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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145667/planarians-customize-their-stem-cell-responses-following-genotoxic-stress-as-a-function-of-exposure-time-and-regenerative-state
#1
An-Sofie Stevens, Annelies Wouters, Jan-Pieter Ploem, Nicky Pirotte, Andromeda Van Roten, Maxime Willems, Niels Hellings, Carmen Franken, Gudrun Koppen, Tom Artois, Michelle Plusquin, Karen Smeets
Aiming to in vivo characterise the responses of pluripotent stem cells and regenerative tissues to carcinogenic stress, we employed the highly regenerative organism Schmidtea mediterranea. Its broad regenerative capacities are attributable to a large pool of pluripotent stem cells, which are considered key players in the lower vulnerability towards chemically-induced carcinogenesis observed in regenerative organisms. S. mediterranea is, therefore, an ideal model to study pluripotent stem cell responses with stem cells residing in their natural environment...
November 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145612/developmental-and-gut-related-changes-to-microbiomes-of-the-cultured-juvenile-spiny-lobster-panulirus-ornatus
#2
Mei C Ooi, Evan F Goulden, Gregory G Smith, Barbara F Nowak, Andrew R Bridle
With recent technologies making it possible for commercial scale closed life-cycle aquaculture production of spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) comes a strong impetus to further understand aspects of lobster health. The gut microbiome plays a crucial role in host health, affecting growth, digestion, immune responses and pathogen resistance. Herein we characterise and compare gut microbiomes across different developmental stages (6-7 d post-emergence [dpe], 52 dpe and 13 months post-emergence [mpe]) and gut regions (foregut, midgut and hindgut) of cultured P...
November 14, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145505/spontaneous-development-of-epstein-barr-virus-associated-human-lymphomas-in-a-prostate-cancer-xenograft-program
#3
Alberto J Taurozzi, Ramprakash Beekharry, Michelle Wantoch, Marie-Christine Labarthe, Hannah F Walker, Robert I Seed, Matthew Simms, Greta Rodrigues, James Bradford, Geertje van der Horst, Gabri van der Pluijm, Anne T Collins
Prostate cancer research is hampered by the lack of in vivo preclinical models that accurately reflect patient tumour biology and the clinical heterogeneity of human prostate cancer. To overcome these limitations we propagated and characterised a new collection of patient-derived prostate cancer xenografts. Tumour fragments from 147 unsupervised, surgical prostate samples were implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient Rag2-/-γC-/- mice within 24 hours of surgery. Histologic and molecular characterisation of xenografts was compared with patient characteristics, including androgen-deprivation therapy, and exome sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145435/functional-characterisation-of-filamentous-actin-probe-expression-in-neuronal-cells
#4
Shrujna Patel, Sandra Y Y Fok, Holly Stefen, Tamara Tomanić, Esmeralda Parić, Rosanna Herold, Merryn Brettle, Aleksandra Djordjevic, Thomas Fath
Genetically encoded filamentous actin probes, Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin, are used as tools to label the actin cytoskeleton. Recent evidence in several different cell types indicates that these probes can cause changes in filamentous actin dynamics, altering cell morphology and function. Although these probes are commonly used to visualise actin dynamics in neurons, their effects on axonal and dendritic morphology has not been systematically characterised. In this study, we quantitatively analysed the effect of Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin on neuronal morphogenesis in primary hippocampal neurons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145172/volatiles-from-cinnamomum-cassia-buds
#5
Daniel Sandner, Ulrich Krings, Ralf G Berger
While the chemical composition of leaf and stem bark essential oils of the Chinese cinnamon, Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl, has been well investigated, little is known about the volatilom of its buds, which appeared recently on German markets. Soxhlet extracts of the commercial samples were prepared, fractionated using silica gel and characterised by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) for semi-quantification, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for identification and by GC-FID/olfactometry for sensory evaluation...
November 16, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145075/isolation-and-characterisation-of-an-unexpected-byproduct-in-the-regioselective-butane-diacetal-protection-of-%C3%AE-methyl-galactopyranoside
#6
Clément Q Fontenelle, Ramakrishna Kuppala, Mark Light, Bruno Linclau
The regioselective protection of both methyl galactopyranoside anomers at the 2 and 3-positions as the butane diacetal (BDA) is well known. Here we describe the formation of an unexpected byproduct, which mainly occurs when α-methyl galactopyranoside is reacted with 2,3-butanedione under BF3•OEt2 catalysis. The structure of the byproduct, which did not arise from anomerisation to the β-anomer or from BDA formation at the galactopyranoside 3,4-positions, was elucidated by NMR and X-ray crystallographic analysis, and proved to be the expected BDA protected galactopyranoside, but in which the stereochemistry of both its BDA acetal centres are inverted...
November 6, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145061/utility-of-electronic-aki-alerts-in-intensive-care-a-national-multicentre-cohort-study
#7
Jennifer Holmes, Gethin Roberts, John Geen, Alan Dodd, Nicholas M Selby, Andrew Lewington, Gareth Scholey, John D Williams, Aled O Phillips
BACKGROUND: Electronic AKI alerts highlight changes in serum creatinine compared to the patient's own baseline. Our aim was to identify all AKI alerts and describe the relationship between electronic AKI alerts and outcome for AKI treated in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in a national multicentre cohort. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was undertaken between November 2013 and April 2016, collecting data on electronic AKI alerts issued. RESULTS: 10% of 47,090 incident AKI alerts were associated with ICU admission...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145060/familial-cerebral-cavernous-malformation-report-of-a-novel-krit1-mutation-in-a-portuguese-family
#8
Inês Rosário Marques, Francisco Antunes, Nadine Ferreira, Miguel Grunho
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular malformations which may occur in familial forms which have autosomal dominant inheritance. Mutations have been identified in three genes: KRIT1, MGC4607 and PDCD10. We have documented a novel mutation on KRIT1 gene, and the second to be reported in a Portuguese family. This mutation consists in a two nucleotide insertion (c.947_948insAC) within the exon 10, resulting in premature protein termination (p.Leu317Argfs*2). These findings will hopefully contribute to a better clinical, imaging and genetic characterisation of this disease, particularly while trying to identify the factors that influence its treatment and prognosis...
November 10, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145055/urban-stormwater-characterisation-and-nitrogen-composition-from-lot-scale-catchments-new-management-implications
#9
REVIEW
Terry Lucke, Darren Drapper, Andy Hornbuckle
Stormwater runoff from urban areas has been shown to contain a variety of pollutants which are often linked to the specific land use of the catchment. This research program investigated the pollutant concentrations in stormwater runoff from several sites in South-east Queensland (SEQ), in Australia. The study sites are predominantly single development lots, under 7.5hectares (Ha) in area, with a single land-use classification that have been developed with stormwater treatment measures to manage pollutant loads as required by local regulations...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145020/evaluation-of-7-be-and-133-xe-atmospheric-radioactivity-time-series-measured-at-four-ctbto-radionuclide-stations
#10
Stefano Bianchi, Alessandro Longo, Wolfango Plastino, Pavel P Povinec
Time series analysis of (7)Be and (133)Xe atmospheric data and meteorological parameters measured at four CTBTO/IMS radionuclide stations have shown great variability in terms of noise structures, harmonic content, cross-correlation patterns and local Hurst exponent behaviour. This study focused on highlighting and characterising both differences and similarities expected for these radionuclides due to their different physical and chemical characteristics along with their different source terms. Detrended crosscorrelation analysis of different meteorological parameters influencing the residuals time series has shown that for Canadian and American stations the parameters mostly affecting radionuclide concentrations in the air seem to be wind direction and atmospheric pressure...
November 2, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144883/what-was-once-essential-may-become-detrimental-the-mediating-role-of-depersonalization-in-the-relationship-between-childhood-emotional-maltreatment-and-psychological-distress-in-adults
#11
Aoife Ó Laoide, Jonathan Egan, Kristin Osborn
Depersonalization (DP) is a dissociative phenomenon, characterised by feeling "unreal" or detached from one's own emotions, thoughts and behaviour (APA, 2013). It is considered a defense mechanism, employed in response to overwhelming events, whereby thoughts and emotions are suppressed in order to enhance the individual's' capacity to function in traumatic environments. DP has been found to co-occur with anxiety and depressive disorders and childhood emotional maltreatment (EM) has been identified as an important predisposing factor...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144545/music-therapy-for-depression
#12
REVIEW
Sonja Aalbers, Laura Fusar-Poli, Ruth E Freeman, Marinus Spreen, Johannes Cf Ket, Annemiek C Vink, Anna Maratos, Mike Crawford, Xi-Jing Chen, Christian Gold
BACKGROUND: Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music therapy for depression. OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess effects of music therapy for depression in people of any age compared with treatment as usual (TAU) and psychological, pharmacological, and/or other therapies...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144426/experimental-exploration-of-metal-cable-as-reinforcement-in-3d-printed-concrete
#13
Freek P Bos, Zeeshan Y Ahmed, Evgeniy R Jutinov, Theo A M Salet
The Material Deposition Method (MDM) is enjoying increasing attention as an additive method to create concrete mortar structures characterised by a high degree of form-freedom, a lack of geometrical repetition, and automated construction. Several small-scale structures have been realised around the world, or are under preparation. However, the nature of this construction method is unsuitable for conventional reinforcement methods to achieve ductile failure behaviour. Sometimes, this is solved by combining printing with conventional casting and reinforcing techniques...
November 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144233/a-high-resolution-mrna-expression-time-course-of-embryonic-development-in-zebrafish
#14
Richard J White, John E Collins, Ian M Sealy, Neha Wali, Christopher M Dooley, Zsofia Digby, Derek L Stemple, Daniel N Murphy, Konstantinos Billis, Thibaut Hourlier, Anja Füllgrabe, Matthew P Davis, Anton J Enright, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich
We have produced an mRNA expression time course of zebrafish development across 18 time points from 1 cell to 5 days post-fertilisation sampling individual and pools of embryos. Using poly(A) pulldown stranded RNA-seq and a 3' end transcript counting method we characterise temporal expression profiles of 23,642 genes. We identify temporal and functional transcript co-variance that associates 5024 unnamed genes with distinct developmental time points. Specifically, a class of over 100 previously uncharacterised zinc finger domain containing genes, located on the long arm of chromosome 4, is expressed in a sharp peak during zygotic genome activation...
November 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144166/imaging-assessment-of-acute-ischaemic-stroke-a-review-of-radiological-methods
#15
Aubrey Smith, Chris Rowland Hill
Acute ischaemic stroke is the second largest cause of death worldwide and a cause of major physical and psychological morbidity. Current evidence based treatment includes intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and mechanical thrombectomy (MT), both requiring careful patient selection and to be administered as quickly as possible within a limited time window from symptom onset. Imaging plays a crucial role identifying patients who may benefit from MT or IVT whilst excluding those that maybe harmed. For IVT, imaging must as a minimum exclude haemorrhage, stroke mimics and provide an estimate of non-viable brain...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143963/expression-of-paraoxonase-types-1-2-and-3-in-reproductive-tissues-and-activity-of-paraoxonase-type-1-in-the-serum-and-seminal-plasma-of-bulls
#16
C E R Ferreira, C S Haas, K L Goularte, M T Rovani, F F Cardoso, A Schneider, B G Gasperin, T Lucia
The paraoxonases types 1, 2 and 3 (PON1, PON2 and PON3, respectively) are enzymes that degrade lipid peroxides, preventing oxidative damages relevant for male reproductive function. This study determined the expression of those three paraoxonases in reproductive tissues of bulls and evaluated correlations among the activity of PON1 in the serum and seminal plasma with breeding soundness parameters in bulls. The expression of PON1, PON2 and PON3 was characterised by RT-PCR in samples of testicular parenchyma, vesicular glands and epididymis collected from three slaughtered bulls...
November 16, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143692/non-pharmacological-interventions-for-lewy-body-dementia-a-systematic-review
#17
Michael H Connors, Lena Quinto, Ian McKeith, Henry Brodaty, Louise Allan, Claire Bamford, Alan Thomas, John-Paul Taylor, John T O'Brien
Lewy body dementia (consisting of dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterised by visual hallucinations, fluctuating attention, motor disturbances, falls, and sensitivity to antipsychotics. This combination of features presents challenges for pharmacological management. Given this, we sought to review evidence for non-pharmacological interventions with patients with Lewy body dementia and their carers. Bibliographic databases were searched using a wide range of search terms and no restrictions were placed on study design, language, or clinical setting...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143619/diagnostic-accuracy-of-tests-to-detect-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-meta-analysis
#18
Ali Amini, Olivia Varsaneux, Helen Kelly, Weiming Tang, Wen Chen, Debrah I Boeras, Jane Falconer, Joseph D Tucker, Roger Chou, Azumi Ishizaki, Philippa Easterbrook, Rosanna W Peeling
BACKGROUND: Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is characterised by the persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Expanding HBV diagnosis and treatment programmes into low resource settings will require high quality but inexpensive rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in addition to laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) to detect HBsAg. The purpose of this review is to assess the clinical accuracy of available diagnostic tests to detect HBsAg to inform recommendations on testing strategies in 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143500/-pulmonary-hypertension-and-pregnancy
#19
Eleni Diamanti, David Baud, John-David Aubert, Laurent P Nicod
Pregnancy in the context of pulmonary hypertension is characterised by high mortality for the mother and the foetus and is therefore strongly discouraged ; contraception has to be prescribed to patients in reproductive age. Women who decide to continue their pregnancy should be followed by multidisciplinary teams in specialised centres. A specific treatment should be defined with no delay. In case of clinical deterioration, the early, intravenous administration of prostacyclin should be considered. The ideal time and method of delivery are still disputed...
November 15, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143443/multiscale-characterisation-of-cortical-bone-composition-microstructure-and-nanomechanical-properties-in-experimentally-induced-osteoporosis
#20
Furqan A Shah, Adrian Stoica, Carina Cardemil, Anders Palmquist
Cortical bone plays a vital role in determining overall bone strength. We investigate the structural, compositional, and nanomechanical properties of cortical bone following ovariectomy (OVX) of 12 week old Sprague Dawley rats, since this animal model is frequently employed to evaluate the performance of implantable biomaterials in compromised bone healing conditions. Morphological parameters and material properties of bone in the geometrical centre of the femoral cortex were investigated four and eight weeks post-OVX and in unoperated controls (Ctrl), using X-ray micro-computed tomography, backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
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