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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323968/impaired-glycine-mia-in-type-2-diabetes-and-potential-mechanisms-contributing-to-glucose-homeostasis
#1
Richard Yan-Do, Patrick E MacDonald
The onset and/or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be prevented if intervention is early enough. As such, much effort has been placed on the search for indicators predictive of pre-diabetes and disease onset or progression. An increasing body of evidence suggests that changes in plasma glycine may be one such biomarker. Circulating glycine levels are consistently low in patients with T2D. Levels of this non-essential amino acid correlate negatively with obesity and insulin resistance. Plasma glycine correlates positively with glucose disposal, and rises with interventions such as exercise and bariatric surgery that improve glucose homeostasis...
March 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323124/cd44-is-a-key-player-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#2
Stéphanie Patouraux, Déborah Rousseau, Stéphanie Bonnafous, Cynthia Lebeaupin, Carmelo Luci, Clémence M Canivet, Anne-Sophie Schneck, Adeline Bertola, Marie-Christine Saint-Paul, Antonio Iannelli, Jean Gugenheim, Rodolphe Anty, Albert Tran, Béatrice Bailly-Maitre, Philippe Gual
BACKGROUND: CD44 is expressed on many immune cells that contribute to inflammation. It has been shown, mainly through animal data, that CD44 regulates adipose tissue inflammation in obesity and hepatic leukocyte recruitment in a lithogenic context. However, its role in hepatic inflammation in a mouse model of steatohepatitis and its relevance in humans have not yet been investigated. METHODS: The role of CD44 was evaluated in CD44-/- mice and after injections of an αCD44 antibody in Wild-type mice challenged with a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323122/exome-analysis-of-the-evolutionary-path-of-hepatocellular-adenoma-carcinoma-transition-vascular-invasion-and-brain-dissemination
#3
Sílvia Vilarinho, Zeynep Erson-Omay, Kisha Mitchell-Richards, Charles Cha, Carol Nelson-Williams, Akdes Serin Harmancı, Katsuhito Yasuno, Murat Günel, Tamar H Taddei
Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a rare benign liver tumor, predominantly seen in young women. Its major complications are malignant transformation, spontaneous hemorrhage, and rupture. We describe a case of a young female with no underlying liver disease who presented with acute abdominal pain and was found to have a 17 cm heterogeneous mass in the left lobe of the liver. She underwent left hepatectomy and pathology revealed a 14 cm moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arising in a shell of a HCA...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317586/strategies-to-improve-local-control-of-resected-pancreas-adenocarcinoma
#4
Paul H Sugarbaker
BACKGROUND: Only approximately one in ten pancreas cancer patients is a candidate for potentially curative resection of this disease. Even this small fraction of patients has a poor prognosis following pancreatico-duodenectomy. The disease has an anatomic location that makes it difficult for the surgeon to maintain adequate margins of resection and prevent tumor spillage at the time of resection. Also, the disease is biologically aggressive and even with a complete visible resection of the disease, micrometastases are likely to remain behind...
March 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302418/lncrna-atb-microrna-200a-%C3%AE-catenin-regulatory-axis-involved-in-the-progression-of-hcv-related-hepatic-fibrosis
#5
Na Fu, Su-Xian Zhao, Ling-Bo Kong, Jing-Hua Du, Wei-Guang Ren, Fang Han, Qing-Shan Zhang, Wen-Cong Li, Cui Po, Rong-Qi Wang, Yu-Guo Zhang, Yue-Min Nan
OBJECTIVE(S): Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs)-activated by transforming growth factor beta (lncRNA-ATB) is known to be involved in the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating target gene miR-200a. However, the role and molecular mechanisms of lncRNA-ATB/miR-200a in HCV-related liver fibrosis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the expression of lncRNA-ATB/miR-200a, and their target gene β-Catenin in liver tissues of HCV patients and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to elucidate the possible role of lncRNA-ATB/miR-200a axis in HSC activation and development of liver fibrosis...
March 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301974/folfox-and-intensified-split-course-chemoradiation-as-initial-treatment-for-rectal-cancer-with-synchronous-metastases
#6
T Bird, M Michael, M Bressel, J Chu, S Chander, P Cooray, J McKendrick, M Jefford, A Heriot, M Steel, T Leong, S Ngan
BACKGROUND: Optimal initial management of rectal carcinoma with synchronous metastases (RCSM) is controversial - both for patients being treated with curative and palliative intent. This study aims to evaluate the use of an upfront treatment strategy combining FOLFOX chemotherapy with split-course pelvic chemoradiation (FOLFOX + CRT) for patients with RCSM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An analysis of all patients who commenced treatment with FOLFOX + CRT at our institutions between January 2009 and June 2014 was performed...
March 16, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298270/nutritional-approaches-to-achieve-weight-loss-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Christine C Hsu, Erik Ness, Kris V Kowdley
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can range in spectrum from simple hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by lipotoxicity, hepatocellular ballooning, and inflammation and can progress to cirrhosis. Weight loss is the cornerstone treatment for NAFLD and NASH. Various randomized controlled trials have shown that weight loss of ≥5-10% leads to significant improvements in hepatic steatosis. Diets high in sodium and fructose have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297790/-role-of-probiotics-in-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
M Chen, M C Wang, R Ni, J Wang, L Wang, G N Wang, L Y Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases in China and manifests as simple fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies have shown that intestinal flora can affect the development and progression of NAFLD via the "gut-liver axis" . Probiotics are active microorganisms with beneficial effects on the host, and more and more studies have found that probiotics play a positive role in improving NAFLD. They are cheaper, less harmful, and safer compared with antibiotics and surgery, and therefore, it may become a new method for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD...
January 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290970/severe-systemic-lead-toxicity-resulting-from-extra-articular-retained-shrapnel-presenting-as-jaundice-and-hepatitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Ian A Grasso, Matthew R Blattner, Tyler Short, John W Downs
INTRODUCTION: Despite greater than 60,000 nonfatal firearm injuries per year in the United States, retained shrapnel is a relatively rare cause of systemic lead toxicity with less than 100 cases reported in the medical literature since 1867. While intra-articular retained shrapnel as a cause of lead toxicity is well-described, extra-articular fragments are less well known to cause symptomatic disease. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old man initially presented with abdominal pain, constipation, jaundice, and elevated liver transaminases approximately 3 weeks after suffering a left lower extremity injury during athletic activity...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282922/the-development-of-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-to-target-hyaluronan-in-the-extracellular-matrix-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Daisuke Kudo, Akiko Suto, Kenichi Hakamada
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal diseases to affect humans, regardless of whether patients receive multimodal therapy (including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy). This resistance to intervention is currently considered to be caused by the desmoplastic change of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in PDAC tissues, which is characterized by the accumulation of cancer-associated fibroblasts, collagen, proteoglycan, and hyaluronan. Among these ECM components, hyaluronan has attracted interest because various studies have indicated that hyaluronan-rich PDAC is correlated with the progressive properties of cancer cells, both in experimental and clinical settings...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276821/current-and-future-treatment-options-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash
#11
Nikos Lazaridis, Emmanuel Tsochatzis
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic liver disease that can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagnosis of NASH requires a liver biopsy and is defined as presence of hepatic steatosis, ballooning and lobular inflammation with or without fibrosis. Although NASH is the most common cause of liver disease in the west world and among the top three indications for liver transplantation, there are no universally accepted pharmacological therapies and therapeutic advances have been slow...
April 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275047/the-new-biology-and-pharmacology-of-glucagon
#12
REVIEW
T D Müller, B Finan, C Clemmensen, R D DiMarchi, M H Tschöp
In the last two decades we have witnessed sizable progress in defining the role of gastrointestinal signals in the control of glucose and energy homeostasis. Specifically, the molecular basis of the huge metabolic benefits in bariatric surgery is emerging while novel incretin-based medicines based on endogenous hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and pancreas-derived amylin are improving diabetes management. These and related developments have fostered the discovery of novel insights into endocrine control of systemic metabolism, and in particular a deeper understanding of the importance of communication across vital organs, and specifically the gut-brain-pancreas-liver network...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274849/patient-age-sex-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-phenotype-associate-with-course-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#13
Tobias J Weismüller, Palak J Trivedi, Annika Bergquist, Mohamad Imam, Henrike Lenzen, Cyriel Y Ponsioen, Kristian Holm, Daniel Gotthardt, Martti A Färkkilä, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Douglas Thorburn, Rinse K Weersma, Johan Fevery, Tobias Mueller, Olivier Chaouillères, Kornelius Schulze, Konstantinos N Lazaridis, Sven Almer, Stephen P Pereira, Cynthia Levy, Andrew Mason, Sigrid Naess, Christopher L Bowlus, Annarosa Floreani, Emina Halilbasic, Kidist K Yimam, Piotr Milkiewicz, Ulrich Beuers, Dep K Huynh, Albert Pares, Christine N Manser, George N Dalekos, Bertus Eksteen, Pietro Invernizzi, Christoph P Berg, Gabi I Kirchner, Christoph Sarrazin, Vincent Zimmer, Luca Fabris, Felix Braun, Marco Marzioni, Brian D Juran, Karouk Said, Christian Rupp, Kalle Jokelainen, Maria Benito de Valle, Francesca Saffioti, Angela Cheung, Michael Trauner, Christoph Schramm, Roger W Chapman, Tom H Karlsen, Erik Schrumpf, Christian P Strassburg, Michael P Manns, Keith D Lindor, Gideon M Hirschfield, Bettina E Hansen, Kirsten M Boberg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an orphan hepatobiliary disorder associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to estimate the risk of disease progression based on distinct clinical phenotypes in a large, international cohort of patients with PSC. METHODS: We performed a retrospective outcome analysis of patients diagnosed with PSC from 1980 through 2010 at 37 centers in Europe, North America, and Australia. For each patient, we collected data on sex, clinician-reported age at and date of PSC and IBD diagnoses, phenotypes of IBD and PSC, and date and indication of IBD-related surgeries...
March 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266931/biliary-adenofibroma-of-liver-morphology-tumor-genetics-and-outcomes-in-6-cases
#14
Thomas Arnason, Darrell R Borger, Christopher Corless, Catherine Hagen, A John Iafrate, Hala Makhlouf, Joseph Misdraji, Heidi Sapp, Wilson M Tsui, Ian R Wanless, Tania Zuluaga Toro, Gregory Y Lauwers
Biliary adenofibroma is a rare primary hepatic neoplasm, recognized in the World Health Organization classification, although only 14 cases have been reported to date. This series includes extended follow-up from 2 of the early case reports and 4 novel cases. Clinical history and histology were reviewed in all 6 cases. Tumor DNA was analyzed for point mutations by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and copy number alterations by array comparative genomic hybridization. The patients included 4 females and 2 males presenting between 46 and 83 years of age, with tumors ranging from 7 to 16 cm in diameter...
April 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260762/improvement-of-liver-function-quality-of-life-and-survival-after-insertion-of-endoprosthesis-in-advance-malignant-biliary-obstruction
#15
A A Ullah, A Rahman, L H Chowdhury, A H Bhuiya
Obstructive jaundice due to advance malignancy is a fatal problem. It most commonly occurs at the distal common bile duct or at the hilum of liver. Magnetic Resonance Cholangio Pancreatography (MRCP) and Computed Tomography (CT) are most useful in identifying the underlying cause as well as localize the position of the stricture. For those patients with unresectable disease, progressive jaundice constitutes an immediate threat to their survival, in addition to significant loss to their quality of life secondary to pruritus, malaise and cholangitis...
January 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255959/a-novel-ccm1-krit1-heterozygous-nonsense-mutation-c-1864c-t-associated-with-familial-cerebral-cavernous-malformation-a-genetic-insight-from-an-8-year-continuous-observational-study
#16
Chenlong Yang, Van Halm-Lutterodt Nicholas, Jizong Zhao, Bingquan Wu, Haohao Zhong, Yan Li, Yulun Xu
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a congenital vascular abnormality that predominantly affects the central nervous system, but that sometimes encroaches other vital tissues, including the retina, skin, and even liver. The familial form of CCM (FCCM) is considered to be an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance and variable expression, which is often attributed to mutations in three genes: CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3. We screened a Chinese family diagnosed with FCCM by using Sanger sequencing...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253875/the-interval-approach-an-adaptation-of-the-liver-first-approach-to-treat-synchronous-liver-metastases-from-rectal-cancer
#17
Mathieu D'Hondt, Valerio Lucidi, Koen Vermeiren, Bert Van Den Bossche, Vincent Donckier, Gregory Sergeant
BACKGROUND: The waiting interval after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is an interesting therapeutic window to treat patients with synchronous liver metastases (SLM) from rectal cancer. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of 18 consecutive patients (M/F 10/8, age (range) 60 (51-75) years) from five institutions who underwent liver resection of SLM during the waiting interval after CRT for rectal adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: All patients underwent interval liver surgery for a median (range) of 4 (2-14) liver metastases...
March 2, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251374/perioperative-management-of-hepatectomy-in-patients-with-interstitial-pneumonia-a-report-of-three-cases-and-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Norio Kubo, Kenichiro Araki, Takahiro Yamanaka, Kouki Hoshino, Norihiro Ishii, Mariko Tsukagoshi, Takamichi Igarashi, Akira Watanabe, Keitaro Hirai, Fumiyoshi Saitoh, Hiroyuki Kuwano, Ken Shirabe
PURPOSE: Interstitial pneumonia (IP) is a progressive and irreversible fibrosis and can be fatal if acute exacerbation (AE) occurs. While a useful risk-scoring system has been established for lung surgery, no risk evaluation exists for AE of IP related to non-pulmonary surgery. The objective of this review is to describe the management for patients with IP. METHODS: We experienced three hepatectomy cases with IP. The first was a 72-year-old male patient diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma...
March 1, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244976/the-role-of-18f-fdg-pet-cect-in-peritoneal-mesothelioma
#19
Julien Dubreuil, Francesco Giammarile, Pascal Rousset, Domenico Rubello, Naoual Bakrin, Guillaume Passot, Sylvie Isaac, Olivier Glehen, Andrea Skanjeti
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess glucose metabolism of multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma and epithelioid peritoneal mesothelioma by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET/contrast-enhanced computed tomography (ceCT) and to assess its prognostic impact. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three (14 women) patients, without previous treatment, underwent F-FDG-PET/ceCT before peritoneal mesothelioma cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy...
April 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240175/clinical-considerations-of-focal-drug-delivery-in-cancer-treatment
#20
Jamie Harris, Bill Chiu
According to the US Center for Disease Control, cancer deaths are the second most common cause of mortality in both adults and children. Definitive treatment of solid tumors involves surgical resection with or without systemic chemotherapy and radiation. The advent of local drug delivery presents a unique treatment modality that can offer substantial benefits in cancer management. Local drug delivery offers targeted drug delivery to cancer tissues while minimizing side effects of the medications. Three main phases in solid tumor management exist for the treating physician: initial diagnosis with tissue biopsy, surgical resection with or without chemotherapy, and management of metastatic disease...
February 24, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
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