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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926778/korean-immigrants-don-t-buy-health-insurance-the-influences-of-culture-on-self-employed-korean-immigrants-focusing-on-structure-and-functions-of-social-networks
#1
Hyunsung Oh, Chung Hyeon Jeong
Culture has been pinpointed as a culprit of disparities in health insurance coverage between Korean immigrants and other ethnic groups. This study explored specific mechanisms by which culture influences a decision to buy health insurance among self-employed Korean immigrants living in ethnic enclaves by focusing on the structure and functions of social networks. Between March and June 2015, we recruited 24 Korean immigrant adults (aged 18 or older) who identified as self-employed and being uninsured for substantial periods before 2014 in Southern California...
September 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924215/bilingual-cortical-control-of-between-and-within-language-competition
#2
Viorica Marian, James Bartolotti, Sirada Rochanavibhata, Kailyn Bradley, Arturo E Hernandez
The human capacity to master multiple languages is remarkable and leads to structural and functional changes in the brain. Understanding how the brain accommodates multiple languages simultaneously is crucial to developing a complete picture of our species' linguistic capabilities. To examine the neural mechanisms involved in processing two languages, we looked at cortical activation in Spanish-English bilinguals in response to phonological competition either between two languages or within a language. Participants recognized spoken words in a visual world task while their brains were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922163/bilingualism-and-cognitive-decline-a-story-of-pride-and-prejudice
#3
Evy Woumans, Jan Versijpt, Anne Sieben, Patrick Santens, Wouter Duyck
In a recent review, Mukadam, Sommerlad, and Livingston (2017) argue that bilingualism offers no protection against cognitive decline. The authors examined the results of 13 studies (five prospective, eight retrospective) in which monolinguals and bilinguals were compared for cognitive decline and onset of dementia symptoms. Analysis of four of the five prospective studies resulted in the conclusion that there was no difference between monolinguals and bilinguals, whereas seven of the eight retrospective studies actually showed bilingualism to result in a four-to-five year delay of symptom onset...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917165/cerebellar-induced-differential-polyglot-aphasia-a-neurolinguistic-and-fmri-study
#4
Peter Mariën, Kim van Dun, Johanna Van Dormael, Dorien Vandenborre, Stefanie Keulen, Mario Manto, Jo Verhoeven, Jubin Abutalebi
Research has shown that linguistic functions in the bilingual brain are subserved by similar neural circuits as in monolinguals, but with extra-activity associated with cognitive and attentional control. Although a role for the right cerebellum in multilingual language processing has recently been acknowledged, a potential role of the left cerebellum remains largely unexplored. This paper reports the clinical and fMRI findings in a strongly right-handed (late) multilingual patient who developed differential polyglot aphasia, ataxic dysarthria and a selective decrease in executive function due to an ischemic stroke in the left cerebellum...
September 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915299/home-and-community-language-proficiency-in-spanish-english-early-bilingual-university-students
#5
Jens Schmidtke
Purpose: This study assessed home and community language proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual university students to investigate whether the vocabulary gap reported in studies of bilingual children persists into adulthood. Method: Sixty-five early bilinguals (mean age = 21 years) were assessed in English and Spanish vocabulary and verbal reasoning ability using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (Schrank & Woodcock, 2009). Their English scores were compared to 74 monolinguals matched in age and level of education...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915297/language-sample-analysis-and-elicitation-technique-effects-in-bilingual-children-with-and-without-language-impairment
#6
Maria Kapantzoglou, Gerasimos Fergadiotis, M Adelaida Restrepo
Purpose: This study examined whether the language sample elicitation technique (i.e., storytelling and story-retelling tasks with pictorial support) affects lexical diversity (D), grammaticality (grammatical errors per communication unit [GE/CU]), sentence length (mean length of utterance in words [MLUw]), and sentence complexity (subordination index [SI]), which are commonly used indices for diagnosing primary language impairment in Spanish-English-speaking children in the United States...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914156/lexical-decision-performance-in-developmental-surface-dysgraphia-evidence-for%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-unitary-orthographic-system-that-is-used-in-both-reading-and-spelling
#7
Andreas Sotiropoulos, J Richard Hanley
The relationship between spelling, written word recognition, and picture naming is investigated in a study of seven bilingual adults who have developmental surface dysgraphia in both Greek (their first language) and English (their second language). Four of the cases also performed poorly at orthographic lexical decision in both languages. This finding is consistent with similar results in Italian that have been taken as evidence of a developmental impairment to a single orthographic system that is used for both reading and spelling...
September 15, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904451/short-version-of-the-bilingual-aphasia-test-in-malayalam
#8
Gopee Krishnan, Reema Elizabeth Mathew
BACKGROUND: Brain damage can impair the use of all languages in bilingual persons. For effective management of aphasia (i.e., impaired language) in such persons, assessment of all languages is essential. The most widely used test for this purpose - the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) - is cumbersome and requires a considerable amount of time for administration. To overcome this limitation, a short version of the BAT has been recommended. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to derive a short version of BAT for Malayalam-English bilingual persons with aphasia and to establish the test-retest reliability as well as the content and construct validities of this version...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901779/initial-consonant-deletion-in-bilingual-spanish-english-speaking-children-with-speech-sound-disorders
#9
Leah Fabiano-Smith, Suzanne Lea Cuzner
The purpose of this study was to utilize a theoretical model of bilingual speech sound production as a framework for analyzing the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders. In order to distinguish speech difference from speech disorder, we examined between-language interaction on initial consonant deletion, an error pattern found cross-linguistically in the speech of children with speech sound disorders. Thirteen monolingual English-speaking and bilingual Spanish-and English-speaking preschoolers with speech sound disorders were audio-recorded during a single word picture-naming task and their recordings were phonetically transcribed...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901672/reading-comprehension-difficulties-in-chinese-english-bilingual-children
#10
Xiuhong Tong, Catherine McBride, Hua Shu, Connie Suk-Han Ho
The co-occurrence of reading comprehension difficulties for first language (L1) Chinese and second language (L2) English and associated longitudinal cognitive-linguistic correlates in each language were investigated. Sixteen poor comprehenders in English and 16 poor comprehenders in Chinese, 18 poor readers in both, and 18 children with normal performance in both were identified at age 10. The prevalence rate for being poor in both was 52.94%, suggesting that approximately half of children who are at risk for Chinese reading comprehension difficulty are also at risk for English reading comprehension difficulty...
September 13, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900405/the-minimal-and-short-lived-effects-of-minority-language-exposure-on-the-executive-functions-of-frisian-dutch-bilingual-children
#11
Evelyn Bosma, Eric Hoekstra, Arjen Versloot, Elma Blom
Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF). In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895004/positive-cognitive-effects-of-bilingualism-and-multilingualism-on-cerebral-function-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Cibel Quinteros Baumgart, Stephen Bates Billick
A review of the current literature regarding bilingualism demonstrates that bilingualism is linked to higher levels of controlled attention and inhibition in executive control and can protect against the decline of executive control in aging by contributing to cognitive reserve. Bilinguals may also have smaller vocabulary size and slower lexical retrieval for each language. The joint activation theory is proposed to explain these results. Older trilingual adults experience more protection against cognitive decline and children and young adults showed similar cognitive advantages to bilinguals in inhibitory control...
September 11, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891796/-validation-of-the-spanish-version-of-the-pediatric-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-scale-plutss
#13
Iván Somoza-Argibay, Roberto Méndez-Gallart, María Rodríguez-Ruíz, Inés Vergara, Sonia Pértega, Cem Akbal
OBJECTIVES: Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction (LUTD) is the most common clinical problem in pediatric urology. To our knowledge non-validated instruments properly designed to screen lower urinary tract symptoms in the pediatric population has been translated and adapted to Spanish population. Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Score (PLUTSS) has proven to be a valid questionnaire for screening and evaluation of the response of children with LUTD to therapy. The aim of this study was to validate the PLUTSS questionnaire into Spanish, and put it to clinical use in pediatric patients, with cross-cultural equivalence to the original version...
September 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891715/-where-it-falls-apart-barriers-to-retention-in-hiv-care-in-latino-immigrants-and-migrants
#14
Julie H Levison, Laura M Bogart, Iman F Khan, Dianna Mejia, Hortensia Amaro, Margarita Alegría, Steven Safren
Latino immigrants in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV. Barriers to consistent attendance (retention) in HIV primary care constrain opportunities for HIV treatment success, but have not been specifically assessed in this population. We conducted semistructured interviews with 37 HIV-infected Latinos (aged ≥18 years and born in Puerto Rico or a Latin American Spanish-speaking country) and 14 HIV providers in metropolitan Boston (total n = 51). The Andersen Model of Healthcare Utilization informed a semistructured interview guide, which bilingual research staff used to explore barriers to HIV care...
September 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891220/the-missing-explanation-of-the-false-belief-advantage-in-bilingual-children-a-longitudinal-study
#15
Vanessa Diaz, M Jeffrey Farrar
Bilingual preschoolers often perform better than monolingual children on false-belief understanding. It has been hypothesized that this is due to their enhanced executive function skills, although this relationship has rarely been tested or supported. The current longitudinal study tested whether metalinguistic awareness was responsible for this advantage. Further, we examined the contributions of both executive functioning and language ability to false-belief understanding by including multiple measures of both...
September 10, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890706/independent-and-combined-effects-of-socioeconomic-status-ses-and-bilingualism-on-children-s-vocabulary-and-verbal-short-term-memory
#16
Natalia Meir, Sharon Armon-Lotem
The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms "a child with low-SES" and "a child speaking a minority language" are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same country and attending the same kindergartens, with all bilingual children speaking the same heritage language (HL-Russian)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888509/tummy-time-for-latinos-with-limited-english-proficiency-evaluating-the-feasibility-of-a-cultural-and-linguistically-adapted-parent-education-intervention
#17
Alexandra Nitsos, Robin Dawson Estrada, DeAnne K Hilfinger Messias
PURPOSE: Tummy Time is preventive positioning designed to strengthen an infant's neck and upper body muscles and minimize musculoskeletal disorders, including positional plagiocephaly. Latino parents with limited English proficiency (LEP) may experience barriers to receiving instruction on this important health-promotion strategy. Study aims included 1) adaptation and implementation of a Spanish-language version of Tummy Time; 2) evaluation of participant Tummy Time knowledge; and 3) assessment of efficacy and acceptability of the Spanish language intervention...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886430/story-grammar-elements-and-causal-relations-in-the-narratives-of-russian-hebrew-bilingual-children-with-sli-and-typical-language-development
#18
Sveta Fichman, Carmit Altman, Anna Voloskovich, Sharon Armon-Lotem, Joel Walters
BACKGROUND: While there is general agreement regarding poor performance of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) on microstructure measures of narrative production, findings on macrostructure are inconsistent. PURPOSE: The present study analyzed narrative abilities of Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children with and without SLI, with a particular focus on story grammar (SG) elements and causal relations, in order to identify macrostructure features which distinguish bilingual children with SLI from those with typical development...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884273/validation-of-the-chinese-mandarin-version-of-the-oxford-knee-score-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#19
Kai Lin, Liangxiao Bao, Jian Wang, Kimie Fujita, Kiyoko Makimoto, Xiaoyan Liao
BACKGROUND: With the increasing number of patients with knee osteoarthritis undergoing TKAs in China, there is a clear need for a valid, short, joint-specific patient-reported outcome measure such as the Oxford Knee Score (OKS). QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To test the translated and cross-culturally adapted Chinese (Mandarin) version of the Oxford Knee Score (OKS-CV) and its (1) reliability, (2) construct validity, (3) dimensionality, and (4) responsiveness. METHODS: Three native Chinese bilingual translators (a professional English translator, an experienced orthopaedic surgeon, an advanced-practice nursing specialist) translated the English-language OKS into Mandarin Chinese...
September 7, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870853/neural-overlap-of-l1-and-l2-semantic-representations-in-speech-a%C3%A2-decoding-approach
#20
Eowyn Van de Putte, Wouter De Baene, Marcel Brass, Wouter Duyck
Although research has now converged towards a consensus that both languages of a bilingual are represented in at least partly shared systems for language comprehension, it remains unclear whether both languages are represented in the same neural populations for production. We investigated the neural overlap between L1 and L2 semantic representations of translation equivalents using a production task in which the participants had to name pictures in L1 and L2. Using a decoding approach, we tested whether brain activity during the production of individual nouns in one language allowed predicting the production of the same concepts in the other language...
September 5, 2017: NeuroImage
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