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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645187/salmonella-virulence-plasmid-pathogenesis-and-ecology
#1
Claudia Silva, José Luis Puente, Edmundo Calva
A current view on the role of the Salmonella virulence plasmid in the pathogenesis of animal and human hosts is discussed; including the possible relevance in secondary ecological niches. Various strategies towards further studies in this respect are proposed within the One Health Concept.
June 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644919/signaling-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-intestinal-stem-cells-and-progenitors-insight-into-crypt-homeostasis-plasticity-and-niches
#2
REVIEW
Ryan J Smith, Abilasha Rao-Bhatia, Tae-Hee Kim
The rapid turnover of intestinal epithelial cells is maintained by a small number of stem cells located in pocket-like gland structures called crypts. While our understanding of the identity and function of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) has rapidly progressed, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation in crypt stem cell and progenitor pools remains an active field of investigation. Surrounded by various types of cells in the stroma, crypt progenitors display high levels of plasticity, harboring the ability to interconvert in the face of epithelial damage...
June 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644872/helicobacter-pylori-gene-silencing-in-vivo-demonstrates-urease-is-essential-for-chronic-infection
#3
Aleksandra W Debowski, Senta M Walton, Eng-Guan Chua, Alfred Chin-Yen Tay, Tingting Liao, Binit Lamichhane, Robyn Himbeck, Keith A Stubbs, Barry J Marshall, Alma Fulurija, Mohammed Benghezal
Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic active gastritis that after many years of infection can develop into peptic ulceration or gastric adenocarcinoma. The bacterium is highly adapted to surviving in the gastric environment and a key adaptation is the virulence factor urease. Although widely postulated, the requirement of urease expression for persistent infection has not been elucidated experimentally as conventional urease knockout mutants are incapable of colonization. To overcome this constraint, conditional H...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644814/learning-multimodal-parameters-a-bare-bones-niching-differential-evolution-approach
#4
Yue-Jiao Gong, Jun Zhang, Yicong Zhou
Most learning methods contain optimization as a substep, where the nondifferentiability and multimodality of objectives push forward the interplay of evolutionary optimization algorithms and machine learning models. The recently emerged evolutionary multimodal optimization (MMOP) technique enables the learning of diverse sets of effective parameters for the models simultaneously, providing new opportunities to the applications requiring both accuracy and diversity, such as ensemble, interactive, and interpretive learning...
June 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644413/clonal-diversity-of-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-environmental-human-and-food-samples
#5
Elena Ojer-Usoz, David González, Ana Isabel Vitas
This study presents a comprehensive approach of a clonal diversity analysis of 448 Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolated from environmental, human and food samples in Spain. The phenotypic confirmation of ESBL production was performed by disc diffusion and microdilution methods, while Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing were used for the molecular characterization of β-lactamase genes (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA). Clonal relationship of isolates was determined by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644214/the-future-of-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffolds-niche-or-workhorse-devices
#6
Rony Lahoud, Stephen Ellis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644056/plasmonic-photothermal-therapy-of-atherosclerosis-with-nanoparticles-long-term-outcomes-and-safety-in-nanom-fim-trial
#7
Alexander N Kharlamov, John A Feinstein, John A Cramer, John A Boothroyd, Ekaterina V Shishkina, Vladimir Shur
AIM: The safety options in nanomedicine raise an issue of the optimal niche at the real-world clinical practice. METHODS: This is an observational prospective cohort analysis of the 5-year clinical outcomes at the intention-to-treat population (nano vs ferro vs stenting; n = 180) of NANOM first-in-man trial (NCT01270139). RESULTS: Mortality (6 vs 9 vs 10 cases of cardiac death in groups, p < 0.05), major adverse cardiovascular events (14...
June 23, 2017: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644007/cyclotides-as-tools-in-chemical-biology
#8
Simon J de Veer, Joachim Weidmann, David J Craik
Among the various molecules that plants produce for defense against pests and pathogens, cyclotides stand out as exceptionally stable and structurally unique. These ribosomally synthesized peptides are around 30 amino acids in size, and are stabilized by a head-to-tail cyclic peptide backbone and three disulfide bonds that form a cystine knot. They occur in certain plants of the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae families, with an individual plant producing up to hundreds of different cyclotides...
June 23, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643622/lung-microbiota-and-its-impact-on-the-mucosal-immune-phenotype
#9
Benjamin G Wu, Leopoldo N Segal
The use of culture-independent techniques has allowed us to appreciate that the upper and lower respiratory tract contain a diverse community of microbes in health and disease. Research has only recently explored the effects of the microbiome on the host immune response. The exposure of the human body to the bacterial environment is an important factor for immunological development; thus, the interaction between the microbiome and its host is critical to understanding the pathogenesis of disease. In this article, we discuss the mechanisms that determine the composition of the airway microbiome and its effects on the host immune response...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642679/assessment-of-ipsilateral-efferent-effects-in-human-via-ecochg
#10
Eric Verschooten, Elizabeth A Strickland, Nicolas Verhaert, Philip X Joris
Development of electrophysiological means to assess the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system in humans is important to further our understanding of the function of that system and for the refinement and validation of psychoacoustical and otoacoustic emission methods which are thought to probe the MOC. Based on measurements in anesthetized animals it has been hypothesized that the MOC-reflex (MOCR) can enhance the response to signals in noise, and several lines of evidence support such a role in humans. A difficulty in these studies is the isolation of efferent effects...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642678/a-cold-blooded-view-on-adult-neurogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Anabel R Simões, Christa Rhiner
During brain development, highly complex and interconnected neural circuits are established. This intricate wiring needs to be robust to faithfully perform adult brain function throughout life, but at the same time offer room for plasticity to integrate new information. In the mammalian brain, adult-born neurons are produced in restricted niches harboring neural stem cells. In the fruit fly Drosophila, low-level adult neurogenesis arising from a dispersed population of neural progenitors has recently been detected in the optic lobes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642593/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-regulates-the-nascent-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche-by-promoting-gluconeogenesis
#12
C-Y Zhang, H-M Yin, H Wang, D Su, Y Xia, L-F Yan, B Fang, W Liu, Y-M Wang, A-H Gu, Y Zhou
The understanding of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) emergence is important to generate HSCs from pluripotent precursors. However, integrated signaling network that regulates the niche of nascent HSCs remains unclear. Herein, we uncovered a novel role of TGF-β1 in the metabolic niche of HSC emergence using the tgf-β1b(-/-) zebrafish. Our findings first showed that Tgf-β1 transcripts were enriched in the nascent HSCs. Loss of tgf-β1b caused a decrease of nascent HSCs within the aorta-gonad-mesonephros. Moreover, tgf-β1b(+) cells were runx1(+) HSCs and underwent an endothelial-to-hematopoietic-transition process...
June 23, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641554/future-of-spermatogonial-stem-cell-culture-application-of-nanofiber-scaffolds
#13
Azar Shams, Neda Eslahi, Mansoureh Movahedin, Fariborz Izadyar, Hamidreza Asgari, Morteza Koruji
The spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are unique in mammals because they can transmit genetic information from generation to generation and it is of significant importance. In testes, Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cells, Leydig cells and other interstitial cells contribute to the spermatogonial stem cell "niche". So, creation of niche in in vitro condition that mimics in vivo environment is essential to maintain functional characteristic of SSCs. Nanofiber matrices mimic the architecture and size scale of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM)...
June 22, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641288/the-crista-fenestra-and-its-impact-on-the-surgical-approach-to-the-scala-tympani-during-cochlear-implantation
#14
Roberto D Angeli, Joel Lavinsky, Enio T Setogutti, Luiz Lavinsky
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to describe the dimensions of the crista fenestra and determine its presence by means of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) for the purpose of cochlear implantation via the round window approach. METHODS: A series of 10 adult human temporal bones underwent high-resolution CT scanning and were further dissected for microscopic study of the round window niche. RESULTS: In all of the specimens, the round window membrane was fully visualized after the complete removal of bony overhangs...
June 23, 2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640953/overview-of-transgenic-mouse-models-of-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-mpns
#15
Andrew Dunbar, Abbas Nazir, Ross Levine
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a class of hematologic diseases characterized by aberrant proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages and progressive bone marrow fibrosis. In 2005, seminal work by multiple groups identified the JAK2V617F mutation in a significant fraction of MPN patients. Since that time, murine models of JAK2V617F have greatly enhanced the understanding of the role of aberrant JAK-STAT signaling in MPN pathogenesis and have provided an in vivo pre-clinical platform that can be used to develop novel therapies...
June 22, 2017: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640929/modulation-of-tumor-microenvironment-by-chemopreventive-natural-products
#16
REVIEW
Sin-Aye Park, Young-Joon Surh
The tumor microenvironment provides a niche in which cancer cells and their surrounding stromal cells reside and in which their interactions occur. The cross talk between cancer and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment promotes many biological processes to support cancer cell growth, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Recently, not only cancer cells but also multiple types of surrounding stromal cells, including endothelial cells, immune cells, and fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment, have been recognized to be attractive targets for reducing resistance to anticancer therapy and tumor recurrence...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640881/t3ss-effector-vopl-inhibits-the-host-ros-response-promoting-the-intracellular-survival-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#17
Marcela de Souza Santos, Dor Salomon, Kim Orth
The production of antimicrobial reactive oxygen species by the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex is an important mechanism for control of invading pathogens. Herein, we show that the gastrointestinal pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus counteracts reactive oxygen species (ROS) production using the Type III Secretion System 2 (T3SS2) effector VopL. In the absence of VopL, intracellular V. parahaemolyticus undergoes ROS-dependent filamentation, with concurrent limited growth. During infection, VopL assembles actin into non-functional filaments resulting in a dysfunctional actin cytoskeleton that can no longer mediate the assembly of the NADPH oxidase at the cell membrane, thereby limiting ROS production...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639518/selective-laser-melting-enabled-electrospinning-introducing-complexity-within-electrospun-membranes
#18
Thomas E Paterson, Selina N Beal, Martin E Santocildes-Romero, Alfred T Sidambe, Paul V Hatton, Ilida Ortega Asencio
Additive manufacturing technologies enable the creation of very precise and well-defined structures that can mimic hierarchical features of natural tissues. In this article, we describe the development of a manufacturing technology platform to produce innovative biodegradable membranes that are enhanced with controlled microenvironments produced via a combination of selective laser melting techniques and conventional electrospinning. This work underpins the manufacture of a new generation of biomaterial devices that have significant potential for use as both basic research tools and components of therapeutic implants...
June 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639375/challenges-in-regenerating-the-diabetic-heart-a-comprehensive-review
#19
REVIEW
Venkata R Satthenapalli, Regis R Lamberts, Rajesh Katare
Stem cell therapy is one of the promising regenerative strategies developed to improve cardiac function in patients with ischemic heart diseases (IHD). However, this approach is limited in IHD patients with diabetes due to a progressive decline in the regenerative capacity of stem cells. This decline is mainly attributed to the metabolic memory incurred by diabetes on stem cell niche and their systemic cues. Understanding the molecular pathways involved in the diabetes-induced deterioration of stem cell function will be critical for developing new cardiac regeneration therapies...
June 22, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639326/bone-marrow-hematons-an-access-point-to-the-human-hematopoietic-niche
#20
Alexandre Janel, Juliette Berger, Céline Bourgne, Richard Lemal, Nathalie Boiret-Dupré, Frédérique Dubois-Galopin, Pierre Déchelotte, Charlotte Bothorel, Eric Hermet, Sara Chabi, Jacques-Olivier Bay, Céline Lambert, Bruno Pereira, Françoise Pflumio, Rima Haddad, Marc G Berger
To understand the complex interactions between hematopoietic stem cells and the bone marrow niche, a human experimental model is needed. Our hypothesis is that hematons are an appropriate ex vivo model of human bone marrow. We analyzed the hierarchical hematopoietic cell content and the tissue organization of single hematons from healthy donors. Most (>90%) hematons contained precursors of all cell lineages, myeloid progenitors, and LTC-ICs without preferential commitment. Approximately half of the hematons could generate significant levels of lympho-myeloid hematopoiesis after transplantation in an NSG mouse model, despite the low absolute numbers of transplanted CD34(+) cells...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
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