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Back Squat

Ana Batista, Cristina P Monteiro, Rute Borrego, Catarina N Matias, Filipe J Teixeira, Maria João Valamatos, Ana Cláudia Oliveira, Joana F Reis, Lino Mendes, Luís B Sardinha
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between whey protein supplementation, body composition and muscle strength, in resistance-trained individuals. Forty-nine healthy males, aged 18 to 35 years that were engaged in resistance training for at least one year, were assigned into two groups according to whey protein intake (Whey: n=26, 30.7 ± 7.4 yr, 75.8 ± 9.0 kg; WithoutWhey: n=23, 31.0 ± 7.4 yr, 77.9 ± 9.3 kg). Using a cross-sectional design, a morning assessment of body fat mass (FM) (by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) and strength (using 1RM for bench press and back squat) was performed...
June 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Laura Faye Gephart, Karen M Doersch, Michelle Reyes, Thomas J Kuehl, Jill M Danford
To determine intraabdominal pressure (IAP) in women during CrossFit and to determine whether parity, age, or CrossFit experience affects IAP during CrossFit exercises, we evaluated 10 women: 5 experienced and active CrossFitters and 5 who were not regularly engaged in CrossFit. A Laborie urodynamics abdominal pressure probe with the Goby wireless system measured IAP during 10 repetitions of 13 different CrossFit exercises. Women had a mean age of 36 years. A significant difference was found between mean peak IAP of the 5 parous vs the 5 nulliparous women ( P = 0...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
S J Baltrusch, J H van Dieën, C A M van Bennekom, H Houdijk
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a passive trunk exoskeleton on functional performance for various work related tasks in healthy individuals. 18 healthy men performed 12 tasks. Functional performance in each task was assessed based on objective outcome measures and subjectively in terms of perceived task difficulty, local and general discomfort. Wearing the exoskeleton tended to increase objective performance in static forward bending, but decreased performance in tasks, such as walking, carrying and ladder climbing...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Kirsten Huysamen, Valerie Power, Leonard O'Sullivan
The aim of this study was to assess the elongation of the skin surface of the spine for simulated industrial lifting and lowering tasks to aid the design of industrial exoskeletons worn on the back. Eighteen male participants lifted and lowered a box of varying loads (5 kg, 10 kg, 15 kg) using three techniques (squat, semi-squat, stooped) from the ground to a table. Motion capture sensors attached to the spine from C7 to S1 measured movement. Stoop lifting involved significantly more elongation (mean 71...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Haris Pojskic, Erik Åslin, Ante Krolo, Ivan Jukic, Ognjen Uljevic, Miodrag Spasic, Damir Sekulic
Agility is a significant determinant of success in soccer; however, studies have rarely presented and evaluated soccer-specific tests of reactive agility (S_RAG) and non-reactive agility (change of direction speed - S_CODS) or their applicability in this sport. The aim of this study was to define the reliability and validity of newly developed tests of the S_RAG and S_CODS to discriminate between the performance levels of junior soccer players. The study consisted of 20 players who were involved at the highest national competitive rank (all males; age: 17...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Brett S Nickerson, Tyler D Williams, Ronald L Snarr, Kyung-Shin Park
Nickerson, BS, Williams, TD, Snarr, RL, and Park, K-S. Individual and combined effect of inter-repetition rest and elastic bands on jumping potentiation in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine the individual and combined effects of cluster sets (CS) and elastic bands for jumping potentiation in resistance-trained men. Twelve resistance-trained men (age: 22 ± 3 years) participated in this study. In a random order, participants completed 1 set of 3 repetitions at 85% 1-repetition maximum for the parallel back squat: (a) traditional set with continuous repetitions; (b) continuous repetitions with elastic bands (BANDS); (c) CS with 30 seconds of rest between each repetition (CS30); and (d) CS with 30 seconds of rest between each repetition and elastic bands (CS + BANDS)...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Harry F Dorrell, Joseph M Moore, Mark F Smith, Thomas I Gee
This study investigated the validity and reliability of the GymAware PowerTool (GPT). Thirteen resistance trained participants completed three visits, consisting of three repetitions of free-weight back squat, bench press, deadlift (80% one repetition maximum), and countermovement jump. Bar displacement, peak and mean velocity, peak and mean force, and jump height were calculated using the GPT, a three-dimensional motion capture system (Motion Analysis Corporation; 150 Hz), and a force plate (Kistler; 1500 Hz)...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Kym J Williams, Dale W Chapman, Elissa J Phillips, Nick Ball
PURPOSE: To establish the influence of athlete-dependent characteristics on the generation and timing of system and individual joint powers during a countermovement jump (CMJ). METHODS: Male national representative athletes from Volleyball ([VB] n=7), Basketball ([BB], n=6) and Rugby Union ([RU] n=7) performed a set of three CMJ's at relative barbell loads of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% of absolute back squat strength. Ground reaction forces and joint kinematics were captured using a 16 camera motion capture system integrated with two in-ground force plates...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Gerald T Mangine, Adam M Gonzalez, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam J Wells, Kyle S Beyer, Amelia A Miramonti, Nicholas A Ratamess, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman
The influence of baseline strength or muscle size on adaptations to training is not well-understood. Comparisons between novice and advanced lifters, and between stronger and weaker experienced-lifters, have produced conflicting results. This study examined the effect of baseline muscle strength and size on subsequent adaptations in resistance-trained individuals following a traditional high-volume, short-rest resistance training protocol. Fourteen resistance-trained men (24.0±2.7 y; 90.1±11.7 kg; 169.9±29...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Jennie M Scarvell, Catherine R Galvin, Diana M Perriman, Joseph T Lynch, Robert W M van Deursen
BACKGROUND: While several studies describe kinematics of healthy and osteoarthritic knees using the accurate imaging and computer modelling now possible, no systematic review exists to synthesise these data. METHOD: A systematic review extracted quantitative observational, quasi-experimental and experimental studies from PubMed, Scopus, Medline and Web of Science that examined motion of the bony or articular surfaces of the tibiofemoral joint during any functional activity...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Helen Ryan-Stewart, James Faulkner, Simon Jobson
The link between athlete physique and performance in sports is well established. However, a direct link between somatotype three-numeral rating and anaerobic performance has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between somatotype and anaerobic performance using both singular and multivariate analyses. Thirty-six physically active males (mean ± standard deviation age 26.0 ± 9.8 years; body mass 79.5 ± 12.9 kg; height 1.82 ± 0.07 m) were somatotype-rated using the Heath-Carter method...
2018: PloS One
Eric R Helms, Matt R Cross, Scott R Brown, Adam Storey, John Cronin, Michael C Zourdos
Helms, ER, Cross, MR, Brown, SR, Storey, A, Cronin, J, and Zourdos, MC. Rating of perceived exertion as a method of volume autoregulation within a periodized program. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1627-1636, 2018-The purpose of this investigation was to observe how a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-based autoregulation strategy impacted volume performed by powerlifters. Twelve (26 ± 7 years, n = 9 men, n = 3 women) nationally qualified powerlifters performed the back squat, bench press, and deadlift 3x per week on nonconsecutive days in a session order of hypertrophy, power, and then strength; for 3 weeks...
June 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Tim K S Lui, Sharon M H Tsang, Anthony W L Kwok
This study examined the changes in spinal kinematics and muscle recruitment of the lumbopelvic region associated with prolonged squatting. Eight subjects with chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP) and eight asymptomatic subjects (AS) performed squat-to-stand and reverse movements, before and immediately after 15 min deep-squatting. Within-group and between-group differences in lumbopelvic kinematics and electromyographic activity acquired in lumbar erector spinae (ES), gluteus maximus (GM), and vastus lateralis (VL) were analyzed...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Samuel T Orange, James W Metcalfe, Andreas Liefeith, Phil Marshall, Leigh A Madden, Connor R Fewster, Rebecca V Vince
Orange, ST, Metcalfe, JW, Liefeith, A, Marshall, P, Madden, LA, Fewster, CR, and Vince, RV. Validity and reliability of a wearable inertial sensor to measure velocity and power in the back squat and bench press. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study examined the validity and reliability of a wearable inertial sensor to measure velocity and power in the free-weight back squat and bench press. Twenty-nine youth rugby league players (18 ± 1 years) completed 2 test-retest sessions for the back squat followed by 2 test-retest sessions for the bench press...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Lauren N Siff, Audra J Hill, Samantha J Walters, Ginny Walters, Mark D Walters
OBJECTIVE: The aim oft his study was to compare the effects of 10 common exercises to traditional pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions (Kegel) on levator hiatus (LH) area and PFM length and strength. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 15 healthy postpartum women. Ten exercises were studied. These were common variations of leg, core, and back exercises used in yoga, Pilates, strength training, and physical therapy. Each participant performed all 10 exercises at a single visit in 2 examination settings: transperineal ultrasound and perineometry...
May 2, 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Juan H Lougedo, Manuel V Garnacho-Castaño, Pablo Veiga-Herreros, María Del Carmen Lozano-Estevan, Pablo García-Fernández, Fernando de Jesús, Jesús Guodemar-Pérez, Alejandro F San Juan, Raúl Domínguez
Background: β-Alanine (BA) is a non-essential amino acid that has been shown to enhance exercise performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if BA supplementation improved the adaptive response to five weeks of a resistance training program. Methods: Thirty healthy, strength-trained individuals were randomly assigned to the experimental groups placebo (PLA) or BA. Over 5 weeks of strength training, subjects in BA took 6.4 g/day of BA as 8 × 800 mg doses each at least 1...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Robert G Lockie, Tricia M Liu, Alyssa A Stage, Adrina Lazar, Dominic V Giuliano, Jillian M Hurley, Ibett A Torne, Megan D Beiley, Samantha A Birmingham-Babauta, John J Stokes, Fabrice G Risso, DeShaun L Davis, Matthew R Moreno, Ashley J Orjalo
Lockie, RG, Liu, TM, Stage, AA, Lazar, A, Giuliano, DV, Hurley, JM, Torne, IA, Beiley, MD, Birmingham-Babauta, SA, Stokes, JJ, Risso, FG, Davis, DL, Moreno, MR, and Orjalo, AJ. Assessing repeated-sprint ability in Division I collegiate women soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Repeated-sprint ability (RSA) is a key component of soccer, and is the capacity to repeatedly produce near-maximal to maximal sprints with short recovery periods. Repeated-sprint ability has received little analysis in collegiate women soccer players...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Alasdair Strokosch, Loic Louit, Laurent Seitz, Richard Clarke, Jonathan D Hughes
This study investigated the efficacy of deadlifts and box squats, with a combination of traditional and accommodating resistance, as a potentiating (PAP) stimulus of standing broad jumps (SBJ) in a multiple set contrast protocol. Twelve professional rugby league players (21.4 ± 2.5yrs; 181.3 ± 8.3cm, 91.9 ± 8.8kg; 1RM back squat/BM 1.59 ± 0.21; 1RM deadlift/BM 2.11 ± 0.25; ≥3 years resistance training experience) performed baseline SBJ before a contrast PAP protocol involving 2 repetitions of 85% 1RM box squat or deadlifts, loaded with a combination of traditional barbell weight (70% 1RM) and elastic band resistance (~15% 1RM), followed by two SBJs...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
John A Korak, Max R Paquette, Dana K Fuller, Jennifer L Caputo, John M Coons
PURPOSE: Rest-pause (4 s unloaded rest between repetitions) single session training effects on lifting volume, and muscle activity via electromyography (EMG) are currently vague in the literature and can benefit strength and conditioning professionals for resistance training program design. This study compared differences in volume lifted and muscle activity between a rest-pause vs. traditional protocol. METHODS: Trained females (N = 13) completed both a rest-pause and traditional squat protocol consisting of four sets to movement failure at 80% pretest 1 repetition maximum load with 2-min rest between sets...
April 11, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Shaun J McLaren, Andrew Smith, Jonathan D Bartlett, Iain R Spears, Matthew Weston
We aimed to compare differentiated training loads (TL) between fitness responders and non-responders to an eight-week pre-season training period in a squad of thirty-five professional rugby union players. Differential TL were calculated by multiplying player's perceptions of breathlessness (sRPE-B) and leg muscle exertion (sRPE-L) with training duration for each completed session. Performance-based fitness measures included the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YYIRTL1), 10-, 20-, and 30-m linear sprint times, countermovement jump height (CMJ) and predicted one-repetition maximum back squat (P1RM Squat)...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
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