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Cardiovascular genomic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918050/the-function-and-therapeutic-potential-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-cardiovascular-development-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Clarissa P C Gomes, Helen Spencer, Kerrie L Ford, Lauriane Y M Michel, Andrew H Baker, Costanza Emanueli, Jean-Luc Balligand, Yvan Devaux
The popularization of genome-wide analyses and RNA sequencing led to the discovery that a large part of the human genome, while effectively transcribed, does not encode proteins. Long non-coding RNAs have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression in both normal and disease states. Studies of long non-coding RNAs expressed in the heart, in combination with gene association studies, revealed that these molecules are regulated during cardiovascular development and disease. Some long non-coding RNAs have been functionally implicated in cardiac pathophysiology and constitute potential therapeutic targets...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915699/biological-effects-and-epidemiological-consequences-of-arsenic-exposure-and-reagents-that-can-ameliorate-arsenic-damage-in-vivo
#2
REVIEW
Chinthalapally V Rao, Sanya Pal, Altaf Mohammed, Mudassir Farooqui, Mark P Doescher, Adam S Asch, Hiroshi Y Yamada
Through contaminated diet, water, and other forms of environmental exposure, arsenic affects human health. There are many U.S. and worldwide "hot spots" where the arsenic level in public water exceeds the maximum exposure limit. The biological effects of chronic arsenic exposure include generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage, epigenetic DNA modification, induction of genomic instability, and inflammation and immunomodulation, all of which can initiate carcinogenesis...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915241/the-relative-contribution-of-dna-methylation-and-genetic-variants-on-protein-biomarkers-for-human-diseases
#3
Muhammad Ahsan, Weronica E Ek, Mathias Rask-Andersen, Torgny Karlsson, Allan Lind-Thomsen, Stefan Enroth, Ulf Gyllensten, Åsa Johansson
Associations between epigenetic alterations and disease status have been identified for many diseases. However, there is no strong evidence that epigenetic alterations are directly causal for disease pathogenesis. In this study, we combined SNP and DNA methylation data with measurements of protein biomarkers for cancer, inflammation or cardiovascular disease, to investigate the relative contribution of genetic and epigenetic variation on biomarker levels. A total of 121 protein biomarkers were measured and analyzed in relation to DNA methylation at 470,000 genomic positions and to over 10 million SNPs...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912365/d-dimer-in-african-americans-whole-genome-sequence-analysis-and-relationship-to-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-the-jackson-heart-study
#4
Laura M Raffield, Neil A Zakai, Qing Duan, Cecelia Laurie, Joshua D Smith, Marguerite R Irvin, Margaret F Doyle, Rakhi P Naik, Ci Song, Ani W Manichaikul, Yongmei Liu, Peter Durda, Jerome I Rotter, Nancy S Jenny, Stephen S Rich, James G Wilson, Andrew D Johnson, Adolfo Correa, Yun Li, Deborah A Nickerson, Kenneth Rice, Ethan M Lange, Mary Cushman, Leslie A Lange, Alex P Reiner
OBJECTIVE: Plasma levels of the fibrinogen degradation product D-dimer are higher among African Americans (AAs) compared with those of European ancestry and higher among women compared with men. Among AAs, little is known of the genetic architecture of D-dimer or the relationship of D-dimer to incident cardiovascular disease. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We measured baseline D-dimer in 4163 AAs aged 21 to 93 years from the prospective JHS (Jackson Heart Study) cohort and assessed association with incident cardiovascular disease events...
September 14, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911167/in-utero-exposure-to-a-high-fat-diet-programs-hepatic-hypermethylation-and-gene-dysregulation-and-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-male-mice
#5
Yoshinori Seki, Masako Suzuki, Xingyi Guo, Alan Scott Glenn, Patricia M Vuguin, Ariana Fiallo, Quan Du, Yi-An Ko, Yiting Yu, Katalin Susztak, Deyou Zheng, John M Greally, Ellen B Katz, Maureen J Charron
Exposure to a high-fat (HF) diet in utero is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome later in life. However, the molecular basis of this enhanced susceptibility for metabolic disease is poorly understood. Gene expression microarray and genome-wide DNA methylation analyses of mouse liver revealed that exposure to a maternal HF milieu activated genes of immune response, inflammation, and hepatic dysfunction. DNA methylation analysis revealed 3360 differentially methylated loci, most of which (76%) were hypermethylated and distributed preferentially to hotspots on chromosomes 4 [atherosclerosis susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTLs) 1] and 18 (insulin-dependent susceptibility QTLs 21)...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903782/natural-genetic-variation-of-the-cardiac-transcriptome-in-non-diseased-donors-and-patients-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#6
Matthias Heinig, Michiel E Adriaens, Sebastian Schafer, Hanneke W M van Deutekom, Elisabeth M Lodder, James S Ware, Valentin Schneider, Leanne E Felkin, Esther E Creemers, Benjamin Meder, Hugo A Katus, Frank Rühle, Monika Stoll, François Cambien, Eric Villard, Philippe Charron, Andras Varro, Nanette H Bishopric, Alfred L George, Cristobal Dos Remedios, Aida Moreno-Moral, Francesco Pesce, Anja Bauerfeind, Franz Rüschendorf, Carola Rintisch, Enrico Petretto, Paul J Barton, Stuart A Cook, Yigal M Pinto, Connie R Bezzina, Norbert Hubner
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation is an important determinant of RNA transcription and splicing, which in turn contributes to variation in human traits, including cardiovascular diseases. RESULTS: Here we report the first in-depth survey of heart transcriptome variation using RNA-sequencing in 97 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and 108 non-diseased controls. We reveal extensive differences of gene expression and splicing between dilated cardiomyopathy patients and controls, affecting known as well as novel dilated cardiomyopathy genes...
September 14, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898880/personalized-management-of-cardiovascular-disorders
#7
Kewal K Jain
Personalized management of cardiovascular disorders (CVDs), also referred to as personalized or precision cardiology in accordance with general principles of personalized medicine, is the selection of best treatment for an individual patient. It involves the integration of various 'omics' technologies such as genomics and proteomics as well as other new technologies such as nanobiotechnology. Molecular diagnostics and biomarkers are important for linking diagnosis with therapy and monitoring of therapy. Because CVDs involve perturbations of large complex biological networks, a systems biology approach to CVD risk stratification may be used for improving risk-estimating algorithms and modeling of personalized benefit-of-treatment may be helpful for guiding choice of intervention...
September 11, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895585/habitual-sleep-duration-and-sleep-duration-variation-are-independently-associated-with-body-mass-index
#8
X Xu, M P Conomos, O Manor, J E Rohwer, A T Magis, J C Lovejoy
BACKGROUND: Sleep plays a vital role in maintaining homeostasis and promoting health. Previous studies show that shorter sleep duration is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and other cardiovascular risk factors. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of habitual sleep duration and nightly sleep duration variation based on daily device-recorded data on BMI and obesity-related biomarkers. METHOD: 748 individuals (50.6% females, 85.4% European-Americans, average age: 49...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893835/genomic-basis-of-atrial-fibrillation
#9
REVIEW
Aneesh Bapat, Christopher D Anderson, Patrick T Ellinor, Steven A Lubitz
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a prevalent arrhythmia associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. Available management strategies generally have limited efficacy and are associated with potential adverse effects. In part, the limited efficacy of approaches to managing AF reflect an incomplete understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the arrhythmia, and only a partial understanding of how best to individualise management. Over the last several decades, a greater understanding of genome biology has led to recognition of a widespread genetic susceptibility to AF...
September 11, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892929/connective-tissue-growth-factor-transgenic-mouse-develops-cardiac-hypertrophy-lean-body-mass-and-alopecia
#10
Edem Nuglozeh
INTRODUCTION: Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) is one of the six members of cysteine-rich, heparin-binding proteins, secreted as modular protein and recognised to play a major function in cell processes such as adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation as well as chondrogenesis, skeletogenesis, angiogenesis and wound healing. The capacity of CTGF to interact with different growth factors lends an important role during early and late development, especially in the anterior region of the embryo...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873705/zebra-blenny-protein-hydrolysates-as-a-source-of-bioactive-peptides-with-prevention-effect-against-oxidative-dysfunctions-and-dna-damage-in-heart-tissues-of-rats-fed-a-cholesterol-rich-diet
#11
Naourez Ktari, Intidhar Bkhairia, Rim Nasri, Rihab Ben Abdallah Kolsi, Rabab Ben Slama-Ben Salem, Ibtissem Ben Amara, Najiba Zeghal, Basma Ben Salah, Riadh Ben Salah, Moncef Nasri
High-cholesterol diet (HCD) is suspected to produce in excess free radicals having adverse effects on human health and causing atherosclerosis damage in heart tissues. In our study, the effects of zebra blenny protein hydrolysates (ZBPHs) were investigated on cardiac oxidant/antioxidant status as well as DNA damage and histopathological disorders in rats, fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet. The molecular weight distribution of the hydrolysates was determined by size exclusion chromatography, which analyzed a representative hydrolysate type with a weight range of 3-20kDa...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868898/the-tumour-suppressor-cdkn2a-p16-ink4a-regulates-adipogenesis-and-bone-marrow-dependent-development-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue
#12
Kristiaan Wouters, Yann Deleye, Sarah A Hannou, Jonathan Vanhoutte, Xavier Maréchal, Augustin Coisne, Madjid Tagzirt, Bruno Derudas, Emmanuel Bouchaert, Christian Duhem, Emmanuelle Vallez, Casper G Schalkwijk, François Pattou, David Montaigne, Bart Staels, Réjane Paumelle
The genomic CDKN2A/B locus, encoding p16(INK4a) among others, is linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a risk factor for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. p16(INK4a) is a cell cycle regulator and tumour suppressor. Whether it plays a role in adipose tissue formation is unknown. p16(INK4a) knock-down in 3T3/L1 preadipocytes or p16(INK4a) deficiency in mouse embryonic fibroblasts enhanced adipogenesis, suggesting a role for p16(INK4a) in adipose tissue formation...
September 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868210/stroke-investigative-research-and-education-network-public-outreach-and-engagement
#13
A Singh, C Jenkins, B Calys-Tagoe, O S Arulogun, S Sarfo, B Ovbiagele, A Akpalu, S Melikam, E Uvere, M O Owolabi
Stroke is becoming a leading cause of disability and death, and a major public health concern in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) seeks to comprehensively characterize the genomic, sociocultural, economic, and behavioral risk factors for stroke and to build effective teams for research to address and decrease the burden of stroke and other non-communicable diseases in SSA. One of the first steps to address this goal was to effectively engage the communities that suffer high burdens of disease in SSA...
April 2017: Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867751/t-786c-variation-in-the-promoter-sequence-of-human-enos-gene-markedly-influences-its-expression-level
#14
Aliaa M Elakkad, Khaled Abou-Aisha, Sally I Hassanein, Mohamed Z Gad
This study investigated the role of the T-786C polymorphism (SNP) in the 5'-flanking sequence of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) on its expression level in vascular endothelium with the ultimate goal of shedding more light on the mechanisms by which genetic variations of eNOS might affect the vascular level of nitric oxide (NO). Sequences in the 5'-flanking region of eNOS gene were PCR-amplified using genomic DNA templates isolated from blood samples collected from cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients...
2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863213/type-2-diabetes-associated-variants-of-kcnq1-strongly-confer-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-among-the-saudi-arabian-population
#15
Maha S Al-Shammari, Rhaya Al-Ali, Nader Al-Balawi, Mansour S Al-Enazi, Ali A Al-Muraikhi, Fadi N Busaleh, Ali S Al-Sahwan, Abdulmohsen Al-Elq, Awatif N Al-Nafaie, Jesu Francis Borgio, Sayed AbdulAzeez, Amein Al-Ali, Sadananda Acharya
Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Polymorphisms within the KCNQ1 (potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1) gene are consistently associated with T2D in a number of populations. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the association of 3 polymorphisms of KCNQ1 (rs2237892, rs151290 and rs2237895) with T2D and/or CVD. Patients diagnosed with either T2D (320 patients), CVD (250 patients) or both (60 patients) and 516 healthy controls were genotyped by TaqMan assay run on a real time PCR thermocycler...
July 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861277/long-read-reference-genome-free-reconstruction-of-a-full-length-transcriptome-from-astragalus-membranaceus-reveals-transcript-variants-involved-in-bioactive-compound-biosynthesis
#16
Jun Li, Yuka Harata-Lee, Matthew D Denton, Qianjin Feng, Judith R Rathjen, Zhipeng Qu, David L Adelson
Astragalus membranaceus, also known as Huangqi in China, is one of the most widely used medicinal herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine formulations from Astragalus membranaceus have been used to treat a wide range of illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, nephritis and cancers. Pharmacological studies have shown that immunomodulating, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities exist in the extract of Astragalus membranaceus...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860667/a-genomic-exploration-identifies-mechanisms-that-may-explain-adverse-cardiovascular-effects-of-cox-2-inhibitors
#17
Ingrid Brænne, Christina Willenborg, Vinicius Tragante, Thorsten Kessler, Lingyao Zeng, Benedikt Reiz, Mariana Kleinecke, Simon von Ameln, Cristen J Willer, Markku Laakso, Philipp S Wild, Tanja Zeller, Lars Wallentin, Paul W Franks, Veikko Salomaa, Abbas Dehghan, Thomas Meitinger, Nilesh J Samani, Folkert W Asselbergs, Jeanette Erdmann, Heribert Schunkert
Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (coxibs) are characterized by multiple molecular off-target effects and increased coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. Here, we systematically explored common variants of genes representing molecular targets of coxibs for association with CAD. Given a broad spectrum of pleiotropic effects of coxibs, our intention was to narrow potential mechanisms affecting CAD risk as we hypothesized that the affected genes may also display genomic signals of coronary disease risk. A Drug Gene Interaction Database search identified 47 gene products to be affected by coxibs...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853720/the-y-chromosome-a-blueprint-for-men-s-health
#18
REVIEW
Akhlaq A Maan, James Eales, Artur Akbarov, Joshua Rowland, Xiaoguang Xu, Mark A Jobling, Fadi J Charchar, Maciej Tomaszewski
The Y chromosome has long been considered a 'genetic wasteland' on a trajectory to completely disappear from the human genome. The perception of its physiological function was restricted to sex determination and spermatogenesis. These views have been challenged in recent times with the identification of multiple ubiquitously expressed Y-chromosome genes and the discovery of several unexpected associations between the Y chromosome, immune system and complex polygenic traits. The collected evidence suggests that the Y chromosome influences immune and inflammatory responses in men, translating into genetically programmed susceptibility to diseases with a strong immune component...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844666/genetic-regulation-of-adipose-tissue-transcript-expression-is-involved-in-modulating-serum-triglyceride-and-hdl-cholesterol
#19
Satria P Sajuthi, Neeraj K Sharma, Mary E Comeau, Jeff W Chou, Donald W Bowden, Barry I Freedman, Carl D Langefeld, John S Parks, Swapan K Das
Dyslipidemia is a major contributor to the increased cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that variation in expression of adipose tissue transcripts is associated with serum lipid concentrations in African Americans (AAs), and common genetic variants regulate expression levels of these transcripts. Fasting serum lipid levels, genome-wide transcript expression profiles of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and genome-wide SNP genotypes were analyzed in a cohort of non-diabetic AAs (N=250)...
October 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843141/dna-methylation-and-exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-in-two-prospective-cohorts
#20
Michelle Plusquin, Florence Guida, Silvia Polidoro, Roel Vermeulen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Gianluca Campanella, Gerard Hoek, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Panagiotis Georgiadis, Alessio Naccarati, Carlotta Sacerdote, Vittorio Krogh, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, W M Monique Verschuren, Sergi Sayols-Baixeras, Tommaso Panni, Annette Peters, Dennie G A J Hebels, Jos Kleinjans, Paolo Vineis, Marc Chadeau-Hyam
Long-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with several adverse health effects including cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and cancers. However, underlying molecular alterations remain to be further investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to air pollutants on (a) average DNA methylation at functional regions and, (b) individual differentially methylated CpG sites. An assumption is that omic measurements, including the methylome, are more sensitive to low doses than hard health outcomes...
August 23, 2017: Environment International
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