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Tanya Moutray, Jennifer R Evans, Noemi Lois, David J Armstrong, Tunde Peto, Augusto Azuara-Blanco
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser photocoagulation has been the gold standard for the treatment of PDR for many years, using regimens evaluated by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jennifer S Evans, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Hubert Buczkowski, Leigh Thorne, Anthony R Fooks, Ashley C Banyard
Lyssaviruses constitute a diverse range of viruses with the ability to cause fatal encephalitis known as rabies. Existing human rabies vaccines and post exposure prophylaxes (PEP) are based on inactivated preparations of, and neutralising antibody preparations directed against, classical rabies viruses, respectively. Whilst these prophylaxes are highly efficient at neutralising and preventing a productive infection with rabies virus, their ability to neutralise other lyssaviruses is thought to be limited. The remaining 15 virus species within the lyssavirus genus have been divided into at least three phylogroups that generally predict vaccine protection...
March 15, 2018: Viruses
Camille Jeunet, Louis Albert, Ferran Argelaguet, Anatole Lecuyer
While the Sense of Agency (SoA) has so far been predominantly characterised in VR as a component of the Sense of Embodiment, other communities (e.g., in psychology or neurosciences) have investigated the SoA from a different perspective proposing complementary theories. Yet, despite the acknowledged potential benefits of catching up with these theories a gap remains. This paper first aims to contribute to fill this gap by introducing a theory according to which the SoA can be divided into two components, the feeling and the judgment of agency, and relies on three principles, namely the principles of priority, exclusivity and consistency...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Victor P M G Rutten, Nicolaas Gey van Pittius, Brendon Naicker, Anita L Michel
Some species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been reported to be opportunistic pathogens of animals and humans. Recently there has been an upsurge in the number of cases of NTM infections, such that some NTM species are now recognized as pathogens of humans and animals. From a veterinary point of view, the major significance of NTM is the cross-reactive immune response they elicit against Mycobacterium bovis antigens, leading to misdiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Four NTM isolates were detected from a bovine nasal swab, soil and water, during an NTM survey in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sulagna Patnaik, Gayatri Swain, K M Parida
Herein, a novel Cu-MoO3 /g-C3 N4 hybrid nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by a two-step strategy of one-pot pyrolysis followed by the impregnation method. The structure, phase, morphology and electronic environment of MoO3 , g-C3 N4 and Cu in the composite were determined by various characterization methods. The oxygen vacancies of MoO3 were ascertained by UV-DRS, Raman, and XPS analysis. The formation of the heterostructure was characterised by electrochemical measurements. The photocatalytic performance of the composite was investigated by the water reduction reaction and the reduction of an important inorganic pollutant, Cr(vi)...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Alessandra Nerviani, Daniele Mauro
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterised by increased mortality secondary to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Despite being common in SLE, traditional cardiovascular risk factors cannot entirely justify such increase in CVD-associated mortality. The endothelium is a key regulator of the vascular homeostasis; lupus-associated persistent systemic inflammation may impair endothelium functionality, thus initiating a cascade of events that, in concert with traditional CVD-risk factors, leads to atherosclerosis development and progression...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Amey Dilip Sonavane, Sanjiv Saigal, Abhishek Kathuria, Narendra S Choudhary, Neeraj Saraf
Extrahepatic syndromes are uncommon manifestations of acute and chronic hepatitis B. The pathogenesis likely involves an aberrant immunologic response to extrahepatic viral proteins. Antiviral therapy reduces the availability of these viral protein antigens and thus halts immune activation. Approximately 1% of all cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are associated with hepatitis B. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a remarkably clinically diverse disorder with distinctive variants characterised by an immune-mediated attack to components of the peripheral nervous system...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Abraham Neelankal John, Ramesh Ram, Fang-Xu Jiang
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global health issue and dedifferentiation plays underlying causes in the pathophysiology of T2D; however, there is a lack of understanding in the mechanism. Dedifferentiation results from the loss of function of pancreatic β-cells alongside a reduction in essential transcription factors under various physiological stressors. Our study aimed to establish db/db as an animal model for dedifferentiation by using RNA sequencing to compare the gene expression profile in islets isolated from wild-type, db/+ and db/db mice, and qPCR was performed to validate those significant genes...
March 14, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Carine Smith
The modern lifestyle is characterised by various factors that cause accelerating ageing by the upregulation of oxidative stress and inflammation-two processes that are inextricably linked in an endless circle of self-propagation. Inflammation in particular is commonly accepted as aetiological factor in many chronic disease states, such as obesity, diabetes and depression. In terms of disease prevention or treatment, interventions aimed at changing dietary and/or exercise habits have had limited success in practise, mostly due to poor long-term compliance...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
John R Apps, Gabriela Carreno, Jose Mario Gonzalez-Meljem, Scott Haston, Romain Guiho, Julie E Cooper, Saba Manshaei, Nital Jani, Annett Hölsken, Benedetta Pettorini, Robert J Beynon, Deborah M Simpson, Helen C Fraser, Ying Hong, Shirleen Hallang, Thomas J Stone, Alex Virasami, Andrew M Donson, David Jones, Kristian Aquilina, Helen Spoudeas, Abhijit R Joshi, Richard Grundy, Lisa C D Storer, Márta Korbonits, David A Hilton, Kyoko Tossell, Selvam Thavaraj, Mark A Ungless, Jesus Gil, Rolf Buslei, Todd Hankinson, Darren Hargrave, Colin Goding, Cynthia L Andoniadou, Paul Brogan, Thomas S Jacques, Hywel J Williams, Juan Pedro Martinez-Barbera
Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas (ACPs) are clinically challenging tumours, the majority of which have activating mutations in CTNNB1. They are histologically complex, showing cystic and solid components, the latter comprised of different morphological cell types (e.g. β-catenin-accumulating cluster cells and palisading epithelium), surrounded by a florid glial reaction with immune cells. Here, we have carried out RNA sequencing on 18 ACP samples and integrated these data with an existing ACP transcriptomic dataset...
March 14, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Rafał Kocyłowski, Iwona Lewicka, Mariusz Grzesiak, Zuzanna Gaj, Anna Sobańska, Joanna Poznaniak, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Joanna Suliburska
PURPOSE: To evaluate the dietary intake of pregnant women and their nutritional status of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu, as the nutritional status of pregnant women is an important factor for the proper progression of a pregnancy and the development and health of the foetus. METHODS: The study was conducted on 108 pregnant women ages 18-42, at 6-32 weeks of gestation. We used a questionnaire and a 24-h recall nutrition interview. Hair samples were taken for testing and the level of each mineral was assessed using atomic absorption spectrometry...
March 14, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Ignacio Jiménez-Morales, Sara Cavaliere, Deborah Jones, Jacques Rozière
Niobium and antimony doped tin oxide loose-tubes decorated with Pt nanoparticles present outstanding mass activity and stability, exceeding those of a reference carbon-based electrocatalyst. Physico-chemical characterisation and in particular X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrate that this observation can be ascribed to the strong metal-support interaction promoting electroactivity and Pt anchoring on doped metal oxide supports.
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sheun Oshinbolu, Rachana Shah, Gary Finka, Mike Molloy, Mark Uden, Daniel G Bracewell
BACKGROUND: A current challenge in bioprocessing is the ability to analyse critical quality attributes such as aggregation without prior purification. This study evaluated the use of fluorescent dyes (Bis-ANS, SYPRO Orange, Thioflavin T and ProteoStat) to characterise mAb aggregates in Chinese hamster ovary clarified cultures. RESULTS: The null and mAb culture supernatants showed an increase in fluorescence intensity over the duration of the culture. The null cultures on day 14 saw a rapid increase in fluorescence intensity; day 10 to day 14, Bis-ANS and Thioflavin T had average increases of 21% and 48%, respectively, whereas ProteoStat and SYPRO Orange showed an average increase of 60%...
March 2018: Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
Huang Guannan, Su Long, Hua Xia, Wang Dong, Zhao Shaozhen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical characteristics and changes in ocular surface cytology of dry eye in patients with systemic autoimmune disease. METHODS: The case-control study was conducted in the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China, from February 2016 to January 2017, and comprised systemic autoimmune disease patients and healthy controls. Schirmer's I test, tear breakup time test, and fluorescein staining were performed on all subjects...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Dimity H Ball, Lamyaa Al-Riyami, William Harnett, Margaret M Harnett
ES-62 is a secreted parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator that exhibits therapeutic potential in allergy by downregulating aberrant MyD88 signalling to normalise the inflammatory phenotype and mast cell responses. IL-33 plays an important role in driving mast cell responses and promoting type-2 allergic inflammation, particularly with respect to asthma, via MyD88-integrated crosstalk amongst the IL-33 receptor (ST2), TLR4 and FcεRI. We have now investigated whether ES-62 targets this pathogenic network by subverting ST2-signalling, specifically by characterising how the functional outcomes of crosstalk amongst ST2, TLR4 and FcεRI are modulated by the worm product in wild type and ST2-deficient mast cells...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Geoffrey Masuyer, Sicai Zhang, Sulyman Barkho, Yi Shen, Linda Henriksson, Sara Košenina, Min Dong, Pål Stenmark
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most potent toxins known and are also used to treat an increasing number of medical disorders. There are seven well-established serotypes (BoNT/A-G), which all act as zinc-dependent endopeptidases targeting specific members of the SNARE proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons. A new toxin serotype, BoNT/X, was recently identified. It cleaves not only the canonical targets, vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMP) 1/2/3 at a unique site, but also has the unique ability to cleave VAMP4/5 and Ykt6...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christina Pfaff, Hans F Ehrnsberger, Maria Flores-Tornero, Brian B Soerensen, Thomas Schubert, Gernot Längst, Joachim Griesenbeck, Stefanie Sprunck, Marion Grasser, Klaus D Grasser
The regulated transport of mRNAs from the cell nucleus to the cytosol is a critical step linking transcript synthesis and processing with translation. However, in plants, only few of the factors that act in the mRNA export pathway have been functionally characterised. Flowering plant genomes encode several members of the ALY protein family, which function as mRNA export factors in other organisms. Arabidopsis thaliana ALY1-4 are commonly detected in root and leaf cells, but are differentially expressed in reproductive tissue...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Maria Oliveira, James Fraser McConnell, Thomas W Maddox, Daniel Sanchez-Masian, Rita Gonçalves
The constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence has been widely used in human neuroimaging. It has been shown to be advantageous in the evaluation of intra-axial and extra-axial cystic abnormalities, arteriovenous and dysraphic malformations and disturbances of cerebrospinal fluid circulation. To assess the utility of this technique in small animals, interpretations based on this sequence were compared with those based on T2-weighted (T2W) sequences in 145 dogs that underwent MRI of the spine for suspected spinal cord disease...
March 14, 2018: Veterinary Record
Ben Warren, Tom Matheson
Insect auditory receivers provide an excellent comparative resource to understand general principles of auditory transduction, but analysis of the electrophysiological properties of the auditory neurons has been hampered by their tiny size and inaccessibility. Here we pioneer patch-clamp recordings from the auditory neurons of Müller-s Organ of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria to characterise dendritic spikes, axonal spikes and the transduction current. We demonstrate that dendritic spikes, elicited by sound stimuli, trigger axonal spikes, and that both types are sodium- and voltage-dependent and blocked by TTX...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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