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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069630/the-seasonal-timing-of-snowshoe-hare-virus-transmission-on-the-island-of-newfoundland-canada
#1
P Kate Carson, Kimberly Holloway, Kristina Dimitrova, Laura Rogers, Andrew C Chaulk, Andrew S Lang, Hugh G Whitney, Michael A Drebot, Thomas W Chapman
Arthropod-borne diseases negatively affect humans worldwide. Understanding the biology of the arthropod vectors and the pathogens they harbor, the arthropods are moving targets as a result of climate change, ecosystem degradation, species introductions, and increased human travel. Viruses within the California serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae) are among the mosquito-borne viruses of concern owing to their zoonotic potential. Two of these, snowshoe hare virus (SSHV) and Jamestown Canyon virus, were shown, using a combination of serology and virus isolations, to circulate on the Island of Newfoundland, Canada, in the 1980s...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035239/identifying-patterns-of-dispersal-connectivity-and-selection-in-the-sea-scallop-placopecten-magellanicus-using-radseq-derived-snps
#2
Mallory Van Wyngaarden, Paul V R Snelgrove, Claudio DiBacco, Lorraine C Hamilton, Naiara Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Nicholas W Jeffery, Ryan R E Stanley, Ian R Bradbury
Understanding patterns of dispersal and connectivity among marine populations can directly inform fisheries conservation and management. Advances in high-throughput sequencing offer new opportunities for estimating marine connectivity. We used restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing to examine dispersal and realized connectivity in the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus, an economically important marine bivalve. Based on 245 individuals sampled rangewide at 12 locations from Newfoundland to the Mid-Atlantic Bight, we identified and genotyped 7163 single nucleotide polymorphisms; 112 (1...
January 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994984/examination-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-mixed-genotype-infections-in-dairy-animals-using-a-whole-genome-sequencing-approach
#3
Fraser W Davidson, Christina Ahlstrom, Jeroen De Buck, Hugh G Whitney, Kapil Tahlan
Many pathogenic mycobacteria are known to cause severe disease in humans and animals. M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of Johne's disease-a chronic wasting disease affecting ruminants such as cattle and sheep, responsible for significant economic losses in the dairy and beef industries. Due to the lack of treatment options or effective vaccines, mitigating losses can be difficult. In addition, the early stages of Map infection may occur in asymptomatic hosts that continue to shed viable bacteria in their faeces, leading to the infection of other healthy animals...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989494/self-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-impact-of-quantity-limits-in-public-drug-formularies-on-provincial-costs-across-canada
#4
Sandra R Knowles, Kathy Lee, J Michael Paterson, Baiju R Shah, Muhammad M Mamdani, David N Juurlink, Tara Gomes
OBJECTIVES: For most patients with diabetes, routine use of blood glucose test strips (BGTS) has not been shown to be beneficial, yet the economic implications of broad publicly funded reimbursement for BGTS are substantial. We assessed the potential impact of BGTS quantity limits on utilization and costs for 6 publicly funded drug plans across Canada. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 6 provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador and Prince Edward Island) for patients who received at least 1 prescription for BGTS in 2014 through the public drug program...
December 15, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988130/rapid-assessment-of-bovine-colostrum-quality-how-reliable-are-transmission-infrared-spectroscopy-and-digital-and-optical-refractometers
#5
I Elsohaby, J T McClure, M Cameron, L C Heider, G P Keefe
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the transmission infrared (IR) spectroscopic method and digital and optical Brix refractometers for measurement of colostral IgG concentration and assessment of colostrum quality of dairy cows. Colostrum samples (n = 258) were collected from Holstein cows on 30 commercial dairy farms in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, Canada. Colostral IgG concentrations of 255 samples were measured by the reference radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay and IR spectroscopy...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928171/paradoxical-vestibular-syndrome-in-a-dog-from-western-newfoundland-infected-with-french-heartworm-angiostrongylus-vasorum
#6
Hye-Yeon Jang, Joane M Parent, Chris Hagen, Emily Colwell, Paul M Rist, Nicole Murphy, Shelley Burton, Gary Conboy
A dog from western Newfoundland was presented with paradoxical vestibular syndrome. First-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum were detected on fecal examination. Treatment with milbemycin oxime resulted in resolution of signs. This is the first report of the spread of this parasite to western Newfoundland and of paradoxical vestibular syndrome in a dog infected with A. vasorum.
December 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908547/high-dietary-choline-and-betaine-intake-is-associated-with-low-insulin-resistance-in-the-newfoundland-population
#7
Xiang Gao, Yongbo Wang, Guang Sun
OBJECTIVE: Dietary betaine supplement could ameliorate insulin resistance (IR) in animals, but no data are available for choline. Reports on humans are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intake and IR in humans. METHODS: We assessed 2394 adults from the CODING (Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study. Intake of dietary choline and betaine was evaluated from the Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906041/implementation-of-the-better-2-program-a-qualitative-study-exploring-barriers-and-facilitators-of-a-novel-way-to-improve-chronic-disease-prevention-and-screening-in-primary-care
#8
Nicolette Sopcak, Carolina Aguilar, Mary Ann O'Brien, Candace Nykiforuk, Kris Aubrey-Bassler, Richard Cullen, Eva Grunfeld, Donna Patricia Manca
BACKGROUND: BETTER (Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening in Primary Care) is a patient-based intervention to improve chronic disease prevention and screening (CDPS) for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and associated lifestyle factors in patients aged 40 to 65. The key component of BETTER is a prevention practitioner (PP), a health care professional with specialized skills in CDPS who meets with patients to develop a personalized prevention prescription, using the BETTER toolkit and Brief Action Planning...
December 1, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865756/association-of-insulin-dosage-with-mortality-or-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
John-Michael Gamble, Eugene Chibrikov, Laurie K Twells, William K Midodzi, Stephanie W Young, Don MacDonald, Sumit R Majumdar
BACKGROUND: Existing studies have shown conflicting evidence regarding the safety of exogenous insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. In particular, observational studies have reported an increased risk of death and cardiovascular disease among users of higher versus lower doses of insulin. We aimed to quantify the association between increasing dosage of insulin exposure and death and cardiovascular events, while taking into account time-dependent confounding and mediation that might have biased previous studies...
January 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797700/age-at-first-drink-experiences-of-drunkenness-and-alcohol-related-problems-in-canadian-youth-is-early-onset-bad-if-you-are-a-moderate-drinker
#10
Mark Asbridge, Jenny Cartwright, Kevin Wilson, Donald Langille
OBJECTIVE: This article examines early age at first drink (AFD) (14 years and younger) and alcohol-related problems, with a focus on experiences of drunkenness. It challenges the assumption that all early AFD is harmful by investigating whether early drinkers who typically consume alcohol in moderation experience minimal problems or harms. METHOD: Participants were drawn from the 2012 Student Drug Use Survey in Canada's Atlantic Provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador, an anonymous cross-sectional survey of high school students (ages 15-19 years)...
November 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793212/the-newfoundland-and-labrador-bariatric-surgery-cohort-study-rational-and-study-protocol
#11
Laurie K Twells, Deborah M Gregory, William K Midodzi, Carla Dillon, Christopher S Kovacs, Don MacDonald, Kendra K Lester, David Pace, Chris Smith, Darrell Boone, Raleen Murphy
BACKGROUND: In Canada, there has been a disproportionate increase in adults with Class II (BMI 35.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) or Class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)) affecting 9 % of Canadians with increases projected. Individuals affected by severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35) are at increased risk of high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, impaired quality of life, and premature mortality. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), a relatively new type of bariatric surgery, is growing in popularity as a treatment...
October 28, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790632/infodemiological-data-of-high-school-drop-out-related-web-searches-in-canada-correlating-with-real-world-statistical-data-in-the-period-2004-2012
#12
Anna Siri, Hicham Khabbache, Ali Al-Jafar, Mariano Martini, Francesco Brigo, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
The present data article describes high-school drop-out related web activities in Canada, from 2004 to 2012, obtained mining Google Trends (GT), using high-school drop-out as key-word. The searches volumes were processed, correlated and cross-correlated with statistical data obtained at national and province level and broken down for gender. Further, an autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) model was used to model the GT-generated data. From a qualitative point of view, GT-generated relative search volumes (RSVs) reflect the decrease in drop-out rate...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775557/chemical-analysis-of-extracts-from-newfoundland-berries-and-potential-neuroprotective-effects
#13
Mohammad Z Hossain, Emily Shea, Mohsen Daneshtalab, John T Weber
Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774297/driving-forces-behind-the-evolution-of-the-aleutian-mink-disease-parvovirus-in-the-context-of-intensive-farming
#14
Marta Canuti, Kimberly E O'Leary, Bruce D Hunter, Grant Spearman, Davor Ojkic, Hugh G Whitney, Andrew S Lang
Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes plasmacytosis, an immune complex-associated syndrome that affects wild and farmed mink. The virus can also infect other small mammals (e.g., ferrets, skunks, ermines, and raccoons), but the disease in these hosts has been studied less. In 2007, a mink plasmacytosis outbreak began on the Island of Newfoundland, and the virus has been endemic in farms since then. In this study, we evaluated the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in farmed and wild animals of Newfoundland since before the beginning of the outbreak and investigated the epidemic in a global context by studying AMDV worldwide, thereby examining its diffusion and phylogeography...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771096/low-plastic-ingestion-rate-in-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua-from-newfoundland-destined-for-human-consumption-collected-through-citizen-science-methods
#15
Max Liboiron, France Liboiron, Emily Wells, Natalie Richárd, Alexander Zahara, Charles Mather, Hillary Bradshaw, Judyannet Murichi
Marine microplastics are a contaminant of concern because their small size allows ingestion by a wide range of marine life. Using citizen science during the Newfoundland recreational cod fishery, we sampled 205 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) destined for human consumption and found that 5 had eaten plastic, an ingestion prevalence rate of 2.4%. This ingestion rate for Atlantic cod is the second lowest recorded rate in the reviewed published literature (the lowest is 1.4%), and the lowest for any fish in the North Atlantic...
December 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738573/emergency-medicine-in-remote-regions
#16
Tia Renouf, Megan Pollard
Rural and remote places like Sable Island (Nova Scotia) or François (Newfoundland) pose a challenge in delivering both health care and appropriate education that today's learners need to practice in a rural setting. This education can be difficult to deliver to students far from academic centers. This is especially true for learners and practitioners at offshore locations like ships, oil installations, or in the air when patients are transported via fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. The following editorial provides a snapshot of the setting and the challenges faced while working as a physician on a ship, in remote regions...
September 9, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737686/effectiveness-of-a-pharmacist-driven-intervention-in-copd-epic-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Erin Davis, Carlo Marra, John-Michael Gamble, Jamie Farrell, Joe Lockyer, J Mark FitzGerald, Waseem Abu-Ashour, Charlie Gillis, John Hawboldt
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often nonadherent with medications and have poor inhaler technique. Community pharmacists can help to improve health-related quality of life and overall outcomes in patients with COPD. We aim to measure the effectiveness of a systematic, pharmacist-driven intervention on patients with diagnosed COPD. METHODS/DESIGN: This pragmatic, parallel-group, cluster randomized controlled trial is designed to determine the effectiveness of a multifactorial, pharmacist-led intervention on medication adherence, inhaler technique, health-related quality of life, health care resource utilization including COPD exacerbations, and use of medications...
October 13, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735821/hospital-and-intensive-care-unit-length-of-stay-for-injury-admissions-a-pan-canadian-cohort-study
#18
Lynne Moore, Henry Thomas Stelfox, David Evans, Sayed Morad Hameed, Natalie L Yanchar, Richard Simons, John Kortbeek, Gilles Bourgeois, Julien Clément, François Lauzier, Alexis F Turgeon
OBJECTIVE: To assess the variation in hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) for injury admissions across Canadian provinces and to evaluate the relative contribution of patient case mix and treatment-related factors (intensity of care, complications, and discharge delays) to explaining observed variations. BACKGROUND: Identifying unjustified interprovider variations in resource use and the determinants of such variations is an important step towards optimizing health care...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716923/depth-and-temperature-associations-of-haddock-melanogrammus-aeglefinus-off-southern-newfoundland
#19
R Rogers, S Rowe, M J Morgan
Using data collected as part of offshore surveys conducted during 1972-2013, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus association patterns with depth and temperature in southern Newfoundland waters, the northern extremity of the species' range in the western Atlantic Ocean, were quantified. They were typically concentrated in the deep warm waters along the narrow shelf slope in North-west Atlantic Fisheries Organization Divisions 3O and 3P with individuals moving seasonally into the shallow waters of the banks as they warmed...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696385/evaluation-of-a-population-based-approach-to-familial-colorectal-cancer
#20
P S Parfrey, E Dicks, O Parfrey, P J McNicholas, H Noseworthy, M O Woods, C Negriin, J Green
As Newfoundland has the highest rate of familial CRC in the world, we started a population-based clinic to provide colonoscopic and Lynch syndrome (LS) screening recommendations to families of CRC patients based on family risk. Of 1091 incident patients 52% provided a family history. Seventy-two percent of families were at low or intermediate-low risk of CRC and colonoscopic screening recommendations were provided by letter. Twenty eight per cent were at high and intermediate-high risk and were referred to the genetic counsellor, but only 30% (N = 48) were interviewed by study end...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Genetics
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