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Biomechanic running

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731978/differences-in-spatiotemporal-parameters-between-trained-runners-and-untrained-participants
#1
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesús Cámara, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
Gómez-Molina, J, Ogueta-Alday, A, Stickley, C, Tobalina, JC, Cabrejas-Ugartondo, J, and García-López, J. Differences in spatiotemporal parameters between trained runners and untrained participants. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2169-2175, 2017-The aim of this study was to compare the spatiotemporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in 2 groups according to their training experience: Trained (n = 10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n = 11, healthy untrained participants)...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724627/using-step-width-to-compare-locomotor-biomechanics-between-extinct-non-avian-theropod-dinosaurs-and-modern-obligate-bipeds
#2
P J Bishop, C J Clemente, R E Weems, D F Graham, L P Lamas, J R Hutchinson, J Rubenson, R S Wilson, S A Hocknull, R S Barrett, D G Lloyd
How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs locomoted is a subject of considerable interest, as is the manner in which it evolved on the line leading to birds. Fossil footprints provide the most direct evidence for answering these questions. In this study, step width-the mediolateral (transverse) distance between successive footfalls-was investigated with respect to speed (stride length) in non-avian theropod trackways of Late Triassic age. Comparable kinematic data were also collected for humans and 11 species of ground-dwelling birds...
July 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714786/effects-of-a-prophylactic-knee-sleeve-on-anterior-cruciate-ligament-loading-during-sport-specific-movements
#3
Jonathan Sinclair, Paul John Taylor
CONTEXT: Prophylactic knee bracing is extensively utilized in athletic populations, to reduce the high risk from knee injuries, but their role in the attenuation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) pathologies is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current investigation was to investigate the effects of a prophylactic knee sleeve on ACL loading parameters linked to the aetiology of injury in recreational athletes. SETTING: Laboratory...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711659/exercise-initiated-after-the-onset-of-insulin-resistance-improves-trabecular-microarchitecture-and-cortical-bone-biomechanics-of-the-tibia-in-hyperphagic-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-rats
#4
Laura C Ortinau, Melissa A Linden, Rebecca K Dirkes, R Scott Rector, Pamela S Hinton
The present study extends our previous findings that exercise, which prevents the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), also prevents the detrimental effects of T2D on whole-bone and tissue-level strength. Our objective was to determine whether exercise improves bone's structural and material properties if insulin resistance is already present in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The OLETF rat is hyperphagic due to a loss-of-function mutation in cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK-1 receptor), which leads to progressive obesity, insulin resistance and T2D after the majority of skeletal growth is complete...
July 12, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690018/adaptations-of-lumbar-biomechanics-after-four-weeks-of-running-training-with-minimalist-footwear-and-technique-guidance-implications-for-running-related-lower-back-pain
#5
Szu-Ping Lee, Joshua P Bailey, Jo Armour Smith, Stephanie Barton, David Brown, Talia Joyce
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the changes in lumbar kinematic and paraspinal muscle activation before, during, and after a 4-week minimalist running training. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: University research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen habitually shod recreational runners who run 10-50 km per week. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: During stance phases of running, sagittal lumbar kinematics was recorded using an electrogoniometer, and activities of the lumbar paraspinal muscles were assessed by electromyography...
December 2, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687149/stiffness-of-a-wobbling-mass-models-analysed-by-a-smooth-orthogonal-decomposition-of-the-skin-movement-relative-to-the-underlying-bone
#6
Raphaël Dumas, Eric Jacquelin
The so-called soft tissue artefacts and wobbling masses have both been widely studied in biomechanics, however most of the time separately, from either a kinematics or a dynamics point of view. As such, the estimation of the stiffness of the springs connecting the wobbling masses to the rigid-body model of the lower limb, based on the in vivo displacements of the skin relative to the underling bone, has not been performed yet. For this estimation, the displacements of the skin markers in the bone-embedded coordinate systems are viewed as a proxy for the wobbling mass movement...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686085/conceptualizing-minimalist-footwear-an-objective-definition
#7
Devon R Coetzee, Yumna Albertus, Nicholas Tam, Ross Tucker
Running has been plagued with an alarmingly high incidence of injury, which has resulted in the exploration of interventions aimed at reducing the risk of running-related injury. One such intervention is the introduction of footwear that mimics barefoot running. These have been termed minimalist shoes. Minimalist footwear aims to reduce the risk of injury by promoting adaptations in running biomechanics that have been linked to a reduction in both impact and joint forces. However, some studies have found that minimalist footwear may be beneficial to the runner as they promote favourable biomechanical adaptations, whilst other studies have found the opposite to be true...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672004/stroller-running-energetic-and-kinematic-changes-across-pushing-methods
#8
Ryan S Alcantara, Cara M Wall-Scheffler
OBJECTIVE: Running with a stroller provides an opportunity for parents to exercise near their child and counteract health declines experienced during early parenthood. Understanding biomechanical and physiological changes that occur when stroller running is needed to evaluate its health impact, yet the effects of stroller running have not been clearly presented. Here, three commonly used stroller pushing methods were investigated to detect potential changes in energetic cost and lower-limb kinematics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667211/criteria-for-return-to-sport-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-with-lower-reinjury-risk-cr-stal-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study-in-france
#9
Alexandre J M Rambaud, Bertrand Semay, Pierre Samozino, Jean-Benoît Morin, Rodolphe Testa, Rémi Philippot, Jérémy Rossi, Pascal Edouard
INTRODUCTION: The decision regarding when to return to sport after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is an important one. Using a variety of subjective and objective parameters, various attempts have been made to determine an optimal timeline for a return to sport after ACLR, but none have been validated.The aim of the present study is therefore to determine which criteria or combination of criteria could allow to return to sport with the lowest possible risk of reinjury...
June 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662569/the-physiology-of-exercise-in-free-living-vertebrates-what-can-we-learn-from-current-model-systems
#10
Kang Nian Yap, Mitchell W Serota, Tony D Williams
Many behaviors crucial for survival and reproductive success in free-living animals, including migration, foraging, and escaping from predators, involve elevated levels of physical activity. However, although there has been considerable interest in the physiological and biomechanical mechanisms that underpin individual variation in exercise performance, to date, much work on the physiology of exercise has been conducted in laboratory settings that are often quite removed from the animal's ecology. Here we review current, laboratory-based model systems for exercise (wind or swim tunnels for migration studies in birds and fishes, manipulation of exercise associated with non-migratory activity in birds, locomotion in lizards, and wheel running in rodents) to identify common physiological markers of individual variation in exercise capacity and/or costs of increased activity...
June 28, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659414/how-do-prosthetic-stiffness-height-and-running-speed-affect-the-biomechanics-of-athletes-with-bilateral-transtibial-amputations
#11
Owen N Beck, Paolo Taboga, Alena M Grabowski
Limited available information describes how running-specific prostheses and running speed affect the biomechanics of athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations. Accordingly, we quantified the effects of prosthetic stiffness, height and speed on the biomechanics of five athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations during treadmill running. Each athlete performed a set of running trials with 15 different prosthetic model, stiffness and height combinations. Each set of trials began with the athlete running on a force-measuring treadmill at 3 m s(-1), subsequent trials incremented by 1 m s(-1) until they achieved their fastest attainable speed...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641058/acute-kinematics-changes-in-marathon-runners-using-different-footwear
#12
Tania Socorro Amorim Soares, Camila Fonseca de Oliveira, Federico Pizzuto, Rui Manuel Garganta, João Paulo Vila-Boas, Mario Casimiro da Anunciação Paiva
The effects of running with or without shoes on injury prevention have been extensively studied, and several investigations have assessed biomechanical differences between them. However, findings are not consensual and further insights on biomechanical load associated with differently shod or barefoot conditions may be needed. This study aimed to observe if habitually shod marathon runners show acute alterations when running barefoot or with minimalist shoes, and to determine whether the running kinematical adaptations of wearing minimalist shoes were similar to barefoot running...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632061/the-effect-of-unilateral-arm-swing-motion-on-lower-extremity-running-mechanics-associated-with-injury-risk
#13
Cristine Agresta, Christian R Ward, W Geoffrey Wright, Carole A Tucker
Many field sports involve equipment that restricts one or both arms from moving while running. Arm swing during running has been examined from a biomechanical and physiologic perspective but not from an injury perspective. Moreover, only bilateral arm swing suppression has been studied with respect to running. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of running with one arm restrained on lower extremity mechanics associated with running or sport-related injury. Fifteen healthy participants ran at a self-selected speed with typical arm swing, with one arm restrained and with both arms restrained...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632055/muscle-activity-in-sprinting-a-review
#14
Róisín M Howard, Richard Conway, Andrew J Harrison
The use of electromyography (EMG) is widely recognised as a valuable tool for enhancing the understanding of performance drivers and potential injury risk in sprinting. The timings of muscle activations relative to running gait cycle phases and the technology used to obtain muscle activation data during sprinting are of particular interest to scientists and coaches. This review examined the main muscles being analysed by surface EMG (sEMG), their activations and timing, and the technologies used to gather sEMG during sprinting...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624711/does-the-powers%C3%A2-strap-influence-the-lower-limb-biomechanics-during-running
#15
Henrike Greuel, Lee Herrington, Anmin Liu, Richard K Jones
Previous research has reported a prevalence of running related injuries in 25.9% to 72% of all runners. A greater hip internal rotation and adduction during the stance phase in running has been associated with many running related injuries, such as patellofemoral pain. Researchers in the USA designed a treatment device 'the Powers™ strap' to facilitate an external rotation of the femur and to thereby control abnormal hip and knee motion during leisure and sport activities. However, to date no literature exists to demonstrate whether the Powers™ strap is able to reduce hip internal rotation during running...
June 3, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607062/biomechanical-coupling-facilitates-spinal-neural-tube-closure-in-mouse-embryos
#16
Gabriel L Galea, Young-June Cho, Gauden Galea, Matteo A Molè, Ana Rolo, Dawn Savery, Dale Moulding, Lucy H Culshaw, Evanthia Nikolopoulou, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp
Neural tube (NT) formation in the spinal region of the mammalian embryo involves a wave of "zippering" that passes down the elongating spinal axis, uniting the neural fold tips in the dorsal midline. Failure of this closure process leads to open spina bifida, a common cause of severe neurologic disability in humans. Here, we combined a tissue-level strain-mapping workflow with laser ablation of live-imaged mouse embryos to investigate the biomechanics of mammalian spinal closure. Ablation of the zippering point at the embryonic dorsal midline causes far-reaching, rapid separation of the elevating neural folds...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585281/the-deep-fascia-and-retinacula-of-the-equine-forelimb-structure-and-innervation
#17
Aleksandra Skalec, Monika Egerbacher
Recent advances in human fascia research have shed new light on the role of the fascial network in movement perception and coordination, transmission of muscle force, and integrative function in body biomechanics. Evolutionary adaptations of equine musculoskeletal apparatus that assure effective terrestrial locomotion are employed in equestrianism, resulting in the wide variety of movements in performing horses, from sophisticated dressage to jumping and high-speed racing. The high importance of horse motion efficiency in the present-day equine industry indicates the significance of scientific knowledge of the structure and physiology of equine fasciae...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581815/biomechanical-factors-associated-with-achilles-tendinopathy-and-medial-tibial-stress-syndrome-in-runners
#18
James Becker, Stanley James, Robert Wayner, Louis Osternig, Li-Shan Chou
BACKGROUND: There is disagreement in the literature regarding whether the excessive excursion or velocity of rearfoot eversion is related to the development of 2 common running injuries: Achilles tendinopathy (AT) and medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). An alternative hypothesis suggests that the duration of rearfoot eversion may be an important factor. However, the duration of eversion has received relatively little attention in the biomechanics literature. HYPOTHESIS: Runners with AT or MTSS will demonstrate a longer duration of eversion but not greater excursion or velocity of eversion compared with healthy controls...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561380/functional-adaptation-of-the-calcaneus-in-historical-foot-binding
#19
Natalie Reznikov, Carina Phillips, Martyn Cooke, Amin Garbout, Farah Ahmed, Molly M Stevens
The normal structure of human feet is optimized for shock dampening during walking and running. Foot binding was a historical practice in China aimed at restricting the growth of female feet for aesthetic reasons. In a bound foot the shock-dampening function normally facilitated by the foot arches is withdrawn, resulting in the foot functioning as a rigid extension of the lower leg. An interesting question inspiring this study regards the nature of adaptation of the heel bone to this non-physiological function using the parameters of cancellous bone anisotropy and 3D fabric topology using a novel inter-trabecular angle (ITA) analysis...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560325/harnessing-the-hygroscopic-and-biofluorescent-behaviors-of-genetically-tractable-microbial-cells-to-design-biohybrid-wearables
#20
Wen Wang, Lining Yao, Chin-Yi Cheng, Teng Zhang, Hiroshi Atsumi, Luda Wang, Guanyun Wang, Oksana Anilionyte, Helene Steiner, Jifei Ou, Kang Zhou, Chris Wawrousek, Katherine Petrecca, Angela M Belcher, Rohit Karnik, Xuanhe Zhao, Daniel I C Wang, Hiroshi Ishii
Cells' biomechanical responses to external stimuli have been intensively studied but rarely implemented into devices that interact with the human body. We demonstrate that the hygroscopic and biofluorescent behaviors of living cells can be engineered to design biohybrid wearables, which give multifunctional responsiveness to human sweat. By depositing genetically tractable microbes on a humidity-inert material to form a heterogeneous multilayered structure, we obtained biohybrid films that can reversibly change shape and biofluorescence intensity within a few seconds in response to environmental humidity gradients...
May 2017: Science Advances
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