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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933319/a-metabolic-widget-adjusts-the-phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent-fructose-influx-in-pseudomonas-putida
#1
Max Chavarría, Ángel Goñi-Moreno, Víctor de Lorenzo, Pablo I Nikel
Fructose uptake in the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida occurs through a canonical phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent sugar transport system (PTS(Fru)). The logic of the genetic circuit that rules its functioning is puzzling: the transcription of the fruBKA operon, encoding all the components of PTS(Fru), can escape the repression exerted by the catabolite repressor/activator protein Cra solely in the presence of intracellular fructose-1-P, an agonist formed only when fructose has been already transported...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933316/systemic-therapy-with-oncolytic-myxoma-virus-cures-established-residual-multiple-myeloma-in-mice
#2
Eric Bartee, Mee Y Bartee, Bjarne Bogen, Xue-Zhong Yu
Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignancy of plasma B-cells. Traditional chemotherapeutic regimes often induce initial tumor regression; however, virtually all patients eventually succumb to relapse caused by either reintroduction of disease during autologous transplant or expansion of chemotherapy resistant minimal residual disease. It has been previously demonstrated that an oncolytic virus known as myxoma can completely prevent myeloma relapse caused by reintroduction of malignant cells during autologous transplant...
2016: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933042/the-role-of-stress-and-stress-adaptations-in-determining-the-fate-of-the-bacterial-pathogen-listeria-monocytogenes-in-the-food-chain
#3
REVIEW
Kerrie NicAogáin, Conor P O'Byrne
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a highly adaptable organism that can persist in a wide range of environmental and food-related niches. The consumption of contaminated ready-to-eat foods can cause infections, termed listeriosis, in vulnerable humans, particularly those with weakened immune systems. Although these infections are comparatively rare they are associated with high mortality rates and therefore this pathogen has a significant impact on food safety. L. monocytogenes can adapt to and survive a wide range of stress conditions including low pH, low water activity, and low temperature, which makes it problematic for food producers who rely on these stresses for preservation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932543/members-of-the-zinc-cluster-factor-family-alters-virulence-in-candida-albicans
#4
Luca Issi, Rhys A Farrer, Kelly Pastor, Benjamin Landry, Toni Delorey, George W Bell, Dawn A Thompson, Christina A Cuomo, Reeta P Rao
Virtually all humans are colonized with Candida albicans However, in immunocompromised individuals this benign commensal organism becomes a serious, life-threatening pathogen. Here, we describe and analyze the regulatory networks that modulate innate responses in the host niches. We identified Zcf15 and Zcf29, two Zinc Cluster transcription Factors (ZCF) that are required for C. albicans virulence. Previous sequence analysis of clinical C. albicans isolates from immunocompromised patients indicates that both ZCF genes diverged during clonal evolution...
December 7, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932462/salmonella-co-opts-host-cell-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-for-intracellular-growth
#5
Vikash Singh, Johannes Finke-Isami, Amanda C Hopper-Chidlaw, Peter Schwerk, Arthur Thompson, Karsten Tedin
Salmonella enterica are invasive, intracellular pathogens which replicate within a membrane-bound compartment inside infected host cells known as the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). How Salmonella obtains nutrients for growth within this intracellular niche despite the apparent isolation is currently not known. Recent studies have indicated the importance of glucose and related carbon sources for tissue colonisation and intracellular proliferation within host cells during Salmonella infections, although none have been found to be essential...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932256/a-panorama-of-bacterial-inulinases-production-purification-characterization-and-industrial-applications
#6
REVIEW
Ram Sarup Singh, Kanika Chauhan, John F Kennedy
Inulinases are important hydrolysing enzymes which specifically act on β-2, 1 linkages of inulin to produce fructose or fructooligosaccharides. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria are the potent microbial sources of inulinases. The data on bacterial inulinases is scarce as compared to other microbial sources. Inulinases yield from bacteria is very less as compared to fungal and yeast sources of inulinases. Submerged fermentation (SmF) is the method of choice for the production of inulinases from bacterial sources. Moreover, inulin is a potent substrate for the production of inulinases in SmF...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930998/fate-and-ecotoxicological-impact-of-new-generation-herbicides-from-the-triketone-family-an-overview-to-assess-the-environmental-risks
#7
REVIEW
E Dumas, M Giraudo, E Goujon, M Halma, E Knhili, M Stauffert, I Batisson, P Besse-Hoggan, J Bohatier, P Bouchard, H Celle-Jeanton, M Costa Gomes, F Delbac, C Forano, P Goupil, N Guix, P Husson, G Ledoigt, C Mallet, C Mousty, V Prévot, C Richard, S Sarraute
Triketones, derived chemically from a natural phytotoxin (leptospermone), are a good example of allelochemicals as lead molecules for the development of new herbicides. Targeting a new and key enzyme involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, these latest-generation herbicides (sulcotrione, mesotrione and tembotrione) were designed to be eco-friendly and commercialized fifteen-twenty years ago. The mechanisms controlling their fate in different ecological niches as well as their toxicity and impact on different organisms or ecosystems are still under investigation...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930674/climate-related-local-extinctions-are-already-widespread-among-plant-and-animal-species
#8
John J Wiens
Current climate change may be a major threat to global biodiversity, but the extent of species loss will depend on the details of how species respond to changing climates. For example, if most species can undergo rapid change in their climatic niches, then extinctions may be limited. Numerous studies have now documented shifts in the geographic ranges of species that were inferred to be related to climate change, especially shifts towards higher mean elevations and latitudes. Many of these studies contain valuable data on extinctions of local populations that have not yet been thoroughly explored...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930326/cell-size-and-growth-regulation-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-apical-stem-cell-niche
#9
Lisa Willis, Yassin Refahi, Raymond Wightman, Benoit Landrein, José Teles, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Henrik Jönsson
Cell size and growth kinetics are fundamental cellular properties with important physiological implications. Classical studies on yeast, and recently on bacteria, have identified rules for cell size regulation in single cells, but in the more complex environment of multicellular tissues, data have been lacking. In this study, to characterize cell size and growth regulation in a multicellular context, we developed a 4D imaging pipeline and applied it to track and quantify epidermal cells over 3-4 d in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristems...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930309/sox2-progenitors-in-sharks-link-taste-development-with-the-evolution-of-regenerative-teeth-from-denticles
#10
Kyle J Martin, Liam J Rasch, Rory L Cooper, Brian D Metscher, Zerina Johanson, Gareth J Fraser
Teeth and denticles belong to a specialized class of mineralizing epithelial appendages called odontodes. Although homology of oral teeth in jawed vertebrates is well supported, the evolutionary origin of teeth and their relationship with other odontode types is less clear. We compared the cellular and molecular mechanisms directing development of teeth and skin denticles in sharks, where both odontode types are retained. We show that teeth and denticles are deeply homologous developmental modules with equivalent underlying odontode gene regulatory networks (GRNs)...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929130/identification-of-a-cd133-cd55-population-functions-as-a-fetal-common-skeletal-progenitor
#11
Lihong Weng, Xingbin Hu, Bijender Kumar, Mayra Garcia, Ivan Todorov, Xiaoman Jung, Guido Marcucci, Stephen J Forman, Ching-Cheng Chen
In this study, we identified a CD105+CD90.1-CD133-CD55- (CD133-CD55-) population in the fetal skeletal element that can generate bone and bone marrow. Besides osteoblasts and chondrocytes, the CD133-CD55- common progenitors can give rise to marrow reticular stromal cells and perivascular mesenchymal progenitors suggesting they function as the fetal common skeletal progenitor. Suppression of CXCL12 and Kitl expression in CD133-CD55- common progenitors severely disrupted the BM niche formation but not bone generation...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929090/glacial-refugia-and-the-prediction-of-future-habitat-coverage-of-the-south-american-lichen-species-ochrolechia-austroamericana
#12
Martin Kukwa, Marta Kolanowska
The biogeographic history of lichenized fungi remains unrevealed because those organisms rarely fossilize due to their delicate, often tiny and quickly rotting thalli. Also the ecology and factors limiting occurrence of numerous taxa, especially those restricted in their distribution to tropical areas are poorly recognized. The aim of this study was to determine localization of glacial refugia of South American Ochrolechia austroamericana and to estimate the future changes in the coverage of its habitats using ecological niche modeling tools...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929063/a-large-carnivorous-mammal-from-the-late-cretaceous-and-the-north-american-origin-of-marsupials
#13
Gregory P Wilson, Eric G Ekdale, John W Hoganson, Jonathan J Calede, Abby Vander Linden
Marsupial mammal relatives (stem metatherians) from the Mesozoic Era (252-66 million years ago) are mostly known from isolated teeth and fragmentary jaws. Here we report on the first near-complete skull remains of a North American Late Cretaceous metatherian, the stagodontid Didelphodon vorax. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that marsupials or their closest relatives evolved in North America, as part of a Late Cretaceous diversification of metatherians, and later dispersed to South America. In addition to being the largest known Mesozoic therian mammal (node-based clade of eutherians and metatherians), Didelphodon vorax has a high estimated bite force and other craniomandibular and dental features that suggest it is the earliest known therian to invade a durophagous predator-scavenger niche...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928043/understanding-the-value-of-plant-diversity-for-ecosystem-functioning-through-niche-theory
#14
REVIEW
Lindsay A Turnbull, Forest Isbell, Drew W Purves, Michel Loreau, Andy Hector
Biodiversity experiments have generated robust empirical results supporting the hypothesis that ecosystems function better when they contain more species. Given that ecosystems provide services that are valued by humans, this inevitably suggests that the loss of species from natural ecosystems could diminish their value. This raises two important questions. First, will experimental results translate into the real world, where species are being lost at an alarming rate? And second, what are the benefits and pitfalls of such valuation exercises? We argue that the empirical results obtained in experiments are entirely consistent with well-established theories of species coexistence...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928035/quantifying-species-contributions-to-ecosystem-processes-a-global-assessment-of-functional-trait-and-phylogenetic-metrics-across-avian-seed-dispersal-networks
#15
Alexander L Pigot, Tom Bregman, Catherine Sheard, Benjamin Daly, Rampal S Etienne, Joseph A Tobias
Quantifying the role of biodiversity in ecosystems not only requires understanding the links between species and the ecological functions and services they provide, but also how these factors relate to measurable indices, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity. However, these relationships remain poorly understood, especially for heterotrophic organisms within complex ecological networks. Here, we assemble data on avian traits across a global sample of mutualistic plant-frugivore networks to critically assess how the functional roles of frugivores are associated with their intrinsic traits, as well as their evolutionary and functional distinctiveness...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928009/influence-of-plasma-cell-niche-factors-on-the-recruitment-and-maintenance-of-irf4hi-plasma-cells-and-plasmablasts-in-vaccinated-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques-with-low-and-high-viremia
#16
Julia M Shaw, Leia K Miller-Novak, Venkatramanan Mohanram, Katherine McKinnon, Thorsten Demberg, Diego A Vargas-Inchaustegui, David Venzon, Marjorie Robert-Guroff
: In a recent study, we found protection following SIV exposure correlated with rectal plasma cell frequency in vaccinated female rhesus macaques. We sought to determine if these same macaques maintained high mucosal plasma cell frequencies post-infection and if this translated to reduced viremia. Although delayed SIV acquisition did not predict subsequent viral control, alterations existed in the distribution of plasma cells and plasmablasts between macaques that exhibited high or low viremia...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927847/preserved-seminiferous-tubule-integrity-with-spermatogonial-survival-and-induction-of-sertoli-and-leydig-cell-maturation-after-long-term-organotypic-culture-of-prepubertal-human-testicular-tissue
#17
F de Michele, J Poels, L Weerens, C Petit, Z Evrard, J Ambroise, D Gruson, C Wyns
STUDY QUESTION: Is an organotypic culture system able to provide the appropriate testicular microenvironment for in-vitro maturation of human immature testicular tissue (ITT)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our organotypic culture system provided a microenvironment capable of preserving seminiferous tubule (ST) integrity and Leydig cell (LC) functionality and inducing Sertoli cell (SC) maturation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cryopreservation of human ITT is a well-established strategy to preserve fertility in prepubertal boys affected by cancer, with a view for obtaining sperm...
December 6, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927191/somatostatin-signaling-via-sstr1-contributes-to-the-quiescence-of-colon-cancer-stem-cells
#18
Shirin R Modarai, Lynn M Opdenaker, Vignesh Viswanathan, Jeremy Z Fields, Bruce M Boman
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine cells (NECs) reside adjacent to colonic stem cells (SCs) in the crypt stem cell (SC) niche, but how NECs are involved in regulation of SCs is unclear. We investigated NECs expressing somatostatin (SST) and somatostatin receptor type 1 (SSTR1) because SST inhibits intestinal proliferation. HYPOTHESIS: SSTR1 cells maintain SCs in a quiescent state, and aberrant SST signaling contributes to SC overpopulation in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: The proportion of SCs to NECs cells was quantified, by flow cytometry, in CRC cell lines and primary normal/tumor tissues based on cellular ALDH and SSTR1 levels, respectively...
December 7, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927023/novel-strategies-for-improving-hematopoietic-reconstruction-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-or-intensive-chemotherapy
#19
Frédéric Baron, Arnon Nagler
High-dose conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) as well as intensive poly-chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induce prolonged periods of neutropenia. The duration of the neutropenia is particularly long following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). Areas covered: After briefly reviewing the impact of hematopoietic growth factors administration to hasten hematologic reconstitution after allo-HCT or intensive AML chemotherapy, this article summarizes recent approaches that have been investigated to prompt hematologic reconstruction after UCBT or intensive AML chemotherapy...
December 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926430/insights-in-waste-management-bioprocesses-using-genomic-tools
#20
H J Purohit, A Kapley, A Khardenavis, A Qureshi, N A Dafale
Microbial capacities drive waste stabilization and resource recovery in environmental friendly processes. Depending on the composition of waste, a stress-mediated selection process ensures a scenario that generates a specific enrichment of microbial community. These communities dynamically change over a period of time while keeping the performance through the required utilization capacities. Depending on the environmental conditions, these communities select the appropriate partners so as to maintain the desired functional capacities...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
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