTE) techniques. However these sequences have some well-known limitations...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869301/cerebral-amyloid-deposition-is-associated-with-gait-parameters-in-the-mayo-clinic-study-of-aging
#2
Alexandra M V Wennberg, Rodolfo Savica, Clinton E Hagen, Rosebud O Roberts, David S Knopman, John H Hollman, Prashanthi Vemuri, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen, Michelle M Mielke
OBJECTIVES: To determine the cross-sectional association between cerebral amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and gait. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Population-based cohort study in Olmsted County, MN. PARTICIPANTS: Cognitively normal individuals (n = 611), aged 50 to 69 years, enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging with concurrent PiB-PET imaging and gait assessment. Participants with a history of stroke, alcoholism, Parkinson's disease, subdural hematoma, traumatic brain injury, or normal pressure hydrocephalus were excluded...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867033/differences-in-a%C3%AE-brain-networks-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-healthy-controls
#3
Huoqiang Duan, Jiehui Jiang, Jun Xu, Hucheng Zhou, Zhemin Huang, Zhihua Yu, Zhuangzhi Yan
The prevailing β-amyloid (Aβ)-cascade hypothesis is the most classical Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this hypothesis, excessive Aβ plaque deposition in human brain is considered to be the cause of AD. Carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B Positron emission tomography (11C-PiB PET) is the latest technology to detect Aβ plaques in vivo. Thus, it is possible to investigate the difference of Aβ brain networks between AD patients and Health Controls (HC) by analyzing 11C-PiB PET images. In this study, a graph-theoretical method was employed to investigate the topological properties of Aβ networks in 18 Chinese AD patients and 16 HC subjects from Huashan Hospital, Shanghai...
November 17, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827558/interaction-of-bioactive-compounds-on-capillary-inner-surfaces-bearing-a-dense-thermoresponsive-polymer-brush
#4
Takuya Koriyama, Yosuke Takayama, Chiho Hisatsune, Taka-Aki Asoh, Akihiko Kikuchi
To confirm the modification of a dense thermoresponsive polymer brush on a silica surface by surface-initiated (SI) atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was polymerized from a free ATRP initiator and an ATRP initiator immobilized silica particle (SiP) via ATRP under various initiator concentrations. The obtained PNIPAAm exhibited a well-controlled molecular weight and modification of the concentrated PNIPAAm brush on the SiP surface was confirmed. Based on the optimal ATRP conditions, the PNIPAAm- and poly(NIPAAm-co-butyl methacrylate [BMA]) (PIB)-grafted capillary lumen were prepared by SI-ATRP and used as capillary columns for micro high-performance liquid chromatography for the modulation of biomolecular interactions...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806159/association-of-higher-cortical-amyloid-burden-with-loneliness-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults
#5
Nancy J Donovan, Olivia I Okereke, Patrizia Vannini, Rebecca E Amariglio, Dorene M Rentz, Gad A Marshall, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Importance: Emotional and behavioral symptoms in cognitively normal older people may be direct manifestations of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology at the preclinical stage, prior to the onset of mild cognitive impairment. Loneliness is a perceived state of social and emotional isolation that has been associated with cognitive and functional decline and an increased risk of incident AD dementia. We hypothesized that loneliness might occur in association with elevated cortical amyloid burden, an in vivo research biomarker of AD...
November 2, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803098/cerebral-amyloid-deposition-and-dual-tasking-in-cognitively-normal-mobility-unimpaired-older-adults
#6
Neelesh K Nadkarni, Oscar L Lopez, Subashan Perera, Stephanie A Studenski, Beth E Snitz, Kirk I Erickson, Chester A Mathis, Robert D Nebes, Mark Redfern, William E Klunk
BACKGROUND: We examined relationships between cerebral amyloid-beta (Aβ) and cognitive-gait dual-task performance in 27 cognitively normal, mobility unimpaired elders. METHODS: We assessed Aβ on Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET. We measured gait speed separately and while performing working-memory, response-inhibition, motor-sequencing, and phone-dialing tasks. We compared dual-task costs on gait and cognitive performance in high-Aβ (PiB(+)) and low-Aβ (PiB(-)) groups and examined the association between Aβ and dual-task performance decrements...
November 1, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802305/structural-insights-into-the-nucleotide-binding-domains-of-the-p1b-type-atpases-hma6-and-hma8-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Hubert Mayerhofer, Emeline Sautron, Norbert Rolland, Patrice Catty, Daphné Seigneurin-Berny, Eva Pebay-Peyroula, Stéphanie Ravaud
Copper is a crucial ion in cells, but needs to be closely controlled due to its toxic potential and ability to catalyse the formation of radicals. In chloroplasts, an important step for the proper functioning of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain is the delivery of copper to plastocyanin in the thylakoid lumen. The main route for copper transport to the thylakoid lumen is driven by two PIB-type ATPases, Heavy Metal ATPase 6 (HMA6) and HMA8, located in the inner membrane of the chloroplast envelope and in the thylakoid membrane, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793823/ancient-heavy-metal-contamination-in-soils-as-a-driver-of-tolerant-anthyllis-vulneraria-rhizobial-communities
#8
Roba Mohamad, Geraldine Maynaud, Antoine Le Quéré, Céline Vidal, Agnieszka Klonowska, Erika Yashiro, Jean-Claude Cleyet-Marel, Brigitte Brunel
: Anthyllis vulneraria is a legume associated with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that together offer an adapted biological material for mine-soil phytostabilization by limiting metal pollution. Our study evaluated the genetic and phenotypic properties of a 137 rhizobia collection recovered from soils presenting contrasted metal levels to find rhizobia associated with Anthyllis and a given site. Zn-Pb mine soils contained a large majority of metal-tolerant rhizobia belonging mainly to Mesorhizobium metallidurans, or to another sister metal-tolerant species...
October 28, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790137/association-of-cerebral-amyloidosis-blood-pressure-and-neuronal-injury-with-late-life-onset-depression
#9
Min Soo Byun, Young Min Choe, Bo Kyung Sohn, Dahyun Yi, Ji Young Han, Jinsick Park, Hyo Jung Choi, Hyewon Baek, Jun Ho Lee, Hyun Jung Kim, Yu Kyeong Kim, Eun Jin Yoon, Chul-Ho Sohn, Jong Inn Woo, Dong Young Lee
Previous literature suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) process may contribute to late-life onset depression (LLOD). Therefore, we investigated the association of LLOD with cerebral amyloidosis and neuronal injury, the two key brain changes in AD, along with vascular risks. Twenty nine non-demented individuals who first experienced major depressive disorder (MDD) after age of 60 years were included as LLOD subjects, and 27 non-demented elderly individuals without lifetime experience of MDD were included as normal controls (NC)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781145/the-feasibility-of-11-c-pib-pet-ct-for-amyloid-plaque-burden-validation-of-the-effectiveness-of-ct-based-partial-volume-correction
#10
Kei Sasaki, Norihide Maikusa, Etsuko Imabayashi, Tetsuya Yuasa, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Amyloid positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) is an effective tool for assessing brain amyloid deposits. PET imaging, however, can suffer from the partial volume effect (PVE). PVE has been corrected using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) image data. However, correction of the PVE of PET using MRI usually requires two separate procedures, imposing a burden on patients and leading to low throughput and inefficient diagnoses. The advent of PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) may potentially overcome these problems and offer higher throughput and reliable quantification of amyloid plaques and assessment of Alzheimer disease (AD)...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780663/characterization-of-vibrio-cholerae-isolates-from-1976-to-2013-in-shandong-province-china
#11
Hui Lü, Yuqi Yuan, Na Sun, Zhenwang Bi, Bing Guan, Kun Shao, Tongzhan Wang, Zhenqiang Bi
Cholera continues to be a serious public health issue in developing countries. We analyzed the epidemiological data of cholera from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, an eastern coastal area of China. A total of 250 Vibrio cholerae isolates were selected for PCR analysis of virulence genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The analysis of the virulence genes showed that the positive rates for tcpA and tcpI were the highest among strains from the southwest region, which had the highest incidence rate of cholera...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767229/anionic-oligothiophenes-compete-for-binding-of-x-34-but-not-pib-to-recombinant-a%C3%AE-amyloid-fibrils-and-alzheimer-s-disease-brain-derived-a%C3%AE
#12
Marcus Bäck, Hanna Appelqvist, Harry LeVine, K Peter R Nilsson
Deposits comprised of amyloid-β (Aβ) are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and small hydrophobic ligands targeting these aggregated species are used clinically for the diagnosis of AD. Herein, we observed that anionic oligothiophenes efficiently displaced X-34, a Congo Red analogue, but not Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) from recombinant Aβ amyloid fibrils and Alzheimer's disease brain-derived Aβ. Overall, we foresee that the oligothiophene scaffold offers the possibility to develop novel high-affinity ligands for Aβ pathology only found in human AD brain, targeting a different site than PIB...
October 21, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743932/brain-mglur5-in-mice-with-amyloid-beta-pathology-studied-with-in%C3%A2-vivo-11-c-abp688-pet-imaging-and-ex%C3%A2-vivo-immunoblotting
#13
Xiaotian T Fang, Jonas Eriksson, Gunnar Antoni, Ulrika Yngve, Linda Cato, Lars Lannfelt, Dag Sehlin, Stina Syvänen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) into insoluble plaques. Intermediates, Aβ oligomers (Aβo), appear to be the mechanistic cause of disease. The de facto PET AD ligand, [(11)C]PIB, binds and visualizes Aβ plaque load, which does not correlate well with disease severity. Therefore, finding a dynamic target that changes with pathology progression in AD is of great interest. Aβo alter synaptic plasticity, inhibit long-term potentiation, and facilitate long-term depression; key mechanisms involved in memory and learning...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731387/nitric-oxide-participates-in-plant-flowering-repression-by-ascorbate
#14
Rajendran Senthil Kumar, Chin-Hui Shen, Pei-Yin Wu, Subbiah Suresh Kumar, Moda Sang Hua, Kai-Wun Yeh
In Oncidium, redox homeostasis involved in flowering is mainly due to ascorbic acid (AsA). Here, we discovered that Oncidium floral repression is caused by an increase in AsA-mediated NO levels, which is directed by the enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nitrite reducatase (NiR). Through Solexa transcriptomic analysis of two libraries, 'pseudobulb with inflorescent bud' (PIB) and 'pseudobulb with axillary bud' (PAB), we identified differentially expressed genes related to NO metabolism. Subsequently, we showed a significant reduction of NaR enzymatic activities and NO levels during bolting and blooming stage, suggesting that NO controlled the phase transition and flowering process...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724156/practice-effects-and-longitudinal-cognitive-change-in-clinically-normal-older-adults-differ-by-alzheimer-imaging-biomarker-status
#15
Mary M Machulda, Clint E Hagen, Heather J Wiste, Michelle M Mielke, David S Knopman, Rosebud O Roberts, Prashanthi Vemuri, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in 190 clinically normal elderly classified according to a two-feature biomarker model for Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: All participants completed neuropsychological testing, MRI, FDG-PET, and PiB-PET at their baseline evaluation. We divided participants into four groups based on neuroimaging measures of amyloid (A+ or A-) and neurodegeneration (N+ or N-) and reexamined cognition at 15- and 30-month intervals...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709546/phantom-criteria-for-qualification-of-brain-fdg-and-amyloid-pet-across-different-cameras
#16
Yasuhiko Ikari, Go Akamatsu, Tomoyuki Nishio, Kenji Ishii, Kengo Ito, Takeshi Iwatsubo, Michio Senda
BACKGROUND: While fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and amyloid PET is valuable for patient management, research, and clinical trial of therapeutics on Alzheimer's disease, the specific details of the PET scanning method including the PET camera model type influence the image quality, which may further affect the interpretation of images and quantitative capabilities. To make multicenter PET data reliable and to establish PET scanning as a universal diagnostic technique and a verified biomarker, we have proposed phantom test procedures and criteria for optimizing image quality across different PET cameras...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696179/long-term-cognitive-improvement-after-benfotiamine-administration-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Xiaoli Pan, Zhichun Chen, Guoqiang Fei, Shumei Pan, Weiqi Bao, Shuhua Ren, Yihui Guan, Chunjiu Zhong
To date, we still lack disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we report that long-term administration of benfotiamine improved the cognitive ability of patients with AD. Five patients with mild to moderate AD received oral benfotiamine (300 mg daily) over 18 months. All patients were examined by positron emission tomography with Pittsburgh compound B (PiB-PET) and exhibited positive imaging with β-amyloid deposition, and three received PiB-PET imaging at follow-up. The five patients exhibited cognitive improvement as assayed by the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) with an average increase of 3...
December 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695331/predicting-episodic-memory-performance-using-different-biomarkers-results-from-argentina-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative
#18
María Julieta Russo, Gabriela Cohen, Patricio Chrem Mendez, Jorge Campos, Federico E Nahas, Ezequiel I Surace, Silvia Vazquez, Deborah Gustafson, Salvador Guinjoan, Ricardo F Allegri, Gustavo Sevlever
PURPOSE: Argentina-Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Arg-ADNI) is the first ADNI study to be performed in Latin America at a medical center with the appropriate infrastructure. Our objective was to describe baseline characteristics and to examine whether biomarkers related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) physiopathology were associated with worse memory performance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen controls and 28 mild cognitive impairment and 13 AD dementia subjects were included...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693181/amyloid-tracers-binding-sites-in-autosomal-dominant-and-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Ruiqing Ni, Per-Göran Gillberg, Nenad Bogdanovic, Matti Viitanen, Liisa Myllykangas, Inger Nennesmo, Bengt Långström, Agneta Nordberg
INTRODUCTION: Amyloid imaging has been integrated into diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD). How amyloid tracers binding differ for different tracer structure and amyloid-β aggregate in autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) and sporadic AD is unclear. METHODS: Binding properties of different amyloid tracers were examined in brain homogenates from six ADAD with APPswe, PS1 M146V, and PS1 EΔ9 mutations, 13 sporadic AD, and 14 control cases. RESULTS: (3)H-PIB, (3)H-florbetaben, (3)H-AZD2184, and BTA-1 shared a high- and a varying low-affinity binding site in the frontal cortex of sporadic AD...
September 28, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683159/regional-tau-deposition-measured-by-18-f-thk5317-positron-emission-tomography-is-associated-to-cognition-via-glucose-metabolism-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Laure Saint-Aubert, Ove Almkvist, Konstantinos Chiotis, Rita Almeida, Anders Wall, Agneta Nordberg
BACKGROUND: The recent development of tau-specific positron emission tomography (PET) tracers has allowed in vivo quantification of regional tau deposition and offers the opportunity to monitor the progression of tau pathology along with cognitive impairment. In this study, we investigated the relationships of cerebral tau deposition ([(18)F]THK5317-PET) and metabolism ([(18)F]FDG-PET) with concomitant cognitive function in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Nine patients diagnosed with AD dementia and 11 with prodromal AD (mild cognitive impairment, amyloid-positive on [(11)C]PiB-PET) were included in this study...
September 29, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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