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Thalamic neuron theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708569/modeling-and-theories-of-pathophysiology-and-physiology-of-the-basal-ganglia-thalamic-cortical-system-critical-analysis
#1
Erwin B Montgomery
Theories impact the movement disorders clinic, not only affecting the development of new therapies but determining how current therapies are used. Models are theories that are procedural rather than declarative. Theories and models are important because, as argued by Kant, one cannot know the thing-in-itself (das Ding an sich) and only a model is knowable. Further, biological variability forces higher level abstraction relevant for all variants. It is that abstraction that is raison d'être of theories and models...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582292/cortex-dynamically-modulates-responses-of-thalamic-relay-neurons-through-prolonged-circuit-level-disinhibition-in-rat-thalamus-in-vivo
#2
Lu Li, Ford F Ebner
Cortex actively modulates the responses of thalamic relay neurons through corticothalamic (CT) projections. Here we investigated the temporal precision of CT modulation on sensory responses of relay neurons in rat ventral posterior medial thalamus (VPM) to direction-specific whisker stimuli. CT feedback levels were either augmented by cortical electrical microstimulation or depressed by cortical application of muscimol, a potent agonist of γ-aminobutyric acid A-type (GABAA) receptors. To evaluate the temporal specificity of CT influence, we compared the early (3-10 ms after stimulus onset) and late (10-100 ms) response components of VPM single units to whisker deflections in preferred or nonpreferred directions before and after altering CT feedback levels under urethane anesthesia...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553899/auditory-thalamic-circuits-and-gabaa-receptor-function-putative-mechanisms-in-tinnitus-pathology
#3
Donald M Caspary, Daniel A Llano
Tinnitus is defined as a phantom sound (ringing in the ears), and can significantly reduce the quality of life for those who suffer its effects. Ten to fifteen percent of the general adult population report symptoms of tinnitus with 1-2% reporting that tinnitus negatively impacts their quality of life. Noise exposure is the most common cause of tinnitus and the military environment presents many challenging high-noise situations. Military noise levels can be so intense that standard hearing protection is not adequate...
August 20, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548234/deep-brain-stimulation-frequency-a-divining-rod-for-new-and-novel-concepts-of-nervous-system-function-and-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Erwin B Montgomery, Huang He
The efficacy of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for an expanding array of neurological and psychiatric disorders demonstrates directly that DBS affects the basic electroneurophysiological mechanisms of the brain. The increasing array of active electrode configurations, stimulation currents, pulse widths, frequencies, and pulse patterns provides valuable tools to probe electroneurophysiological mechanisms. The extension of basic electroneurophysiological and anatomical concepts using sophisticated computational modeling and simulation has provided relatively straightforward explanations of all the DBS parameters except frequency...
August 17, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466345/increased-amplitude-of-thalamocortical-low-frequency-oscillations-in-patients-with-migraine
#5
Duncan J Hodkinson, Sophie L Wilcox, Rosanna Veggeberg, Rodrigo Noseda, Rami Burstein, David Borsook, Lino Becerra
UNLABELLED: For many years, neurobiological theories have emphasized the importance of neuronal oscillations in the emergence of brain function. At the same time, clinical studies have shown that disturbances or irregularities in brain rhythms may relate to various common neurological conditions, including migraine. Increasing evidence suggests that the CNS plays a fundamental role in the predisposition to develop different forms of headache. Here, we present human imaging data that strongly support the presence of abnormal low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in thalamocortical networks of patients in the interictal phase of migraine...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26926734/white-matter-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
Fady Girgis, Jonathan P Miller
Electrical stimulation in the treatment of epilepsy has been tried in numerous forms and with a variety of targets. Some of these, such as anterior thalamic stimulation, responsive cortical stimulation, and vagal nerve stimulation, have shown promise. A relatively novel concept, that of white matter stimulation, offers a different mechanism in that a small population of stimulated axons can transmit current to a large population of epileptogenic neurons. In theory, this allows for the modulation of seizure circuits and neural networks using lower stimulation volumes...
April 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26582654/t-type-calcium-channels-cause-bursts-of-spikes-in-motor-but-not-sensory-thalamic-neurons-during-mimicry-of-natural-patterns-of-synaptic-input
#7
Haram R Kim, Su Z Hong, Christopher D Fiorillo
Although neurons within intact nervous systems can be classified as 'sensory' or 'motor,' it is not known whether there is any general distinction between sensory and motor neurons at the cellular or molecular levels. Here, we extend and test a theory according to which activation of certain subtypes of voltage-gated ion channel (VGC) generate patterns of spikes in neurons of motor systems, whereas VGC are proposed to counteract patterns in sensory neurons. We previously reported experimental evidence for the theory from visual thalamus, where we found that T-type calcium channels (TtCCs) did not cause bursts of spikes but instead served the function of 'predictive homeostasis' to maximize the causal and informational link between retinogeniculate excitation and spike output...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26441623/thalamic-neuron-models-encode-stimulus-information-by-burst-size-modulation
#8
Daniel H Elijah, Inés Samengo, Marcelo A Montemurro
Thalamic neurons have been long assumed to fire in tonic mode during perceptive states, and in burst mode during sleep and unconsciousness. However, recent evidence suggests that bursts may also be relevant in the encoding of sensory information. Here, we explore the neural code of such thalamic bursts. In order to assess whether the burst code is generic or whether it depends on the detailed properties of each bursting neuron, we analyzed two neuron models incorporating different levels of biological detail...
2015: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26156994/disrupted-saccadic-corollary-discharge-in-schizophrenia
#9
Katharine N Thakkar, Jeffrey D Schall, Stephan Heckers, Sohee Park
UNLABELLED: Disruptions in corollary discharge (CD), motor signals that send information to sensory areas and allow for prediction of sensory states, are argued to underlie the perceived loss of agency in schizophrenia. Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence for CD in primates comes largely from the saccadic double-step task, which requires participants to make two visually triggered saccadic eye movements in brief succession. Healthy individuals use CD to anticipate the change in eye position resulting from the first saccade when preparing the second saccade...
July 8, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26154979/how-inhibitory-circuits-in-the-thalamus-serve-vision
#10
REVIEW
Judith A Hirsch, Xin Wang, Friedrich T Sommer, Luis M Martinez
Inhibitory neurons dominate the intrinsic circuits in the visual thalamus. Interneurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus innervate relay cells and each other densely to provide powerful inhibition. The visual sector of the overlying thalamic reticular nucleus receives input from relay cells and supplies feedback inhibition to them in return. Together, these two inhibitory circuits influence all information transmitted from the retina to the primary visual cortex. By contrast, relay cells make few local connections...
July 8, 2015: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26143337/consciousness-cognition-and-brain-networks-new-perspectives
#11
E M Aldana, J L Valverde, N Fábregas
A detailed analysis of the literature on consciousness and cognition mechanisms based on the neural networks theory is presented. The immune and inflammatory response to the anesthetic-surgical procedure induces modulation of neuronal plasticity by influencing higher cognitive functions. Anesthetic drugs can cause unconsciousness, producing a functional disruption of cortical and thalamic cortical integration complex. The external and internal perceptions are processed through an intricate network of neural connections, involving the higher nervous activity centers, especially the cerebral cortex...
October 2016: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25498107/decoding-signal-processing-in-thalamo-hippocampal-circuitry-implications-for-theories-of-memory-and-spatial-processing
#12
REVIEW
Marian Tsanov, Shane M O'Mara
A major tool in understanding how information is processed in the brain is the analysis of neuronal output at each hierarchical level through which neurophysiological signals are propagated. Since the experimental brain operation performed on Henry Gustav Molaison (known as patient H.M.) in 1953, the hippocampal formation has gained special attention, resulting in a very large number of studies investigating signals processed by the hippocampal formation. One of the main information streams to the hippocampal formation, vital for episodic memory formation, arises from thalamo-hippocampal projections, as there is extensive connectivity between these structures...
September 24, 2015: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25012712/genomic-instantiation-of-consciousness-in-neurons-through-a-biophoton-field-theory
#13
Lleuvelyn A Cacha, Roman R Poznanski
A theoretical framework is developed based on the premise that brains evolved into sufficiently complex adaptive systems capable of instantiating genomic consciousness through self-awareness and complex interactions that recognize qualitatively the controlling factors of biological processes. Furthermore, our hypothesis assumes that the collective interactions in neurons yield macroergic effects, which can produce sufficiently strong electric energy fields for electronic excitations to take place on the surface of endogenous structures via alpha-helical integral proteins as electro-solitons...
June 2014: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993475/neuronal-networks-and-energy-bursts-in-epilepsy
#14
REVIEW
Y Wu, D Liu, Z Song
Epilepsy can be defined as the abnormal activities of neurons. The occurrence, propagation and termination of epileptic seizures rely on the networks of neuronal cells that are connected through both synaptic- and non-synaptic interactions. These complicated interactions contain the modified functions of normal neurons and glias as well as the mediation of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms with feedback homeostasis. Numerous spread patterns are detected in disparate networks of ictal activities. The cortical-thalamic-cortical loop is present during a general spike wave seizure...
February 26, 2015: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24228597/the-principle-of-symmetry-in-acupuncture-and-its-clinical-applications
#15
REVIEW
Tsun-Nin Lee
The clinical practice of acupuncture and study of the traditional Chinese medicine literature has led to the observation that if the diaphragm is used as an axis of symmetry, there are many symmetrical points on the upper and lower halves of the body. The symmetrical points share several common properties, including physiological functions, mechanisms of pathogenesis and therapeutic effects. Employing these corresponding points on the upper and lower parts of the body simultaneously can frequently enhance the therapeutic outcome rather substantially...
2013: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24204812/altered-resting-state-brain-networks-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Martin Göttlich, Thomas F Münte, Marcus Heldmann, Meike Kasten, Johann Hagenah, Ulrike M Krämer
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leading to dysfunctional cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical loops. In addition to the characteristic motor symptoms, PD patients often show cognitive impairments, affective changes and other non-motor symptoms, suggesting system-wide effects on brain function. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph-theory based analysis methods to investigate altered whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in PD patients (n = 37) compared to healthy controls (n = 20)...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24184287/cell-size-anomalies-in-the-auditory-thalamus-of-rats-with-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-on-postnatal-day-3-or-7
#17
Michelle Alexander, Haley Garbus, Amanda L Smith, R Holly Fitch
Children born prematurely (<37 weeks gestational age) or at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500g) are at increased risk for hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injuries. Term infants can also suffer HI from birth complications. In both groups, blood/oxygen delivery to the brain is compromised, often resulting in brain damage and later cognitive delays (e.g., language deficits). Literature suggests that language delays in a variety of developmentally impaired populations (including specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, and early HI-injury) may be associated with underlying deficits in rapid auditory processing (RAP; the ability to process and discriminate brief acoustic cues)...
April 2014: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24076243/information-sharing-in-the-brain-indexes-consciousness-in-noncommunicative-patients
#18
Jean-Rémi King, Jacobo D Sitt, Frédéric Faugeras, Benjamin Rohaut, Imen El Karoui, Laurent Cohen, Lionel Naccache, Stanislas Dehaene
Neuronal theories of conscious access tentatively relate conscious perception to the integration and global broadcasting of information across distant cortical and thalamic areas. Experiments contrasting visible and invisible stimuli support this view and suggest that global neuronal communication may be detectable using scalp electroencephalography (EEG). However, whether global information sharing across brain areas also provides a specific signature of conscious state in awake but noncommunicating patients remains an active topic of research...
October 7, 2013: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23974723/global-workspace-dynamics-cortical-binding-and-propagation-enables-conscious-contents
#19
Bernard J Baars, Stan Franklin, Thomas Zoega Ramsoy
A global workspace (GW) is a functional hub of binding and propagation in a population of loosely coupled signaling elements. In computational applications, GW architectures recruit many distributed, specialized agents to cooperate in resolving focal ambiguities. In the brain, conscious experiences may reflect a GW function. For animals, the natural world is full of unpredictable dangers and opportunities, suggesting a general adaptive pressure for brains to resolve focal ambiguities quickly and accurately...
2013: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23847524/using-a-hybrid-neuron-in-physiologically-inspired-models-of-the-basal-ganglia
#20
Corey M Thibeault, Narayan Srinivasa
Our current understanding of the basal ganglia (BG) has facilitated the creation of computational models that have contributed novel theories, explored new functional anatomy and demonstrated results complementing physiological experiments. However, the utility of these models extends beyond these applications. Particularly in neuromorphic engineering, where the basal ganglia's role in computation is important for applications such as power efficient autonomous agents and model-based control strategies. The neurons used in existing computational models of the BG, however, are not amenable for many low-power hardware implementations...
2013: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
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