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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431105/extinction-vs-rapid-radiation-the-juxtaposed-evolutionary-histories-of-coelotine-spiders-support-the-eocene-oligocene-orogenesis-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#1
Zhe Zhao, Shuqiang Li
Evolutionary biology has long been concerned with how changing environments affect and drive the spatiotemporal development of organisms. Coelotine spiders (Agelenidae: Coelotinae) are common species in the temperate and subtropical areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Their long evolutionary history and the extremely imbalanced distribution of species richness suggest that Eurasian environments, especially since the Cenozoic, are the drivers of their diversification. We use phylogenetics, molecular dating, ancestral area reconstructions, diversity, and ecological niche analyses to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of 286 coelotine species from throughout the region...
April 20, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430867/emerging-evidence-for-the-role-of-differential-tumor-microenvironment-in-breast-cancer-racial-disparity-a-closer-look-at-the-surroundings
#2
Sachin Kumar Deshmukh, Sanjeev K Srivastava, Nikhil Tyagi, Aamir Ahmad, Ajay P Singh, Ahmed Al Ghadhban, Donna L Dyess, James E Carter, Kari Dugger, Seema Singh
Although increased awareness leading to early detection and prevention, as well as advancements in treatment strategies, have resulted in superior clinical outcomes, African American women with breast cancer continue to have greater mortality rates, compared to Caucasian American counterparts. Moreover, African American women are more likely to have breast cancer at a younger age and be diagnosed with aggressive tumor sub-types. Such racial disparities can be attributed to socioeconomic differences, but it is increasingly being recognized that these disparities may indeed be due to certain genetic and other non-genetic biological differences...
April 18, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429798/sensory-system-plasticity-in-a-visually-specialized-nocturnal-spider
#3
Jay A Stafstrom, Peter Michalik, Eileen A Hebets
The interplay between an animal's environmental niche and its behavior can influence the evolutionary form and function of its sensory systems. While intraspecific variation in sensory systems has been documented across distant taxa, fewer studies have investigated how changes in behavior might relate to plasticity in sensory systems across developmental time. To investigate the relationships among behavior, peripheral sensory structures, and central processing regions in the brain, we take advantage of a dramatic within-species shift of behavior in a nocturnal, net-casting spider (Deinopis spinosa), where males cease visually-mediated foraging upon maturation...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429794/bone-in-culture-array-as-a-platform-to-model-early-stage-bone-metastases-and-discover-anti-metastasis-therapies
#4
Hai Wang, Lin Tian, Amit Goldstein, Jun Liu, Hin-Ching Lo, Kuanwei Sheng, Thomas Welte, Stephen T C Wong, Zbigniew Gugala, Fabio Stossi, Chenghang Zong, Zonghai Li, Michael A Mancini, Xiang H-F Zhang
The majority of breast cancer models for drug discovery are based on orthotopic or subcutaneous tumours. Therapeutic responses of metastases, especially microscopic metastases, are likely to differ from these tumours due to distinct cancer-microenvironment crosstalk in distant organs. Here, to recapitulate such differences, we established an ex vivo bone metastasis model, termed bone-in-culture array or BICA, by fragmenting mouse bones preloaded with breast cancer cells via intra-iliac artery injection. Cancer cells in BICA maintain features of in vivo bone micrometastases regarding the microenvironmental niche, gene expression profile, metastatic growth kinetics and therapeutic responses...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429766/beyond-growth-signaling-paneth-cells-metabolically-suppport-iscs
#5
Talya L Dayton, Hans Clevers
Single Lgr5 intestinal stem cells (ISCs) can be expanded in vitro into epithelial organoids or "mini-guts", self-organizing cellular structures that recreate the intestinal differentiation program; Paneth cells, which constitute the intestinal stem cell niche, secrete stem cell growth signals, and are thus essential for this process. In a recent paper published in Nature, Rodríguez-Colman et al. describe how Paneth cells may be supporting the metabolic state of ISCs.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429675/cell-biology-of-hyphal-growth
#6
Gero Steinberg, Miguel A Peñalva, Meritxell Riquelme, Han A Wösten, Steven D Harris
Filamentous fungi are a large and ancient clade of microorganisms that occupy a broad range of ecological niches. The success of filamentous fungi is largely due to their elongate hypha, a chain of cells, separated from each other by septa. Hyphae grow by polarized exocytosis at the apex, which allows the fungus to overcome long distances and invade many substrates, including soils and host tissues. Hyphal tip growth is initiated by establishment of a growth site and the subsequent maintenance of the growth axis, with transport of growth supplies, including membranes and proteins, delivered by motors along the cytoskeleton to the hyphal apex...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429621/the-distribution-and-movement-of-american-cockroaches-in-urban-niches-of-new-orleans
#7
John C Carlson, Felicia A Rabito, Derek Werthmann, Mark Fox
American cockroaches are an important source of household allergens in tropical and semitropical climates. To determine which outdoor niches produce American cockroaches, traps were placed at 40 homes in New Orleans to collect nymphs. Nymphs were collected from the sewers, yards, and within the homes themselves. To compare sewers and yards as sources of cockroaches entering homes, adult cockroaches were collected, marked, and released into yards and sewers. No sewer-released cockroaches were collected in homes...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#8
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429157/scenes-as-micro-cultures-examining-heterogeneity-of-hiv-risk-behavior-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-toronto-canada
#9
Syed W Noor, Barry D Adam, David J Brennan, David A Moskowitz, Sandra Gardner, Trevor A Hart
Using latent class analysis (LCA), we examined patterns of participation in multiple scenes, how sexual risk practices vary by scene, and psychosocial factors associated with these patterns among 470 gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) recruited from Toronto. We calculated posterior probability of being in a class from participation in nine separate scenes. We used Entropy, the Bayesian information criterion and the Lo-Mendel-Rubin likelihood ratio test to identify the best fit model. Fit indices suggested a four-class solution...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428866/capture-efficiency-and-trophic-adaptations-of-a-specialist-and-generalist-predator-a-comparison
#10
Ondřej Michálek, Lenka Petráková, Stano Pekár
Specialist true predators are expected to exhibit higher capture efficiencies for the capture of larger and dangerous prey than generalist predators due to their possession of specialized morphological and behavioral adaptations. We used an araneophagous spider (Lampona murina) and a generalist spider (Drassodes lapidosus) as phylogenetically related model species and investigated their realized and fundamental trophic niches and their efficacy with respect to prey capture and prey handling. The trophic niche of both species confirmed that Lampona had a narrow trophic niche with a predominance of spider prey (including conspecifics), while the niche of Drassodes was wide, without any preference...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428859/species-partitioning-in-a-temperate-mountain-chain-segregation-by-habitat-vs-interspecific-competition
#11
Giulia Bastianelli, Brendan A Wintle, Elizabeth H Martin, Javier Seoane, Paola Laiolo
Disentangling the relative influence of the environment and biotic interactions in determining species coexistence patterns is a major challenge in ecology. The zonation occurring along elevation gradients, or at bioclimatic contact zones, offers a good opportunity to improve such understanding because the small scale at which the partitioning occurs facilitates inference based on experiments and ecological modelling. We studied the influence of abiotic gradients, habitat types, and interspecific competition in determining the spatial turnover between two pipit and two bunting species in NW Spain...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428850/shortcuts-in-biodiversity-research-what-determines-the-performance-of-higher-taxa-as-surrogates-for-species
#12
Neil Rosser
Biodiversity research is often impeded by the time and resources required to identify species. One possible solution is to use higher taxa to predict species richness and community composition. However, previous studies have shown that the performance of higher taxa as surrogates for species is highly variable, making it difficult to predict whether the method will be reliable for a particular objective. Using 8 independent datasets, I tested whether higher taxa accurately characterize the responses of beetle and ant communities to environmental drivers...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428841/reproductive-traits-associated-with-species-turnover-of-amphibians-in-amazonia-and-its-andean-slopes
#13
Octavio Jiménez-Robles, Juan M Guayasamin, Santiago R Ron, Ignacio De la Riva
Assembly of ecological communities is important for the conservation of ecosystems, predicting perturbation impacts, and understanding the origin and loss of biodiversity. We tested how amphibian communities are assembled by neutral and niche-based mechanisms, such as habitat filtering. Species richness, β-diversities, and reproductive traits of amphibians were evaluated at local scale in seven habitats at different elevation and disturbance levels in Wisui Biological Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador, on the foothills of the Cordillera del Kutukú; and at regional scale using 109 localities across evergreen forests of Amazonia and its Andean slopes (0-3,900 m a...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428805/edible-dormice-glis-glis-avoid-areas-with-a-high-density-of-their-preferred-food-plant-the-european-beech
#14
Jessica S Cornils, Franz Hoelzl, Birgit Rotter, Claudia Bieber, Thomas Ruf
BACKGROUND: Numerous species, especially among rodents, are strongly affected by the availability of pulsed resources. The intermittent production of large seed crops in northern hemisphere tree species (e.g., beech Fagus spec.,oak Quercus spec., pine trees Pinus spec.) are prime examples of these resource pulses. Adult edible dormice are highly dependent on high energy seeds to maximize their reproductive output. For juvenile dormice the energy rich food is important to grow and fatten in a very short time period prior to hibernation...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428423/fructose-driven-glycolysis-supports-anoxia-resistance-in-the-naked-mole-rat
#15
Thomas J Park, Jane Reznick, Bethany L Peterson, Gregory Blass, Damir Omerbašić, Nigel C Bennett, P Henning J L Kuich, Christin Zasada, Brigitte M Browe, Wiebke Hamann, Daniel T Applegate, Michael H Radke, Tetiana Kosten, Heike Lutermann, Victoria Gavaghan, Ole Eigenbrod, Valérie Bégay, Vince G Amoroso, Vidya Govind, Richard D Minshall, Ewan St J Smith, John Larson, Michael Gotthardt, Stefan Kempa, Gary R Lewin
The African naked mole-rat's (Heterocephalus glaber) social and subterranean lifestyle generates a hypoxic niche. Under experimental conditions, naked mole-rats tolerate hours of extreme hypoxia and survive 18 minutes of total oxygen deprivation (anoxia) without apparent injury. During anoxia, the naked mole-rat switches to anaerobic metabolism fueled by fructose, which is actively accumulated and metabolized to lactate in the brain. Global expression of the GLUT5 fructose transporter and high levels of ketohexokinase were identified as molecular signatures of fructose metabolism...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428406/double-duty-for-mammary-stem-cell-niche
#16
EDITORIAL
Beverly A Purnell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428385/decoding-hormones-for-a-stem-cell-niche
#17
Claire Robertson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427552/integrating-the-microbiota-of-the-respiratory-tract-with-the-unified-airway-model
#18
REVIEW
Alissa S Hanshew, Marie E Jetté, Sarah P Rosen, Susan L Thibeault
The unified airway model has developed from indications that the upper and lower respiratory tracts share key elements of pathogenesis. These shared traits likely extend to similar niche characteristics that support bacterial communities, and as such, we suspect that similar microbes exist on upper and lower respiratory tract epithelium. Over the past decade and a half there have been significant improvements in microbiological identification and analysis due to the development of new molecular technologies, including next-generation sequencing...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426818/alternative-glacial-interglacial-refugia-demographic-hypotheses-tested-on-cephalocereus-columna-trajani-cactaceae-in-the-intertropical-mexican-drylands
#19
Amelia Cornejo-Romero, Carlos Fabián Vargas-Mendoza, Gustavo F Aguilar-Martínez, Javier Medina-Sánchez, Beatriz Rendón-Aguilar, Pedro Luis Valverde, Jose Alejandro Zavala-Hurtado, Alejandra Serrato, Sombra Rivas-Arancibia, Marco Aurelio Pérez-Hernández, Gerardo López-Ortega, Cecilia Jiménez-Sierra
Historic demography changes of plant species adapted to New World arid environments could be consistent with either the Glacial Refugium Hypothesis (GRH), which posits that populations contracted to refuges during the cold-dry glacial and expanded in warm-humid interglacial periods, or with the Interglacial Refugium Hypothesis (IRH), which suggests that populations contracted during interglacials and expanded in glacial times. These contrasting hypotheses are developed in the present study for the giant columnar cactus Cephalocereus columna-trajani in the intertropical Mexican drylands where the effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes on phylogeography of cacti remain largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426754/assessing-environmental-attributes-and-effects-of-climate-change-on-sphagnum-peatland-distributions-in-north-america-using-single-and-multi-species-models
#20
Tobi A Oke, Heather A Hager
The fate of Northern peatlands under climate change is important because of their contribution to global carbon (C) storage. Peatlands are maintained via greater plant productivity (especially of Sphagnum species) than decomposition, and the processes involved are strongly mediated by climate. Although some studies predict that warming will relax constraints on decomposition, leading to decreased C sequestration, others predict increases in productivity and thus increases in C sequestration. We explored the lack of congruence between these predictions using single-species and integrated species distribution models as proxies for understanding the environmental correlates of North American Sphagnum peatland occurrence and how projected changes to the environment might influence these peatlands under climate change...
2017: PloS One
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