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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344905/evolution-of-the-patellar-sesamoid-bone-in-mammals
#1
Mark E Samuels, Sophie Regnault, John R Hutchinson
The patella is a sesamoid bone located in the major extensor tendon of the knee joint, in the hindlimb of many tetrapods. Although numerous aspects of knee morphology are ancient and conserved among most tetrapods, the evolutionary occurrence of an ossified patella is highly variable. Among extant (crown clade) groups it is found in most birds, most lizards, the monotreme mammals and almost all placental mammals, but it is absent in most marsupial mammals as well as many reptiles. Here, we integrate data from the literature and first-hand studies of fossil and recent skeletal remains to reconstruct the evolution of the mammalian patella...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326016/early-origin-and-evolution-of-the-angelman-syndrome-ubiquitin-ligase-gene-ube3a
#2
REVIEW
Masaaki Sato
The human Ube3a gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and exhibits brain-specific genomic imprinting. Genetic abnormalities that affect the maternal copy of this gene cause the neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome (AS), which is characterized by severe mental retardation, speech impairment, seizure, ataxia and some unique behavioral phenotypes. In this review article, I highlight the evolution of the Ube3a gene and its imprinting to provide evolutionary insights into AS. Recent comparative genomic studies have revealed that Ube3a is most phylogenetically similar to HECTD2 among the human HECT (homologous to the E6AP carboxyl terminus) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, and its distant evolutionary origin can be traced to common ancestors of fungi and animals...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132863/immune-endocrine-interactions-in-marsupials-and-monotremes
#3
E Peel, K Belov
Interactions between the immune and endocrine systems are not well studied in marsupials and monotremes. One exception to this is the phenomenon of semelparity, which is well covered in the literature as this is an unusual reproductive strategy amongst mammals and is only observed in some dasyurid and didelphid marsupials. Thymus involution provides a direct link between the endocrine and immune systems and warrants further study in marsupials and monotremes. The thymus is a primary immune tissue which is essential for overall immune function...
January 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007525/the-mammalian-cretaceous-cochlear-revolution
#4
REVIEW
Geoffrey A Manley
The hearing organs of amniote vertebrates show large differences in their size and structure between the species' groups. In spite of this, their performance in terms of hearing sensitivity and the frequency selectivity of auditory-nerve units shows unexpectedly small differences. The only substantial difference is that therian, defined as live-bearing, mammalian groups are able to hear ultrasonic frequencies (above 15-20 kHz), whereas in contrast monotreme (egg laying) mammals and all non-mammalian amniotes cannot...
December 19, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898108/monotreme-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-venom-and-gut-one-gene-two-very-different-functions
#5
Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush, Chuan He, Mark A Myers, Sof Andrikopoulos, Nicole Wong, Patrick M Sexton, Denise Wootten, Briony E Forbes, Frank Grutzner
The importance of Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) for metabolic control and insulin release sparked the evolution of genes mimicking GLP-1 action in venomous species (e.g. Exendin-4 in Heloderma suspectum (gila monster)). We discovered that platypus and echidna express a single GLP-1 peptide in both intestine and venom. Specific changes in GLP-1 of monotreme mammals result in resistance to DPP-4 cleavage which is also observed in the GLP-1 like Exendin-4 expressed in Heloderma venom. Remarkably we discovered that monotremes evolved an alternative mechanism to degrade GLP-1...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889918/inner-ear-labyrinth-anatomy-of-monotremes-and-implications-for-mammalian-inner-ear-evolution
#6
Julia A Schultz, Ulrich Zeller, Zhe-Xi Luo
The monophyletic clade Monotremata branches early from the rest of the mammalian crown group in the Jurassic and members of this clade retain many ancestral mammalian traits. Thus, accurate and detailed anatomical descriptions of this group can offer unique insight into the early evolutionary history of Mammalia. In this study, we examine the inner ear anatomy of two extant monotremes, Ornithorhynchus anatinus and Tachyglossus aculeatus, with the primary goals of elucidating the ancestral mammalian ear morphology and resolving inconsistencies found within previous descriptive literature...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825298/the-ut-family-of-mhc-class-i-loci-unique-to-non-eutherian-mammals-has-limited-polymorphism-and-tissue-specific-patterns-of-expression-in-the-opossum
#7
Katina V Krasnec, Anthony T Papenfuss, Robert D Miller
BACKGROUND: The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I family of genes encode for molecules that have well-conserved structures, but have evolved to perform diverse functions. The availability of the gray, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica whole genome sequence has allowed for analysis of MHC class I gene content in this marsupial. Utilization of a novel method to search for MHC related domain structures revealed a previously unknown family of MHC class I-related genes...
November 8, 2016: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802151/the-private-life-of-echidnas-using-accelerometry-and-gps-to-examine-field-biomechanics-and-assess-the-ecological-impact-of-a-widespread-semi-fossorial-monotreme
#8
Christofer J Clemente, Christine E Cooper, Philip C Withers, Craig Freakley, Surya Singh, Philip Terrill
The short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is a monotreme and therefore provides a unique combination of phylogenetic history, morphological differentiation and ecological specialisation for a mammal. The echidna has a unique appendicular skeleton, a highly specialised myrmecophagous lifestyle and a mode of locomotion that is neither typically mammalian nor reptilian, but has aspects of both lineages. We therefore were interested in the interactions of locomotor biomechanics, ecology and movements for wild, free-living short-beaked echidnas...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757425/comparative-cranial-morphology-in-living-and-extinct-platypuses-feeding-behavior-electroreception-and-loss-of-teeth
#9
Masakazu Asahara, Masahiro Koizumi, Thomas E Macrini, Suzanne J Hand, Michael Archer
The modern platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, has an eye structure similar to aquatic mammals; however, platypuses also have a "sixth sense" associated with the bill electro- and mechanoreception that they use without opening their eyes underwater. We hypothesize that Ornithorhynchus and the Miocene taxon Obdurodon have different sensory capacities, which may have resulted from differences in foraging behavior. To estimate differences in foraging, sensory systems, and anatomical divergence between these monotremes, we compared their skull morphologies...
October 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713568/characterisation-of-the-immune-compounds-in-koala-milk-using-a-combined-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-approach
#10
Katrina M Morris, Denis O'Meally, Thiri Zaw, Xiaomin Song, Amber Gillett, Mark P Molloy, Adam Polkinghorne, Katherine Belov
Production of milk is a key characteristic of mammals, but the features of lactation vary greatly between monotreme, marsupial and eutherian mammals. Marsupials have a short gestation followed by a long lactation period, and milk constituents vary greatly across lactation. Marsupials are born immunologically naïve and rely on their mother's milk for immunological protection. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are an iconic Australian species that are increasingly threatened by disease. Here we use a mammary transcriptome, two milk proteomes and the koala genome to comprehensively characterise the protein components of koala milk across lactation, with a focus on immune constituents...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563341/resolving-the-evolution-of-the-mammalian-middle-ear-using-bayesian-inference
#11
Héctor E Ramírez-Chaves, Vera Weisbecker, Stephen Wroe, Matthew J Phillips
BACKGROUND: The minute, finely-tuned ear ossicles of mammals arose through a spectacular evolutionary transformation from their origins as a load-bearing jaw joint. This involved detachment from the postdentary trough of the mandible, and final separation from the dentary through resorption of Meckel's cartilage. Recent parsimony analyses of modern and fossil mammals imply up to seven independent postdentary trough losses or even reversals, which is unexpected given the complexity of these transformations...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557648/formation-and-dissociation-of-sperm-bundles-in-monotremes
#12
Brett Nixon, Heath Ecroyd, Jean-Louis Dacheux, Francoise Dacheux, Valerie Labas, Steve D Johnston, Russell C Jones
As monotremes are the earliest offshoot of the mammalian lineage, the platypus and short-beaked echidna were studied as model animals to assess the origin and biological significance of adaptations considered unique to therian mammals: epididymal maturation and subsequent capacitation. We show that spermatozoa from both species assemble into bundles of approximately 100 cells during passage through the epididymis and that an epididymal protein, secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin) (SPARC), is involved in bundle formation...
August 24, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548611/effective-one-pot-multienzyme-opme-synthesis-of-monotreme-milk-oligosaccharides-and-other-sialosides-containing-4-o-acetyl-sialic-acid
#13
Hai Yu, Jie Zeng, Yanhong Li, Vireak Thon, Baojun Shi, Xi Chen
A facile one-pot two-enzyme chemoenzymatic approach has been established for the gram (Neu4,5Ac2α3Lac, 1.33 g) and preparative scale (Neu4,5Ac2α3LNnT) synthesis of monotreme milk oligosaccharides. Other O-acetyl-5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu4,5Ac2)- or 4-O-acetyl-5-N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu4Ac5Gc) -containing α2-3-sialosides have also been synthesized in the preparative scale. Used as an effective probe, Neu4,5Ac2α3GalβpNP was found to be a suitable substrate by human influenza A viruses but not bacterial sialidases...
September 28, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395568/helminth-parasites-of-australasian-monotremes-and-marsupials
#14
David M Spratt, Ian Beveridge
This work includes all published records, to April 2015, of the helminths occurring in Australasian monotremes and marsupials, with due regard for synonymy and an attempt to include life history studies, pathological observations and epidemiology. It also contains all unpublished records known to us and referrable, by accession numbers, to curated collections in Australia and overseas. Information is presented by host family, genus, species, sub-species or chromosome race and includes the names of all host species from which no parasites have been recorded...
June 15, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376899/status-of-dosage-compensation-of-x-chromosome-in-bovine-genome
#15
Sojeong Ka, Hyeonju Ahn, Minseok Seo, Heebal Kim, Jin Nam Kim, Hyun-Jeong Lee
Dosage compensation system with X chromosome upregulation and inactivation have evolved to overcome the genetic imbalance between sex chromosomes in both male and female of mammals. Although recent development of chromosome-wide technologies has allowed us to test X upregulation, discrete data processing and analysis methods draw disparate conclusions. A series of expression studies revealed status of dosage compensation in some species belonging to monotremes, marsupials, rodents and primates. However, X upregulation in the Artiodactyla order including cattle have not been studied yet...
August 2016: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334831/did-sex-chromosome-turnover-promote-divergence-of-the-major-mammal-groups-de-novo-sex-chromosomes-and-drastic-rearrangements-may-have-posed-reproductive-barriers-between-monotremes-marsupials-and-placental-mammals
#16
Jennifer A M Graves
Comparative mapping and sequencing show that turnover of sex determining genes and chromosomes, and sex chromosome rearrangements, accompany speciation in many vertebrates. Here I review the evidence and propose that the evolution of therian mammals was precipitated by evolution of the male-determining SRY gene, defining a novel XY sex chromosome pair, and interposing a reproductive barrier with the ancestral population of synapsid reptiles 190 million years ago (MYA). Divergence was reinforced by multiple translocations in monotreme sex chromosomes, the first of which supplied a novel sex determining gene...
August 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301754/novel-borrelia-species-detected-in-echidna-ticks-bothriocroton-concolor-in-australia
#17
Siew-May Loh, Alexander W Gofton, Nathan Lo, Amber Gillett, Una M Ryan, Peter J Irwin, Charlotte L Oskam
BACKGROUND: To date, little has been documented about microorganisms harboured within Australian native ticks or their pathogenic potential. Recently, a Borrelia sp. related to the Relapsing Fever (RF) group was identified in a single tick removed from a wild echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). The present study investigated the presence of Borrelia in 97 Bothriocroton concolor ticks parasitizing echidnas in Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria, Australia, using nested PCR with Borrelia-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA (16S) and flaB genes...
June 14, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269378/why-australasian-vertebrate-animals-are-so-unique-a-palaeontological-perspective
#18
REVIEW
John A Long
Australasia has a unique fauna of living vertebrates, which include the oldest known species on the planet (the lungfish Neoceratodus) as well as many diverse, highly endemic families of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. The origin of most of the Australian vertebrate fauna has developed from two phases. Firstly, when Australia was subsumed within the greater Gondwana landmass, migration of animals from one region to another was possible by a land connection. Many of our most primitive forms of reptiles and mammals probably entered the country at this time, such as varanids, madtsooid snakes, monotremes and basal marsupials...
June 3, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259665/analysis-of-the-structure-evolution-and-expression-of-cd24-an-important-regulator-of-cell-fate
#19
D Craig Ayre, Nikitha K Pallegar, Nicholas A Fairbridge, Marta Canuti, Andrew S Lang, Sherri L Christian
BACKGROUND: CD24 is a small, glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface receptor, expressed in a variety of cells types and tissues. CD24 gene and protein expression is highly dynamic in response to cellular differentiation and stimulation in a cell-specific manner. Furthermore, CD24 interacts with a diverse collection of ligands, including cell adhesion molecules such as P-selectin, and the immune-associated siglec family of transmembrane proteins. While much is known regarding the biological roles of CD24 in regulating cell survival, death and differentiation, little is known about the evolution and organization of CD24 across species or the relationship between CD24 expression and its known ligands...
September 30, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228358/ear-ossicle-morphology-of-the-jurassic-euharamiyidan-arboroharamiya-and-evolution-of-mammalian-middle-ear
#20
Jin Meng, Shundong Bi, Xiaoting Zheng, Xiaoli Wang
The middle ear bones of Mesozoic mammals are rarely preserved as fossils and the morphology of these ossicles in the earliest mammals remains poorly known. Here, we report the stapes and incus of the euharamiyidan Arboroharamiya from the lower Upper Jurassic (∼160 Ma) of northern China, which represent the earliest known mammalian middle ear ossicles. Both bones are miniscule in relation to those in non-mammalian cynodonts. The skull length/stapedial footplate diameter ratio is estimated as 51.74 and the stapes length as the percentage of the skull length is 4%; both numbers fall into the stapes size ranges of mammals...
May 26, 2016: Journal of Morphology
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