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Diabetic myopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899849/statin-therapy-review-of-safety-and-potential-side-effects
#1
REVIEW
Satish Ramkumar, Ajay Raghunath, Sudhakshini Raghunath
BACKGROUND: Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889702/statins-and-the-cholesterol-mortality-paradox
#2
José Pedro L Nunes
Large-scale randomised controlled trials, carried out in the context of secondary cardiovascular prevention, have shown that statins are superior to placebo: these drugs were shown to decrease cardiovascular events and total mortality. A further set of clinical trials compared high intensity to low/standard intensity LDL cholesterol lowering in the same setting (using either statins or a statin/ezetimibe association). In this case, a decrease in LDL cholesterol and a concomitant significant reduction in cardiovascular events were seen with intensive therapy, however with no change in total mortality...
November 26, 2016: Scottish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862896/homozygous-lipe-mutation-in-siblings-with-multiple-symmetric-lipomatosis-partial-lipodystrophy-and-myopathy
#3
Sagit Zolotov, Chao Xing, Riad Mahamid, Adel Shalata, Mohammed Sheikh-Ahmad, Abhimanyu Garg
Despite considerable progress in identifying causal genes for lipodystrophy syndromes, the molecular basis of some peculiar adipose tissue disorders remains obscure. In an Israeli-Arab pedigree with a novel autosomal recessive, multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), partial lipodystrophy and myopathy, we conducted exome sequencing of two affected siblings to identify the disease-causing mutation. The 41-year-old female proband and her 36-year-old brother reported marked accumulation of subcutaneous fat in the face, neck, axillae, and trunk but loss of subcutaneous fat from the lower extremities and progressive distal symmetric myopathy during adulthood...
November 11, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766811/myopathy-effect-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-beyond-bones
#4
Kavita J Rawat, Nilakshi H Sabnis, Udit Saraf, Gaurav Surana
Vitamin D functions as a vitamin as well as a hormone. Its major skeletal actions are complemented by varied extra-skeletal functions. During the past decade, association between Vitamin D and its role in various non-skeletal morbidities have been recognized. It plays a role in decreasing the risk of many chronic illnesses like allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, cancers, infections and cardiovascular disease. We report the case of a middle aged female with chronic quadriparesis and new onset anemia associated with Vitamin D deficiency...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760856/high-throughput-screens-to-discover-small-molecule-modulators-of-ryanodine-receptor-calcium-release-channels
#5
Robyn T Rebbeck, Maram M Essawy, Florentin R Nitu, Benjamin D Grant, Gregory D Gillispie, David D Thomas, Donald M Bers, Razvan L Cornea
Using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we have developed and validated the first high-throughput screening (HTS) method to discover compounds that modulate an intracellular Ca(2+) channel, the ryanodine receptor (RyR), for therapeutic applications. Intracellular Ca(2+) regulation is critical for striated muscle function, and RyR is a central player. At resting [Ca(2+)], an increased propensity of channel opening due to RyR dysregulation is associated with severe cardiac and skeletal myopathies, diabetes, and neurological disorders...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745526/prevalence-of-neuromuscular-disorders-in-qena-governorate-egypt-population-based-survey
#6
Eman M Khedr, Gharib Fawi, Mohammed Abd-Allah Abbas, Noha Abo El-Fetoh, Ahmed F Zaki, Ayman Gamea, Ghada Al Attar
BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies of the prevalence of neuromuscular disorders have been undertaken. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of the most common types of neuromuscular disorders in Qena governorate/Egypt. METHODS: A random sample was taken from 11 districts, involving 9303 inhabitants with 57.3% urban residents and 42.7% rural residence. Patients were diagnosed using a screening questionnaire for the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders...
October 17, 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706418/association-between-clinical-condition-and-f-waves-changes-in-the-acute-phase-of-stroke
#7
Gustavo José Luvizutto, Marcelo Fernando Zeugner Bertotti, Thiago Dias Fernandes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho Nunes, Gabriel Pereira Braga, Rodrigo Bazan, Luiz Antônio de Lima Resende
Objective: To relate F-waves with clinical and laboratory exams in the acute phase of stroke. Methods: Inclusion criteria for this cross-sectional study were: hemiplegia, absence of previous cranial trauma, myopathy, diabetes, alcoholism or other known causes of peripheral neuropathy, and normal sensory and motor conduction. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, glycemia, glucosilate hemoglobin, and CPK were obtained at admission by routine blood exams...
September 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645494/severity-of-statin-induced-adverse-effects-on-muscle-and-associated-conditions-data-from-the-dama-study
#8
Juan Pedro-Botet, Jesús Millán Núñez-Cortés, Juan J Chillarón, Juana A Flores-Le Roux, Joan Rius
BACKGROUND: Statins are generally well tolerated, but muscular adverse effects appear to be the most common obstacle limiting their use. Our objective was to describe the severity of muscle injury (myalgia, myositis and rhabdomyolysis) and associated conditions related to statin therapy that may be clinically significant. METHODS: A cross-sectional one-visit, non-interventional, national multicenter study including patients of both sexes over 18 years of age referred for past or present muscle symptoms associated with statin therapy was conducted...
October 24, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616593/interpretation-of-the-evidence-for-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-statin-therapy
#9
Rory Collins, Christina Reith, Jonathan Emberson, Jane Armitage, Colin Baigent, Lisa Blackwell, Roger Blumenthal, John Danesh, George Davey Smith, David DeMets, Stephen Evans, Malcolm Law, Stephen MacMahon, Seth Martin, Bruce Neal, Neil Poulter, David Preiss, Paul Ridker, Ian Roberts, Anthony Rodgers, Peter Sandercock, Kenneth Schulz, Peter Sever, John Simes, Liam Smeeth, Nicholas Wald, Salim Yusuf, Richard Peto
This Review is intended to help clinicians, patients, and the public make informed decisions about statin therapy for the prevention of heart attacks and strokes. It explains how the evidence that is available from randomised controlled trials yields reliable information about both the efficacy and safety of statin therapy. In addition, it discusses how claims that statins commonly cause adverse effects reflect a failure to recognise the limitations of other sources of evidence about the effects of treatment...
September 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531051/muscle-redox-disturbances-and-oxidative-stress-as-pathomechanisms-and-therapeutic-targets-in-early-onset-myopathies
#10
Maryline Moulin, Ana Ferreiro
Because of their contractile activity and their high oxygen consumption and metabolic rate, skeletal muscles continually produce moderate levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), which increase during exercise and are buffered by multiple antioxidant systems to maintain redox homeostasis. Imbalance between ROS/RNS production and elimination results in oxidative stress (OxS), which has been implicated in aging and in numerous human diseases, including cancer, diabetes or age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia)...
August 12, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486434/statin-therapy-alters-lipid-storage-in-diabetic-skeletal-muscle
#11
Irena A Rebalka, Matthew J Raleigh, Laelie A Snook, Alexandra N Rebalka, Rebecca E K MacPherson, David C Wright, Jonathan D Schertzer, Thomas J Hawke
While statins significantly reduce cholesterol levels and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, the development of myopathy with statin use is a significant clinical side effect. Recent guidelines recommend increasing inclusion criteria for statin treatment in diabetic individuals; however, the impact of statins on skeletal muscle health in those with diabetes (who already suffer from impairments in muscle health) is ill defined. Here, we investigate the effects of fluvastatin treatment on muscle health in wild type (WT) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467204/testing-the-usefulness-of-the-number-needed-to-treat-to-be-harmed-nnth-in-benefit-risk-evaluations-case-study-with-medicines-withdrawn-from-the-european-market-due-to-safety-reasons
#12
Diogo Mendes, Carlos Alves, Francisco Batel Marques
OBJECTIVE: To explore the usefulness of number needed to treat to be harmed (NNTH), in benefit-risk assessments, by studying the agreement between NNTH values and withdrawals of medicines from European market due to safety reasons. METHODS: Medicines with data from longitudinal studies were included. Studies were identified from European Medicines Agency's Reports. Meta-analyses were performed to pool odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence-intervals (CI). Published control event rates were applied to ORs to calculate NNTHs (95%CI) for selected adverse events...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453871/an-unusual-case-of-adolescent-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-prader-willi-syndrome
#13
Riyas Basheer, Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal, Ramesh Gomez
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder, characterized by neonatal hypotonia, developmental delay, short stature, childhood obesity, hypogonadism, and characteristic facial features. Here we report a 21-year-old male who presented with uncontrolled glycemic status. He was diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus at the age of 15 with osmotic symptoms - polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. In the early period, after diagnosis, his blood sugars were reasonably controlled with oral hypoglycemic agents...
January 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450524/-investigation-of-autoimmunity-markers-during-interferon-alpha-therapy-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-c-twenty-years-of-experience
#14
Irena Orságová, Luděk RoŽnovský, Lenka Petroušová, Michaela Konečná, Libuše Kabieszová, Jan Martinek, Alena Kloudová, Ladislav Pavliska
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of autoimmune parameters in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C (HBV, HCV) treated with conventional or pegylated interferon alpha (IFN) and monitor the development of autoimmune diseases in connection with this treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the years 1992-2014, autoimmune parameters were evaluated in 324 patients (271 with HCV, 53 with HBV) treated with IFN at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Ostrava. Prior to, during and after completion of IFN treatment, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA), smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibodies (anti-LKM-1), anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (anti-ds-DNA), antibodies against granulocytes (ANCA), anti-deoxyribonucleoprotein antibodies (anti-DNP), anti-nucleosomes antibodies, rheumatoid factor (RF) and circulating immune complexes (CIC) were determined and clinical manifestations of autoimmune diseases were evaluated...
June 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440956/an-unusual-case-of-glipizide-induced-proximal-myopathy
#15
Saibal Das, Anand Ramasamy, Soumyadip De, Somnath Mondal
This case report outlines a very rare case of glipizide-induced severe proximal myopathy in a 61-year-old diabetic man. After taking 10 mg glipizide for 5 months, diabetes was well controlled but the patient presented with progressive proximal muscle weakness in all the four limbs. Clinical examination and relevant investigations suggested it to be a case of proximal myopathy and might be drug induced. De-challenge was done and was treated resulting in reversal of the diseased state. After 3 more months, controlled re-challenge was done and there was recurrence of proximal muscle weakness...
April 2016: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379096/autoimmune-myopathies-where-do-we-stand
#16
REVIEW
Jean-Philippe Simon, Isabelle Marie, Fabienne Jouen, Olivier Boyer, Jérémie Martinet
Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) as a whole represent a major health concern and remain a medical and scientific challenge. Some of them, such as multiple sclerosis or type 1 diabetes, have been actively investigated for many decades. Autoimmune myopathies (AIMs), also referred to as idiopathic inflammatory myopathies or myositis, represent a group of very severe AID for which we have a more limited pathophysiological knowledge. AIM encompass a group of, individually rare but collectively not so uncommon, diseases characterized by symmetrical proximal muscle weakness, increased serum muscle enzymes such as creatine kinase, myopathic changes on electromyography, and several typical histological patterns on muscle biopsy, including the presence of inflammatory cell infiltrates in muscle tissue...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376776/proteomic-profiling-of-muscle-fibre-type-shifting-in-neuromuscular-diseases
#17
Paul Dowling, Sandra Murphy, Kay Ohlendieck
INTRODUCTION: Mature skeletal muscles are composed of a complex assembly of slow-twitching, fast-twitching and hybrid fibres. Since muscle fibres exhibit a high degree of cellular plasticity, changed physiological conditions or pathophysiological disturbances have generally a substantial impact on fibre specification. AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the findings from comparative proteomic profiling studies that have focused on neuromuscular diseases and discusses the identified protein changes of fibre type shifting...
August 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342697/diagnosis-prevention-and-management-of-statin-adverse-effects-and-intolerance-canadian-consensus-working-group-update-2016
#18
G B John Mancini, Steven Baker, Jean Bergeron, David Fitchett, Jiri Frohlich, Jacques Genest, Milan Gupta, Robert A Hegele, Dominic Ng, Glen J Pearson, Janet Pope, A Yashar Tashakkor
The Canadian Consensus Working Group has updated its evaluation of the literature pertaining to statin intolerance and adverse effects. This overview introduces a pragmatic definition of statin intolerance (goal-inhibiting statin intolerance) that emphasizes the effects of symptoms on achieving nationally vetted goals in patients fulfilling indications for lipid-lowering therapy and cardiovascular risk reduction. The Canadian Consensus Working Group provides a structured framework for avoiding, evaluating and managing goal-inhibiting statin intolerance...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335233/decreased-satellite-cell-number-and-function-in-humans-and-mice-with-type-1-diabetes-is-the-result-of-altered-notch-signaling
#19
Donna M D'Souza, Sarah Zhou, Irena A Rebalka, Blair MacDonald, Jasmin Moradi, Matthew P Krause, Dhuha Al-Sajee, Zubin Punthakee, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Thomas J Hawke
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) negatively influences skeletal muscle health; however, its effect on muscle satellite cells (SCs) remains largely unknown. SCs from samples from rodents (Akita) and human subjects with T1D were examined to discern differences in SC density and functionality compared with samples from their respective control subjects. Examination of the Notch pathway was undertaken to investigate its role in changes to SC functionality. Compared with controls, Akita mice demonstrated increased muscle damage after eccentric exercise along with a decline in SC density and myogenic capacity...
October 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325266/methods-for-studying-autophagy-within-the-tumor-microenvironment
#20
Sengottuvelan Murugan, Ravi K Amaravadi
Defective autophagy has been linked with many pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, infectious disease, myopathies, heart, liver, lung, and neurodegenerative disease. Autophagy has therefore become an important target in drug discovery. Recent advances have identified new ways to monitor autophagy in vitro and in vivo. Many assays rely on visualizing autophagy-related intracellular markers such as microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) II, which have posed issues with in vivo and clinical translation of the in vitro assays...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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