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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450888/spatiotemporal-heterogeneity-in-prey-abundance-and-vulnerability-shapes-the-foraging-tactics-of-an-omnivore
#1
Nathaniel D Rayl, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, John F Organ, Matthew A Mumma, Shane P Mahoney, Colleen E Soulliere, Keith P Lewis, Robert D Otto, Dennis L Murray, Lisette P Waits, Todd K Fuller
1.Prey abundance and prey vulnerability vary across space and time, but we know little about how they mediate predator-prey interactions and predator foraging tactics. To evaluate the interplay between prey abundance, prey vulnerability, and predator space use, we examined patterns of black bear (Ursus americanus) predation of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) neonates in Newfoundland, Canada using data from 317 collared individuals (9 bears, 34 adult female caribou, 274 caribou calves). 2.During the caribou calving season, we predicted that landscape features would influence calf vulnerability to bear predation, and that bears would actively hunt calves by selecting areas associated with increased calf vulnerability...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434416/what-do-patients-with-chronic-spinal-pain-expect-from-their-physiotherapist
#2
Steven J Kamper, Tsjitske M Haanstra, Kathy Simmons, Mike Kay, Tony G J Ingram, Jeannette Byrne, Jenna M Roddick, Alissa Setliff, Amanda M Hall
Purpose: Evidence has suggested that patients' expectations influence the clinical course when they present with low back pain (LBP). However, little empirical evidence has outlined the nature of these expectations. The aim of this study was to describe LBP patients' expectations of physiotherapy. Method: Seventy-nine adult patients who had LBP for more than 16 weeks and were referred for physiotherapy at two hospital physiotherapy departments in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, were included. They filled out a questionnaire detailing their expectations of treatment...
2018: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410875/energyscapes-and-prey-fields-shape-a-north-atlantic-seabird-wintering-hotspot-under-climate-change
#3
F Amélineau, J Fort, P D Mathewson, D C Speirs, N Courbin, S Perret, W P Porter, R J Wilson, D Grémillet
There is an urgent need for a better understanding of animal migratory ecology under the influence of climate change. Most current analyses require long-term monitoring of populations on the move, and shorter-term approaches are needed. Here, we analysed the ecological drivers of seabird migration within the framework of the energyscape concept, which we defined as the variations in the energy requirements of an organism across geographical space as a function of environmental conditions. We compared the winter location of seabirds with their modelled energy requirements and prey fields throughout the North Atlantic...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402218/diabetes-and-the-occurrence-of-infection-in-primary-care-a-matched-cohort-study
#4
Waseem Abu-Ashour, Laurie K Twells, James E Valcour, John-Michael Gamble
BACKGROUND: People with diabetes may be at higher risk for acquiring infections through both glucose-dependent and biologic pathways independent of glycemic control. Our aim was to estimate the association between diabetes and infections occurring in primary care. METHODS: Using the Newfoundland and Labrador Sentinel of the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network, patients with diabetes ≥18 years between 1 January 2008 and 31 March 2013 were included with at least 1-year of follow-up...
February 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356676/an-exploration-of-citizen-science-for-population-health-research-in-retail-food-environments
#5
Stephanie J Pomeroy, Leia M Minaker, Catherine L Mah
Public engagement is an essential component of public health research, practice, knowledge exchange processes, and decision making. Citizen science was first documented in the early 1900s as an approach to public engagement and there is growing interest in how it can be used in health research. This commentary describes how citizen science approaches were incorporated into a public engagement activity as part of a population health intervention research project on the retail food environment, a workshop we hosted called The Food In This Place in St...
January 22, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340237/using-underwater-video-to-evaluate-the-performance-of-the-fukui-trap-as-a-mitigation-tool-for-the-invasive-european-green-crab-carcinus-maenas-in-newfoundland-canada
#6
Jonathan A Bergshoeff, Cynthia H McKenzie, Kiley Best, Nicola Zargarpour, Brett Favaro
The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) is a destructive marine invader that was first discovered in Newfoundland waters in 2007 and has since become established in nearshore ecosystems on the south and west coast of the island. Targeted fishing programs aimed at removing green crabs from invaded Newfoundland ecosystems use Fukui traps, but the capture efficiency of these traps has not been previously assessed. We assessed Fukui traps using in situ observation with underwater video cameras as they actively fished for green crabs...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260323/occurrences-and-changes-of-disinfection-by-products-in-small-water-supply-systems
#7
Shakhawat Chowdhury
The small water supply systems (WSSs) often report high concentrations of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. In this study, occurrences of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada, were investigated from 441 WSSs for a period of 18 years (1999-2016). The WSSs were divided into groundwater (GWP) and surface water (SWP) systems, which were further classified into eight sub-groups (P1-P8) based on the population served (≤ 100; 101-250; 251-500; 501-1000; 1001-3000; 3001-5000; 5001-10,000; and 10,000+, respectively)...
December 20, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241349/distribution-and-clustering-of-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-ctcl-cases-in-canada-during-1992-to-2010
#8
Feras M Ghazawi, Elena Netchiporouk, Elham Rahme, Matthew Tsang, Linda Moreau, Steven Glassman, Nathalie Provost, Martin Gilbert, Sara-Elizabeth Jean, Osama Roshdy, Kevin Pehr, Denis Sasseville, Ivan V Litvinov
BACKGROUND: Clustering of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) was reported in several jurisdictions around the world. This rare cancer is known to affect spouses and in some cases multiple members of the same family. These combined results suggest the existence of external disease triggers/promoters. We recently conducted the first comprehensive analysis of CTCL incidence and mortality in Canada, which revealed case clustering in several regions. OBJECTIVES: To extend our previous analysis on CTCL incidence across Canada and to provide all the collected data on CTCL patient incidence in Canada during the period of 1992 to 2010...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182888/psychometric-assessment-and-precision-remodeling-of-the-iowa-infant-feeding-attitude-scale-to-improve-clinical-use-and-efficacy-among-prenatal-women-in-canada
#9
Nouf M AlKusayer, William K Midodzi, Leigh Anne Newhook, Lorraine Burrage, Nicole Gill, Beth Halfyard, Laurie K Twells
BACKGROUND: The 17-item Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been widely used to assess maternal attitudes toward infant feeding and to predict breastfeeding intention. The IIFAS has been validated among prenatal women located in Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada, although its length may prove challenging to complete in a clinical setting. Research aim: The authors aimed to reduce the number of items from the original 17-item IIFAS scale while maintaining reliability and validity...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177032/stable-isotopes-can-be-used-to-infer-the-overwintering-locations-of-prebreeding-marine-birds-in-the-canadian-arctic
#10
Rolanda J Steenweg, Glenn T Crossin, T Kurt Kyser, Flemming R Merkel, H Grant Gilchrist, Holly L Hennin, Gregory J Robertson, Jennifer F Provencher, Joanna Mills Flemming, Oliver P Love
Although assessments of winter carryover effects on fitness-related breeding parameters are vital for determining the links between environmental variation and fitness, direct methods of determining overwintering distributions (e.g., electronic tracking) can be expensive, limiting the number of individuals studied. Alternatively, stable isotope analysis in specific tissues can be used as an indirect means of determining individual overwintering areas of residency. Although increasingly used to infer the overwintering distributions of terrestrial birds, stable isotopes have been used less often to infer overwintering areas of marine birds...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167983/climate-change-can-alter-predator-prey-dynamics-and-population-viability-of-prey
#11
Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, James A Schaefer, Michael J L Peers, E Hance Ellington, Matthew A Mumma, Nathaniel D Rayl, Shane P Mahoney, Dennis L Murray
For many organisms, climate change can directly drive population declines, but it is less clear how such variation may influence populations indirectly through modified biotic interactions. For instance, how will climate change alter complex, multi-species relationships that are modulated by climatic variation and that underlie ecosystem-level processes? Caribou (Rangifer tarandus), a keystone species in Newfoundland, Canada, provides a useful model for unravelling potential and complex long-term implications of climate change on biotic interactions and population change...
November 22, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120316/weighing-in-on-canadian-school-based-vision-screening-a-call-for-action
#12
Katie P Bennett, Wendy Maloney
Vision-screening programs are designed to detect common causes of visual impairment and increase the likelihood of early diagnosis and treatment. In the health authority Eastern Health - Newfoundland and Labrador, public health leaders raised a concern about the efficiency and effectiveness of the current non-routine, opportunistic vision screening protocol for school-aged children. An environmental scan of screening practices and programs across Canada was conducted, yielding a wide range of inconsistencies with respect to program type, target population, and screening tools...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097477/complete-genome-sequence-of-exiguobacterium-sp-strain-n4-1p-a-psychrophilic-bioemulsifier-producer-isolated-from-a-cold-marine-environment-in-north-atlantic-canada
#13
Qinhong Cai, Xudong Ye, Bing Chen, Baiyu Zhang
Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Exiguobacterium sp. strain N4-1P, a psychrophilic bacterium that produces bioemulsifier, isolated for the first time from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sediment samples from shoreline Newfoundland, Canada. Many strains of the genus Exiguobacterium are extremophiles and have properties of biotechnological interest.
November 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096710/putting-research-in-place-an-innovative-approach-to-providing-contextualized-evidence-synthesis-for-decision-makers
#14
Stephen Bornstein, Rochelle Baker, Pablo Navarro, Sarah Mackey, David Speed, Melissa Sullivan
BACKGROUND: The Contextualized Health Research Synthesis Program (CHRSP), developed in 2007 by the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, produces contextualized knowledge syntheses for health-system decision makers. The program provides timely, relevant, and easy-to-understand scientific evidence; optimizes evidence uptake; and, most importantly, attunes research questions and evidence to the specific context in which knowledge users must apply the findings. METHODS: As an integrated knowledge translation (KT) method, CHRSP: Involves intensive partnerships with senior healthcare decision makers who propose priority research topics and participate on research teams; Considers local context both in framing the research question and in reporting the findings; Makes economical use of resources by utilizing a limited number of staff; Uses a combination of external and local experts; and Works quickly by synthesizing high-level systematic review evidence rather than primary studies...
November 2, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071254/breast-cancer-surgical-treatment-choices-in-newfoundland-and-labrador-canada-patient-and-surgeon-perspectives
#15
Etchegary Holly, Dicks Elizabeth, McCrate Farah, Powell Erin, Chafe Joanne, Roome Rebecca, Simmonds Charlene
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer remains the second-leading cause of cancer death among Canadian women. Treatment for breast cancer often includes surgery. Many women have a choice between mastectomy (MT; removal of the entire breast) or breast conserving surgery (BCS; removal of the tumour and some noncancerous breast tissue) followed by radiation. However, Newfoundland and Labrador consistently has a higher rate of mastectomies than the rest of Canada. In this project, we aim to better understand that trend...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Public Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066016/the-impact-of-access-barriers-on-fertility-treatment-decision-making-a-qualitative-study-from-the-perspectives-of-patients-and-service-providers
#16
Erika Maxwell, Maria Mathews, Shree Mulay
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore how barriers to accessing fertility services affect the treatment decisions made by fertility patients and service providers in Newfoundland and Labrador. METHODS: Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 patients across Newfoundland and with eight service providers from Newfoundland and Labrador Fertility Services (located in St. John's) to gather the perspectives of both patients and providers...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065293/genetics-ancient-dna-clarifies-population-histories-of%C3%A2-the-northeastern-margin-of-north-america
#17
Jennifer Raff
A new study of ancient mitochondrial DNA from Newfoundland and Labrador indicates that this region at the northeastern margin of North America was populated three times in succession by different indigenous groups. This research helps shed light on the movement of populations across the continent, following the initial peopling of the Americas.
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056071/hidradenitis-suppurativa-a-novel-model-of-care-and-an-integrative-strategy-to-adopt-an-orphan-disease
#18
Wayne Gulliver, Ian D R Landells, David Morgan, Syed Pirzada
Unnecessary investigations, inappropriate treatment, worsening disease, and frustration for both patients and health care professionals are the hallmarks of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) management. In light of a new treatment algorithm and biologic therapies made available to patients, an HS model of care is outlined in this article. The recommendations and management strategy presented here have been developed to help address the currently unmet needs of this patient population. The patient-centred model of care and disease management strategies were developed through the guidance and recommendations of HS medical experts in Newfoundland and Labrador...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054883/the-role-of-patient-and-physician-advocacy-in-reducing-wait-times-for-cancer-care-a-qualitative-analysis
#19
Maria Mathews, Donna Bulman, Dana Ryan
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the role of physician as health advocate; however, few studies have documented advocacy from the patient's perspective. To address this gap, we examined the experiences of patients with cancer from the onset of symptoms to the start of treatment in Newfoundland and Labrador and aimed to describe wait times and efforts to improve timeliness of care from the patients' perspective. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with 60 participants aged 19 years or more with breast, colorectal, lung or prostate cancer who were recruited from a survey of patients with cancer that was carried out as an earlier part of a larger study...
October 17, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038862/examining-spatial-patterns-of-selection-and-use-for-an-altered-predator-guild
#20
Matthew A Mumma, Joseph D Holbrook, Nathaniel D Rayl, Christopher J Zieminski, Todd K Fuller, John F Organ, Shane P Mahoney, Lisette P Waits
Anthropogenic disturbances have altered species' distributions potentially impacting interspecific interactions. Interference competition is when one species denies a competing species access to a resource. One mechanism of interference competition is aggression, which can result in altered space-use of a subordinate species due to the threat of harm, otherwise known as a 'landscape of fear'. Alternatively, subordinates might outcompete dominant species in resource-poor environments via a superior ability to extract resources...
December 2017: Oecologia
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