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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472733/androgen-interacts-with-exercise-through-the-mtor-pathway-to-induce-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#1
Fanxing Zeng, Hua Zhao, Jingwen Liao
This study was designed to investigate the effects of exogenous androgen and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling during the process. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham operation and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implantation groups with subgroups subjected to sedentary conditions or resistance exercise (SHAM+SED, SHAM+EX, DHT+SED, and DHT+EX). The experimental procedure lasted for 10 days. The mRNA expression of androgen receptor (AR) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC), as well as the phosphorylation statuses of AR, mTOR, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K ), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) were determined in the white gastrocnemius muscle...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465427/dihydrotestosterone-and-cancer-risk
#2
Yi X Chan, Bu B Yeap
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Androgens have been implicated in prostate growth; however, the role of androgens in prostate cancer development is not clear. Furthermore, studies suggest a role for androgens in female-hormone-dependent cancers and common nonhormone dependent cancers. This study aims to review key studies and more recent studies of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological studies are reassuring as they have not associated endogenous androgens with prostate cancer risk...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455953/the-comprehensive-characterization-of-adrenocortical-steroidogenesis-using-two-dimensional-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
Gellért Karvaly, Krisztián Kovács, Katalin Mészáros, Ibolya Kocsis, Attila Patócs, Barna Vásárhelyi
The perturbation of the homeostasis of adrenocortical steroids plays a fundamental role in several pathological conditions. Currently, only a few of the substances involved in steroidogenesis are routinely analysed in clinical laboratories for the diagnosis of these conditions. Recently, interest has grown over the development of clinical assays of endogenous steroids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, no approaches have assessed the adrenocortical steroidogenesis comprehensively...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447628/sexual-side-effects-of-5-%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-finasteride-and-dutasteride-a-comprehensive-review
#4
Raymond M Fertig, A Caresse Gamret, Evan Darwin, Sudeep Gaudi
The 5-α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride are frequently used in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and benign prostatichyperplasia. These drugs are effective at reducing levels of dihydrotestosterone, the primary androgen responsible for the pathogenesis of both these conditions. However, finasteride and dutasteride have also been shown to produce an increase in the incidence of sexual dysfunction, namely, impotence, decreased libido, and ejaculation disorder. The purpose of this study is to review the existing medical literature with regard to the sexual side effects of 5-α-reductase inhibitor therapy...
November 11, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444261/selective-androgen-receptor-modulator-s42-suppresses-prostate-cancer-cell-proliferation
#5
Takako Kawanami, Tomoko Tanaka, Yuriko Hamaguchi, Takashi Nomiyama, Hajime Nawata, Tosihiko Yanase
We previously identified a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM), S42, which does not stimulate prostate growth but has a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism. In the prostate cancer (PC) cell line LNCaP, S42 did not induce androgen receptor (AR) transactivation but antagonized 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced AR activation. Next, we investigated whether S42 suppresses the growth of PC cell lines. Basal growth of LNCaP cells was significantly suppressed by treatment with S42 compared with vehicle, as determined by cell counting and BrdU assays...
February 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438723/discovery-and-development-of-odm-204-a-novel-nonsteroidal-compound-for-the-treatment-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-by-blocking-the-androgen-receptor-and-inhibiting-cyp17a1
#6
REVIEW
Riikka Oksala, Anu Moilanen, Reetta Riikonen, Petteri Rummakko, Arja Karjalainen, Mikko Passiniemi, Gerd Wohlfahrt, Päivi Taavitsainen, Chira Malmström, Meri Ramela, Hanna-Maija Metsänkylä, Riikka Huhtaniemi, Pekka J Kallio, Mika Vj Mustonen
We report the discovery of a novel nonsteroidal dual-action compound, ODM-204, that holds promise for treating patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), an advanced form of prostate cancer characterised by high androgen receptor (AR) expression and persistent activation of the AR signaling axis by residual tissue androgens. For ODM-204, has a dual mechanism of action. The compound is anticipated to efficiently dampen androgenic stimuli in the body by inhibiting CYP17A1, the prerequisite enzyme for the formation of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T), and by blocking AR with high affinity and specificity...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436770/a-review-of-the-role-of-estrogen-in-dermal-aging-and-facial-attractiveness-in-women
#7
REVIEW
Edwin D Lephart
Estrogens are known to have protective and favorable influences on skin health; conversely, androgens oppose the actions of estrogens. Estrogen's chemical messages are transmitted via the classical nuclear hormone estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta and the rapid-acting G-coupled membrane estrogen receptor. Androgens [both testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT)] bind the same androgen receptor. Estrogen levels peak in the mid- to late 20s in women and then decline by 50% by 50 years of age and dramatically decrease further after menopause...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435052/simvastatin-in-combination-with-meclofenamic-acid-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-human-prostate-cancer-pc-3-cells-via-an-akr1c3-mechanism
#8
Yoshitaka Sekine, Hiroshi Nakayama, Yoshiyuki Miyazawa, Haruo Kato, Yosuke Furuya, Seiji Arai, Hidekazu Koike, Hiroshi Matsui, Yasuhiro Shibata, Kazuto Ito, Kazuhiro Suzuki
Statins have become of interest in research due to their anticancer effects. However, the exact mechanism of their anticancer properties remains unclear. The authors previously reported that statins decrease intracellular cholesterol levels in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. In de novo androgen synthesis, cholesterol is the primary material and certain enzymes have important roles. The present study aimed to determine whether simvastatin alters the expression of androgen synthesis-associated enzymes in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428960/sesquiterpene-enriched-extract-of-curcuma-aeruginosa-roxb-retards-axillary-hair-growth-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#9
Jukkarin Srivilai, Kanjana Nontakhot, Thanawan Nutuan, Neti Waranuch, Nantaka Khorana, Wudtichai Wisuthiprot, C Norman Scholfield, Katechan Champachaisri, Kornkanok Ingkaninan
BACKGROUND: Sesquiterpenes in Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. inhibit steroid 5α-reductase and dihydrotestosterone production, and reverse androgenic alopecia. This study sought to show that a high sesquiterpene C. aeruginosa extract (CA-ext) retards axillary hair growth in women. METHODS: Thirty women (age 20-52 years) were recruited into a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention for CA-ext treatment, where they were randomly allocated to a left or right armpit group...
February 9, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428674/genes-and-pathways-regulated-by-androgens-in-human-neural-cells-potential-candidates-for-the-male-excess-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Angélique Quartier, Laure Chatrousse, Claire Redin, Céline Keime, Nicolas Haumesser, Anne Maglott-Roth, Laurent Brino, Stéphanie Le Gras, Alexandra Benchoua, Jean-Louis Mandel, Amélie Piton
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to androgens during brain development in male individuals may participate to increase their susceptibility to develop neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. However, little is known about the action of androgens in human neural cells. METHODS: We used human neural stem cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells to investigate targets of androgens. RESULTS: RNA sequencing revealed that treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) leads to subtle but significant changes in the expression of about 200 genes, encoding proteins of extracellular matrix or involved in signal transduction of growth factors (e...
January 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426892/differential-gene-expression-induced-by-anti-cancer-agent-plumbagin-is-mediated-by-androgen-receptor-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#11
Gaelle Rondeau, Parisa Abedinpour, Adrian Chrastina, Jennifer Pelayo, Per Borgstrom, John Welsh
Treatment of mice harboring PTEN-P2 tumors in the prostate or on prostate tissue in vivo with 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, also known as plumbagin, results in tumor regression in castrated mice, but not in intact mice. This suggested that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) production in the testes may prevent cell death due to plumbagin treatment, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. We performed RNA-seq analysis on cells treated with combinations of plumbagin and DHT, and analyzed differential gene expression, to gain insight into the interactions between androgen and plumbgin...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423076/androgen-receptor-let-7a-signaling-regulates-breast-tumor-initiating-cells
#12
Wei Zhang, Xiaozhen Liu, Shan Liu, Ying Qin, Xiaoqi Tian, Fengting Niu, Han Liu, Ning Liu, Yun Niu
Androgen receptor (AR) is an important transcriptional factor, which is frequently expressed in invasive breast cancer and correlates patients' prognosis. Our previous results indicate AR activation may increase let-7a expression in breast cancer cells, while let-7, a tumor suppressor, is reported to inhibit breast tumor-initiating cells (T-IC). The study aims to explore the effects of AR/let-7a signaling on breast T-IC and its regulatory mechanism. The results revealed that the expression of AR was significantly associated with let-7a and CD44+/24-/low especially in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer tissues...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421751/veterinary-drug-17%C3%AE-trenbolone-promotes-the-proliferation-of-human-prostate-cancer-cell-line-through-the-akt-ar-signaling-pathway
#13
Hee-Seok Lee, Da-Woon Jung, Songyi Han, Hui-Seung Kang, Jin-Hyang Suh, Hyun-Suk Oh, Myung-Sil Hwang, Guiim Moon, Yooheon Park, Jin-Hwan Hong, Yong Eui Koo
Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a synthetic anabolic steroidal growth factor that is used for rapid muscle development in cattle. The absorbed TBA is hydrolyzed to the active form, 17β-trenbolone (17 TB; 17β-hydroxy-estra-4,9,11-trien-3-one) in meat and milk products, which can cause adverse health effects in humans. Similar to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 17 TB was reported to exhibit endocrine disrupting effects on animals and humans due to its androgenic effect via binding to the androgen receptor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanism of cell proliferation in prostate cancer (PCa) cells treated with 17 TB...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421333/the-urinary-metabolites-of-dinch%C3%A2-have-an-impact-on-the-activities-of-the-human-nuclear-receptors-er%C3%AE-er%C3%AE-ar-ppar%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE
#14
Anika Engel, Thorsten Buhrke, Stefanie Kasper, Anne-Cathrin Behr, Albert Braeuning, Sönke Jessel, Albrecht Seidel, Wolfgang Völkel, Alfonso Lampen
DINCH® (di-isononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate) is a non-phthalate plasticizer that has been developed to replace phthalate plasticizers such as DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) or DINP (di-isononyl phthalate). DINCH® is metabolized to its corresponding monoester and subsequently to oxidized monoester derivatives. These are conjugated to glucuronic acid and subject to urinary excretion. In contrast to DINCH®, there are almost no toxicological data available regarding its primary and secondary metabolites...
February 5, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411916/neural-androgen-receptors-affect-the-number-of-surviving-new-neurons-in-the-adult-dentate-gyrus-of-male-mice
#15
Ashlyn Swift-Gallant, Paula Duarte-Guterman, Dwayne K Hamson, Muna Ibrahim, D Ashley Monks, Liisa A M Galea
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurs in many mammalian species. In rats, the survival of new neurons within the hippocampus is modulated by androgen action via the androgen receptor (AR), however it is not known whether this holds true in mice. Furthermore, evidence is mixed as to whether androgens act in neural tissue or via peripheral non-neural targets to promote hippocampal neuron survival. We evaluated whether androgen action via AR underlies the survival of new neurons in mice, and asked whether increasing AR selectively in neural tissue would increase new neuron survival in the hippocampus...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408690/female-sexual-attractiveness-and-sex-recognition-in-leopard-gecko-males-are-indiscriminate-courters
#16
Tereza Schořálková, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Lukáš Kubička
The nature and hormonal control of cues used for recognition of sex and reproductive status of conspecifics remain largely unstudied in reptiles. It has been proposed that production of a female attractiveness pheromone controlled by female ovarian hormones (and which is suppressed by male gonadal androgens) is necessary to elicit courtship in males. In the case of leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), it has been suggested that an individual is recognized as a male and attacked unless it produces female-specific stimuli in its skin and that females are attacked, not courted, while shedding...
February 1, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407002/a-hypothetical-pathogenesis-model-for-androgenic-alopecia-clarifying-the-dihydrotestosterone-paradox-and-rate-limiting-recovery-factors
#17
Robert S English
Androgenic alopecia, also known as pattern hair loss, is a chronic progressive condition that affects 80% of men and 50% of women throughout a lifetime. But despite its prevalence and extensive study, a coherent pathology model describing androgenic alopecia's precursors, biological step-processes, and physiological responses does not yet exist. While consensus is that androgenic alopecia is genetic and androgen-mediated by dihydrotestosterone, questions remain regarding dihydrotestosterone's exact role in androgenic alopecia onset...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397924/dehydroepiandrosterone-enhances-decidualization-in-women-of-advanced-reproductive-age
#18
Douglas A Gibson, Ioannis Simitsidellis, Olympia Kelepouri, Hilary O D Critchley, Philippa T K Saunders
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells isolated from women of advanced reproductive age. DESIGN: In vitro study. SETTING: University research institute. PATIENT(S): Proliferative phase primary human endometrial stromal fibroblasts (hESFs) were isolated from women of advanced reproductive age (n = 16; mean age, 44...
February 1, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387405/effect-of-dutasteride-on-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#19
Takeshi Azuma, Yukihide Matayoshi, Yujiro Sato, Yasuhi Nagase
It has previously been demonstrated that the intratumoral generation of the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT), contributes critically to the progression of prostate cancer and its castration-resistant form, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Circulating testosterone is converted into DHT by 5α-reductase (SRD5A). Dutasteride is a dual inhibitor of type I and II SRD5A. The present study assessed the effectiveness of dutasteride in the treatment of CRPC. Between 2010 and 2013, CRPC was diagnosed in 41 patients at the Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center...
January 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386530/identification-of-valid-reference-genes-for-mrna-and-microrna-normalisation-in-prostate-cancer-cell-lines
#20
Hui Zhao, Teng-Fei Ma, Jie Lin, Lin-Lin Liu, Wei-Jie Sun, Li-Xia Guo, Si-Qi Wang, Newton O Otecko, Ya-Ping Zhang
RT-qPCR offers high sensitivity, for accurate interpretations of qPCR results however, normalisation using suitable reference genes is fundamental. Androgens can regulate transcriptional expression including reference gene expression in prostate cancer. In this study, we evaluated ten mRNA and six non-protein coding RNA reference genes in five prostate cell lines under varied dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatments. We validated the effects of DHT-treatments using media containing charcoal-stripped serum prior to DHT stimulation on the test samples by Western blot experiments...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
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