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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936120/sweat-facilitated-amino-acid-losses-in-male-athletes-during-exercise-at-32-34%C3%A2-c
#1
R Hugh Dunstan, Diane L Sparkes, Benjamin J Dascombe, Margaret M Macdonald, Craig A Evans, Christopher J Stevens, Marcus J Crompton, Johan Gottfries, Jesse Franks, Grace Murphy, Ryan Wood, Timothy K Roberts
Sweat contains amino acids and electrolytes derived from plasma and athletes can lose 1-2L of sweat per hour during exercise. Sweat may also contain contributions of amino acids as well as urea, sodium and potassium from the natural moisturizing factors (NMF) produced in the stratum corneum. In preliminary experiments, one participant was tested on three separate occasions to compare sweat composition with surface water washings from the same area of skin to assess contributions from NMF. Two participants performed a 40 minute self-paced cycle session with sweat collected from cleansed skin at regular intervals to assess the contributions to the sweat load from NMF over the period of exercise...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936024/estimation-of-physical-activity-energy-expenditure-during-free-living-from-wrist-accelerometry-in-uk-adults
#2
Tom White, Kate Westgate, Nicholas J Wareham, Soren Brage
BACKGROUND: Wrist-worn accelerometers are emerging as the most common instrument for measuring physical activity in large-scale epidemiological studies, though little is known about the relationship between wrist acceleration and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). METHODS: 1695 UK adults wore two devices simultaneously for six days; a combined sensor and a wrist accelerometer. The combined sensor measured heart rate and trunk acceleration, which was combined with a treadmill test to yield a signal of individually-calibrated PAEE...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936016/a-tool-for-investigating-asthma-and-copd-exacerbations-a-newly-manufactured-and-well-characterised-gmp-wild-type-human-rhinovirus-for-use-in-the-human-viral-challenge-model
#3
Daniel J Fullen, Bryan Murray, Julie Mori, Andrew Catchpole, Daryl W Borley, Edward J Murray, Ganesh Balaratnam, Anthony Gilbert, Alex Mann, Fiona Hughes, Rob Lambkin-Williams
BACKGROUND: Human Rhinovirus infection is an important precursor to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations and the Human Viral Challenge model may provide a powerful tool in studying these and other chronic respiratory diseases. In this study we have reported the production and human characterisation of a new Wild-Type HRV-16 challenge virus produced specifically for this purpose. METHODS AND STOCK DEVELOPMENT: A HRV-16 isolate from an 18 year old experimentally infected healthy female volunteer (University of Virginia Children's Hospital, USA) was obtained with appropriate medical history and consent...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935986/quantifying-adaptive-and-innate-immune-responses-in-hiv-infected-participants-using-a-novel-high-throughput-assay
#4
Michelle K Yong, Paul U Cameron, Tim Spelman, Julian H Elliott, Christopher K Fairley, Jeffrey Boyle, Misato Miyamasu, Sharon R Lewin
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is characterised by persistent immune dysfunction of both the adaptive and innate immune responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate these responses using a novel high throughput assay in healthy controls and HIV-infected individuals prior to and following anti-retroviral treatment (ART). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Whole blood was assessed using the QuantiFERON Monitor® (QFM) assay containing adaptive and innate immunostimulants...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935430/human-runners-exhibit-a-least-variable-gait-speed
#5
Pei Hua Cher, Charles J Worringham, Ian B Stewart
This study characterises the relationship between gait variability and speed in runners using data from trunk accelerations in each axis. Twelve participants of varying fitness ran on the treadmill with three sessions of six randomly ordered self-selected speeds. A VO2max test was conducted on the fourth session. Running gait was tracked with inertial sensors. The occurrence of a mid-range speed was analysed for the anterior-posterior, vertical and lateral directional coefficient of variation (CV) of root mean square (RMS) acceleration data...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935141/evolution-of-a-multi-step-phosphorelay-signal-transduction-system-in-ensifer-recruitment-of-the-sigma-factor-rpon-and-a-novel-enhancer-binding-protein-triggers-acid-activated-gene-expression
#6
Rui Tian, Stephan Heiden, Wan A M Osman, Julie K Ardley, Euan K James, Margaret M Gollagher, Ravi Tiwari, Rekha Seshadri, Nikos C Kyrpides, Wayne G Reeve
Most Ensifer strains are comparatively acid sensitive, compromising their persistence in low pH soils. In the acid-tolerant strain E. medicae WSM419, the acid-activated expression of lpiA is essential for enhancing survival in lethal acidic conditions. Here we characterise a multi-step phosphorelay signal transduction pathway consisting of TcsA, TcrA, FsrR, RpoN and its cognate enhancer binding protein EbpA, which is required for the induction of lpiA and the downstream acvB gene. The fsrR, tcrA, tcsA, and rpoN genes were constitutively expressed, whereas lpiA and acvB were strongly acid-induced...
December 9, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934830/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-causing-blood-stream-infection-at-an-indian-tertiary-care-hospital-prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-characterisation
#7
S Singh, B Dhawan, A Kapil, S K Kabra, A Suri, V Sreenivas, B K Das
INTRODUCTION: Recent years have seen a rise of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from common contaminants to agents of nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI's). Molecular typing and establishing a correlation with antibiotic resistance is essential particularly in countries like India where genotyping studies for drug-resistant CoNS are sparse. METHODS: A prospective study was done over 18 months, wherein 42,693 blood samples were received, and 59 patients with BSI due to CoNS were evaluated...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934828/generation-and-characterisation-of-monoclonal-antibodies-specific-to-avian-influenza-h7n9-haemagglutinin-protein
#8
A Malik, Vva Mallajosyula, N N Mishra, A P Arukha, R Varadarajan, S K Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Emerging virulent strains of influenza virus pose a serious public health threat with potential pandemic consequences. A novel avian influenza virus, H7N9, breached the species barrier from infected domestic poultry to humans in 2013 in China. Since then, it has caused numerous infections in humans with a close contact to poultry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we describe the preliminary characterisation of five murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) developed against recombinant haemagglutinin (rHA) protein of avian H7N9 A/Anhui/1/2013 virus by their Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactivity and binding affinity...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934826/molecular-characterisation-of-panton-valentine-leucocidin-producing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clones-isolated-from-the-main-hospitals-in-taif-ksa
#9
E M Eed, M M Ghonaim, Y M Hussein, S S Al-Shehri, A S Khalifa
INTRODUCTION: Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) is a bicomponent pore-forming cytolytic toxin encoded by the lukF-PV and lukS-PV genes. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) may carry the pvl genes which may be related to increased disease severity. This study aimed to characterise the PVL-producing MRSA recovered from different Taif Hospitals, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The study included 45 hospital-acquired-MRSA (HA-MRSA) and 26 CA-MRSA strains which were identified from 445 S...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934825/molecular-analysis-of-rv0679c-and-rv0180c-genes-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-clinical-isolates-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#10
L Rupa, A Srikantam, S S Lakshmana Rao, U Devi, Ksr Sivasai
CONTEXT: Two novel proteins/genes Rv0679c and Rv0180c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Rv were classified as a hypothetical membrane and transmembrane proteins which might have a role in the invasion. Molecular analysis of these genes in human clinical isolates of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients was not well characterised. AIMS: To assess the molecular diversity of Rv0679c and Rv0180c genes of MTB from clinical isolates of PTB patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: DNA from 97 clinical isolates was extracted and subjected to amplification using selective primers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934820/molecular-characterisation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-during-2014-and-2015-collected-across-india
#11
A K Pragasam, S Vijayakumar, Y D Bakthavatchalam, A Kapil, B K Das, P Ray, V Gautam, S Sistla, S C Parija, K Walia, V C Ohri, S Anandan, B Veeraraghavan
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is of great importance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are important pathogens and emergence of resistance in these have increased the morbidity and mortality rates. This surveillance study was initiated by the Government of India - Indian Council of Medical Research. The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile and to characterise the enzyme mediated antimicrobial resistance such as extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases among multidrug-resistant (MDR) P...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934818/understanding-the-viridians-group-streptococci-are-we-there-yet
#12
REVIEW
T Menon
The viridans group streptococci are a heterogeneous group of organisms which exist as commensals in the oropharynx and the gut. They cause serious infections when they gain entry into sterile sites particularly in patients with predisposing conditions. Classification and species differentiation of these organisms has always been a challenge because of phenotypic differences between strains of the same species. Facklam's typing scheme based on six metabolic properties has been the most widely used and many commercial identification systems are based on it...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934583/bacillus-cereus-induced-food-borne-outbreaks-in-france-2007-to-2014-epidemiology-and-genetic-characterisation
#13
Benjamin Glasset, Sabine Herbin, Laurent Guillier, Sabrina Cadel-Six, Marie-Léone Vignaud, Joel Grout, Sylvie Pairaud, Valérie Michel, Jacques-Antoine Hennekinne, Nalini Ramarao, Anne Brisabois
The aim of this study was to identify and characterise Bacillus cereus from a unique national collection of 564 strains associated with 140 strong-evidence food-borne outbreaks (FBOs) occurring in France during 2007 to 2014. Starchy food and vegetables were the most frequent food vehicles identified; 747 of 911 human cases occurred in institutional catering contexts. Incubation period was significantly shorter for emetic strains compared with diarrhoeal strains A sub-panel of 149 strains strictly associated to 74 FBOs and selected on Coliphage M13-PCR pattern, was studied for detection of the genes encoding cereulide, diarrhoeic toxins (Nhe, Hbl, CytK1 and CytK2) and haemolysin (HlyII), as well as panC phylogenetic classification...
December 1, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933614/antiviral-agents-for-infectious-mononucleosis-glandular-fever
#14
REVIEW
Muireann De Paor, Kirsty O'Brien, Tom Fahey, Susan M Smith
BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinical syndrome, usually caused by the Epstein Barr virus (EPV), characterised by lymphadenopathy, fever and sore throat. Most cases of symptomatic IM occur in older teenagers or young adults. Usually IM is a benign self-limiting illness and requires only symptomatic treatment. However, occasionally the disease course can be complicated or prolonged and lead to decreased productivity in terms of school or work. Antiviral medications have been used to treat IM, but the use of antivirals for IM is controversial...
December 8, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933233/isolation-and-characterisation-of-crude-oil-sludge-degrading-bacteria
#15
Linda U Obi, Harrison I Atagana, Rasheed A Adeleke
BACKGROUND: The use of microorganisms in remediating environmental contaminants such as crude oil sludge has become a promising technique owing to its economy and the fact it is environmentally friendly. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as the major components of oil sludge, are hydrophobic and recalcitrant. An important way of enhancing the rate of PAH desorption is to compost crude oil sludge by incorporating commercial surfactants, thereby making them available for microbial degradation...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933213/molecular-pathology-of-cancer-how-to-communicate-with-disease
#16
REVIEW
Peter Birner, Gerald Prager, Berthold Streubel
: Recent technical advances have brought insights into the biology of cancer in human, establishing it as a disease driven by genetic mutations. Beside inherited family tumour syndromes caused by germline mutations, somatic genetic alterations occur early in tumourigenesis, which accumulate during the progression of the disease and its treatment. Based on these observations, medical oncology has started to enter an era of stratified medicine, where treatment selection is becoming tailored to drugable molecular pathways...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933117/understanding-the-peculiarities-of-the-piezoelectric-effect-in-macro-porous-batio3
#17
James I Roscow, Vitaly Yu Topolov, Christopher R Bowen, John Taylor, Anatoly E Panich
This work demonstrates the potential of porous BaTiO3 for piezoelectric sensor and energy-harvesting applications by manufacture of materials, detailed characterisation and application of new models. Ferroelectric macro-porous BaTiO3 ceramics for piezoelectric applications are manufactured for a range of relative densities, α = 0.30-0.95, using the burned out polymer spheres method. The piezoelectric activity and relevant parameters for specific applications are interpreted by developing two models: a model of a 3-0 composite and a 'composite in composite' model...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932823/hereditary-dentine-dysplasias-terminology-in-the-context-of-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#18
M Chetty, T Roberts, L X G Stephen, P Beighton
Hereditary dentine dysplasias (HDD) such as dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) and dentine dysplasia (DD) are a group of genetic conditions characterised by an abnormal dentine structure due to disturbances in the formation, composition, or organisation of the dentine matrix. Either the primary or both primary and secondary dentition are affected to varying degrees. These disorders result from mutations in the genes encoding the major protein constituents of dentine, notably collagens and phosphoproteins. The clinical and radiological features of the hereditary dentine dysplasias (HDD) are relevant to clinical dentistry, in particular osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) which is a well-known heterogeneous genetic disorder...
December 9, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932546/what-can-a-participatory-approach-to-evaluation-contribute-to-the-field-of-integrated-care
#19
Laura Eyre, Michael Farrelly, Martin Marshall
Better integration of care within the health sector and between health and social care is seen in many countries as an essential way of addressing the enduring problems of dwindling resources, changing demographics and unacceptable variation in quality of care. Current research evidence about the effectiveness of integration efforts supports neither the enthusiasm of those promoting and designing integrated care programmes nor the growing efforts of practitioners attempting to integrate care on the ground. In this paper we present a methodological approach, based on the principles of participatory research, that attempts to address this challenge...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932409/increased-prevalence-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-patients-with-cushing-s-syndrome-compared-to-weight-and-age-matched-controls
#20
Feyzi Gokosmanoglu, Aygül Güzel, Elif Kilic Kan, Hulusi Atmaca
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus and obesity are well-known risk factors associated with obstructive sleep apnea(OSA). Cushing's syndrome (CS) is also characterised by obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, the association between CS and OSA remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the possible associations between CS and OSA in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty female patients with newly diagnosed active CS and 30 age-, gender and body mass index (BMI)-matched female controls were included in this study...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
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