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France Liboiron, Justine Ammendolia, Jacquelyn Saturno, Jessica Melvin, Alex Zahara, Natalie Richárd, Max Liboiron
Silver hake, (Merluccius bilinearis), contributes significant biomass to Northwest Atlantic ecosystems. The incidence of plastic ingestion for 134 individuals collected from Newfoundland, Canada was examined through visual examination of gastrointestinal contents and Raman spectrometry. We found a frequency of occurrence of ingestion of 0%. Through a comprehensive literature review of globally published fish ingestion studies, we found our value to be consistent with 41% (n = 100) of all reported fish ingestion rates...
June 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jessica L Common, Hensley H Mariathas, Kaylah Parsons, Jonathan D Greenland, Scott Harris, Rick Bhatia, SuzanneC Byrne
BACKGROUND: A multidisciplinary, centralized referral program was established at our institution in 2014 to reduce delays in lung cancer diagnosis and treatment following diagnostic imaging observed with the traditional, primary care provider-led referral process. The main objectives of this retrospective cohort study were to determine if referral to a Thoracic Triage Panel (TTP): 1) expedites lung cancer diagnosis and treatment initiation; and 2) leads to more appropriate specialist consultation...
June 4, 2018: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
Ishor Sharma, Barbara Roebothan, Yun Zhu, Jennifer Woodrow, Patrick S Parfrey, John R Mclaughlin, Peter Peizhong Wang
BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns are commonly used in epidemiological research, yet there have been few studies assessing if and how research results may vary across dietary patterns. This study aimed to estimate the risk of mortality/recurrence/metastasis using different dietary patterns and comparison amongst the patterns. METHODS: Dietary patterns were identified by Cluster Analysis (CA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Alternate Mediterranean Diet score (altMED), Recommended Food Score (RFS) and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores using a 169-item food frequency questionnaire...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Rumaisa Aljied, Marie-Josée Aubin, Ralf Buhrmann, Saama Sabeti, Ellen E Freeman
OBJECTIVE: To provide the frequency and potential determinants of eye care utilization over the last 12 months among Canadians between the ages of 45 and 85 years old. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: 30,097 people in the Comprehensive Cohort of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. METHODS: Inclusion criteria included being between the ages of 45 and 85 years old, community-dwelling and living near one of the 11 data collection sites across 7 Canadian provinces...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Rumaisa Aljied, Marie-Josée Aubin, Ralf Buhrmann, Saama Sabeti, Ellen E Freeman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and determinants of visual impairment in Canada. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: 30,097 people in the Comprehensive Cohort of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging METHODS: Inclusion criteria included being between the ages of 45 and 85 years old, community-dwelling, and living near one of the 11 data collection sites across 7 Canadian provinces. People were excluded if they were in an institution, living on a First Nations reserve, were a full-time member of the Canadian Armed Forces, did not speak French or English, or had cognitive impairment...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
V Morton, J M Cheng, D Sharma, A Kearney
As of May 23, 2017, 29 cases of a new Escherichia coli O121 infection have been identified in six provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan) linked with the consumption of uncooked flour. One additional case was identified in a U.S. resident who traveled to Canada during the exposure period. Patients' ages ranged from 2-79 years (median = 23.5 years) and 50% were female. Eight patients were hospitalized, and one developed hemolytic uremic syndrome. Because of the recent emergence of E...
July 6, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
L Jonah, A C Bourgeois, M Edmunds, A Awan, O Varsaneux, W Siu
Background: Although there continues to be a global epidemic of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) there has been a decrease in the number of people dying of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), largely due to successful treatment with antiretroviral therapy. Objective: To provide a descriptive overview of the reported cases of AIDS in Canada by identifying trends by geographic location, sex, age group and mortality. While the descriptive analysis focuses on the year 2016, results are presented for reported cases from the beginning of national AIDS surveillance in 1979...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
S Gasmi, N H Ogden, L R Lindsay, S Burns, S Fleming, J Badcock, S Hanan, C Gaulin, M A Leblanc, C Russell, M Nelder, L Hobbs, S Graham-Derham, L Lachance, A N Scott, E Galanis, J K Koffi
Objective: To summarize seven years of surveillance data for Lyme disease cases reported in Canada from 2009 to 2015. Methods: We describe the incidence over time, seasonal and geographic distribution, demographic and clinical characteristics of reported Lyme disease cases. Logistic regression was used to explore differences between age groups, sex and year to better understand potential demographic risk factors for the occurrence of Lyme disease. Results: The number of reported Lyme disease cases increased more than six-fold, from 144 in 2009 to 917 in 2015, mainly due to an increase in infections acquired in Canada...
October 5, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
Romain C Gougeon, M Gabriela Mángano, Luis A Buatois, Guy M Narbonne, Brittany A Laing
The mixed layer of modern oceans is a zone of fully homogenized sediment resulting from bioturbation. The mixed layer is host to complex biogeochemical cycles that directly impact ecosystem functioning, affecting ocean productivity and marine biodiversity. The timing of origin of the mixed layer has been controversial, with estimates ranging from Cambrian to Silurian, hindering our understanding of biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem dynamics in deep time. Here we report evidence from the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the basal Cambrian in the Burin Peninsula of Newfoundland, Canada, showing that a well-developed mixed layer of similar structure to that of modern marine sediments was established in shallow marine settings by the early Cambrian (approximately 529 million years ago)...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Nouf M AlKusayer, William K Midodzi, Leigh Anne Newhook, Nicole Gill, Beth Halfyard, Laurie K Twells
BACKGROUND: The original 17-item Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been validated and widely used to assess attitudes toward breastfeeding. A reduced 13-item version of the IIFAS was recently validated in a Canadian setting. However, cutoff scores for categorization of infant feeding attitudes on both scales have not yet been established. Research Aim: The aim of this study was to determine optimal cut-ff scores predicting infant feeding attitudes and outcomes for the original and reduced IIFASs...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
April Hedd, Ingrid L Pollet, Robert A Mauck, Chantelle M Burke, Mark L Mallory, Laura A McFarlane Tranquilla, William A Montevecchi, Gregory J Robertson, Robert A Ronconi, Dave Shutler, Sabina I Wilhelm, Neil M Burgess
Despite their importance in marine food webs, much has yet to be learned about the spatial ecology of small seabirds. This includes the Leach's storm-petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa, a species that is declining throughout its Northwest Atlantic breeding range. In 2013 and 2014, we used global location sensors to track foraging movements of incubating storm-petrels from 7 eastern Canadian breeding colonies. We determined and compared the foraging trip and at-sea habitat characteristics, analysed spatial overlap among colonies, and determined whether colony foraging ranges intersected with offshore oil and gas operations...
2018: PloS One
Pardis Pedram, Erfan Aref-Eshghi, Hensley H Mariathas, Oliver Hurley, Marshall Godwin, Pauline Duke, Masoud Mahdavian, Shabnam Asghari
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia, an increased level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and decreased level of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We examined the six-year trend of dyslipidemia in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), a Canadian province with a historically high prevalence of dyslipidemia. METHODS: A serial cross-sectional study on all of the laboratory lipid tests available from 2009 to 2014 was performed...
May 2, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Paul Groves, Joannie Neveu, Colleen Cook, Phil Murphy, Joan M G Crane
OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographic and clinical characteristics between women who chose elective repeat Caesarean section (ERCS) versus trial of labour after Caesarean section (TOLAC) in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case control study of women with live singleton gestations delivering at term in St. John's, NL between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2014. Inclusion criteria were women who had a previous single lower segment Caesarean section (LSCS)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
VinÍcius Costa-Silva, AngÉlico Asenjo, Alfred F Newton, Patricia J Thyssen
The genus Ontholestes Ganglbauer includes 35 species distributed mainly in Eurasia, with a few additional species in Africa and North and South America (Herman, 2001; Yang Zhou, 2012; Smetana Shavrin, 2013; Rougemont, 2016). According to Asenjo et al. (2013), the South American record of the Palearctic species Ontholestes murinus (Linnaeus, 1758) for Brazil made by J. Guérin (1953) seems doubtful. Ontholestes murinus was recorded for the first time outside the Palaearctic region by Smetana (1981), from Newfoundland, in Canada, as an adventive species (e...
February 28, 2018: Zootaxa
Sophia M SÁnchez, Liat Y Goldstein, Norman O Dronen
Cobbold (1858) established Diphyllobothrium Cobbold, 1858 with the description of Diphyllobothrium stemmacephalum Cobbold, 1858 from the common harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus) (Phocoenidae), from the North Sea off Scotland. Diphyllobothrium stemmacephalum typically has been reported from a number of Phocoenidae and Delphinidae hosts from a variety of localities: common harbor porpoise from the northern Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea and Black sea (e.g. Cobbold, 1858; Delyamure 1955; Delyamure 1968; Delyamure 1971; Delyamure et al...
February 15, 2018: Zootaxa
Dixon T S Woon, Thenappan Chandrasekar, Lorne Aaron, Naveen S Basappa, Kim N Chi, Henry J Conter, Brita Danielson, Sebastien J Hotte, Shawn Malone, Fred Saad, Bobby Shayegan, Laura Park-Wyllie, Robert J Hamilton
INTRODUCTION: Treatment using abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, cabazitaxel, and radium-223 (Ra-223) improve overall survival (OS) and quality of life for patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Despite their proven benefits, access to these therapies is not equal across Canada. METHODS: We describe provincial differences in access to approved mCRPC therapies. Data sources include the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review database, provincial cancer care resources, and correspondence with pharmaceutical companies...
April 12, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Roger Chafe, Rana Aslanova, Omer Hamud, Peter Gregory, Leigh Anne Newhook
Background: Adolescent self-harm by drug ingestion (i.e., self-poisoning) is a serious mental health issue. In Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), paediatricians suspected an increase in the number of adolescents hospitalized due to self-poisoning in the province. Our primary aim was to evaluate the number of hospital admissions of adolescents for self-poisoning between 2008 and 2013 to determine whether there was indeed an increase in hospitalizations. We also wanted to examine the characteristics of these admissions to better understand this patient population...
April 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
Vernon R Curran, Diana Deacon, Henry Schulz, Katherine Stringer, Craig N Stone, Norah Duggan, Heidi Coombs-Thorne
OBJECTIVE: Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) are explicit, directly observable tasks requiring the demonstration of specific knowledge, skills, and behaviors that learners are expected to perform without direct supervision once they have gained sufficient competence. Undergraduate level implementation of EPAs is relatively new. We examined the characteristics of a workplace assessment form (clinic card) as part of a formative programmatic assessment process of EPAs for a core undergraduate surgery rotation...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Ashley Collier, Steven M Carr
Claims have long been made as to the survival to the present day of descendants of the Newfoundland Beothuk, a group generally accepted to have become extinct with the death of the last known member, Shanawdithit, in 1829. Interest has recently been revived by the availability of commercial genetic testing, which some claim can assign living individuals to specific Native American groups. We compare complete mitogenome sequences (16569 bp) from aDNA of eight distinct Beothuk lineages, including Shanawdithit's uncle Nonosabasut and his wife Demasduit, with three Newfoundland Mi'kmaq lineages and 21 other living Native Americans drawn from GenBank...
March 29, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Connor McGuire, Alexandra M Yip, Jeffrey B MacLeod, Vernon Paddock, Sohrab Lutchmedial, Najef Nadeem, Greg Hirsch, Corey Adams, Kevin Melvin, Sean Connors, Ansar Hassan, Jean-François Légaré
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is evolving rapidly and is increasingly being adopted in the treatment of aortic valve disease. The goal of this study was to examine regional differences in surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and TAVI across Atlantic Canada. METHODS: We identified all patients who underwent SAVR or TAVI between Jan. 1, 2010, and Dec. 31, 2014, in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador. Data obtained included patient demographic characteristics and surgical procedure details...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
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