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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780837/foot-kinematics-differ-between-runners-with-and-without-a-history-of-navicular-stress-fractures
#1
James Becker, Stanley James, Louis Osternig, Li-Shan Chou
Background: A navicular stress fracture (NSF) is a common and high-risk injury in distance runners. It is not clear whether there are differences in foot structure and function between runners who have and those who have not sustained an NSF. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study compared foot structure, range of motion, and biomechanics between runners with a history of unilateral NSFs and runners who had never sustained this injury. The hypothesis was that runners with a history of NSFs will have less dorsiflexion and subtalar range of motion in a clinical examination and greater rearfoot eversion and higher eversion velocity while running than either the noninvolved feet or healthy controls...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731951/advanced-computational-methods-in-bio-mechanics
#2
REVIEW
Waleed M S Al Qahtani, Mohamed I El-Anwar
A novel partnership between surgeons and machines, made possible by advances in computing and engineering technology, could overcome many of the limitations of traditional surgery. By extending surgeons' ability to plan and carry out surgical interventions more accurately and with fewer traumas, computer-integrated surgery (CIS) systems could help to improve clinical outcomes and the efficiency of healthcare delivery. CIS systems could have a similar impact on surgery to that long since realised in computer-integrated manufacturing...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729612/joint-kinematics-and-ground-reaction-forces-in-overground-versus-treadmill-graded-running
#3
Colin R Firminger, Gianluca Vernillo, Aldo Savoldelli, Darren J Stefanyshyn, Guillaume Y Millet, W Brent Edwards
BACKGROUND: Treadmills are often used to assess running biomechanics, however the validity of applying results from treadmill graded running to overground graded running is currently unknown. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether treadmill and overground graded running have comparable kinematics and ground reaction force parameters. METHODS: Eleven healthy male adults ran overground and on an instrumented treadmill as motion capture and force platform data were collected for the following conditions: downhill running at a slope of -8° at 10, 13 and 16 km⋅h-1 ; level running at 10 and 13 km⋅h-1 ; uphill running at a slope of +8° at 8, 10 and 13 km⋅h-1 ...
April 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720948/the-oxygen-consumption-and-metabolic-cost-of-walking-and-running-in-adults-with-achondroplasia
#4
David T Sims, Gladys L Onambélé-Pearson, Adrian Burden, Carl Payton, Christopher I Morse
The disproportionate body mass and leg length of Achondroplasic individuals may affect their net oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2 ) and metabolic cost (C) when walking at running compared to those of average stature (controls). The aim of this study was to measure submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 and C during a range of set walking speeds (SWS; 0.56 - 1.94 m⋅s-1 , increment 0.28 m⋅s-1 ), set running speeds (SRS; 1.67 - 3.33 m⋅s-1 , increment 0.28 m⋅s-1 ) and a self-selected walking speed (SSW)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708075/risk-factors-associated-with-musculoskeletal-injury-a-prospective-study-of-british-infantry-recruits
#5
Jagannath Sharma, R Heagerty, S Dalal, B Banerjee, T Booker
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injury (MSKI), a common problem in both military and physically active civilian populations has been suggested to result from both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate prospectively whether gait biomechanics, aerobic fitness level and smoking status as well as entry military selection test variables can be used to predict MSKI development during recruit training. METHOD: British infantry male recruits (n = 562) were selected for the study...
April 29, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705166/differences-in-knee-and-hip-adduction-and-hip-muscle-activation-in-runners-with-and-without-iliotibial-band-syndrome
#6
Robert L Baker, Richard B Souza, Mitchell J Rauh, Michael Fredericson, Michael D Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Iliotibial Band Syndrome has been associated with altered hip and knee kinematics in runners. Prior studies have recommended further research on neuromuscular factors at the hip. The frontal plane hip muscles have been a strong focus in strength comparison, but not for electromyography investigation. OBJECTIVE: To compare hip surface electromyography, and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics, in runners with and without iliotibial band syndrome. DESIGN: Observational cross sectional study, 30 participants were tested for motion capture at the hip and knee and muscle activation in the lateral and posterior hip...
April 26, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698972/icariin-restores-bone-structure-and-strength-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-high-dose-alcohol-induced-osteopenia
#7
Jie-Zhou Wu, Peng-Cheng Liu, Run Liu, Ming Cai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic alcohol abuse is an important risk factor for osteopenia. However, few studies have focused on the efficacy and mechanism of action of icariin on alcohol-induced osteopenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and underlying mechanism of action of icariin in the treatment of chronic high-dose alcohol-induced osteopenia in a rat model. METHODS: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, alcohol, and low-dose and high-dose icariin groups...
April 23, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686281/gauging-force-by-tapping-tendons
#8
Jack A Martin, Scott C E Brandon, Emily M Keuler, James R Hermus, Alexander C Ehlers, Daniel J Segalman, Matthew S Allen, Darryl G Thelen
Muscles are the actuators that drive human movement. However, despite many decades of work, we still cannot readily assess the forces that muscles transmit during human movement. Direct measurements of muscle-tendon loads are invasive and modeling approaches require many assumptions. Here, we introduce a non-invasive approach to assess tendon loads by tracking vibrational behavior. We first show that the speed of shear wave propagation in tendon increases with the square root of axial stress. We then introduce a remarkably simple shear wave tensiometer that uses micron-scale taps and skin-mounted accelerometers to track tendon wave speeds in vivo...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677101/electromyographic-and-joint-kinematic-patterns-in-runner-s-dystonia
#9
Omar F Ahmad, Pritha Ghosh, Christopher Stanley, Barbara Karp, Mark Hallett, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter
Runner’s dystonia (RD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of the lower limbs that occurs when running. In this retrospective case series, we present surface electromyography (EMG) and joint kinematic data from thirteen patients with RD who underwent instrumented gait analysis (IGA) at the Functional and Biomechanics Laboratory at the National Institutes of Health. Four cases of RD are described in greater detail to demonstrate the potential utility of EMG with kinematic studies to identify dystonic muscle groups in RD...
April 20, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670502/analysis-of-big-data-in-gait-biomechanics-current-trends-and-future-directions
#10
Angkoon Phinyomark, Giovanni Petri, Esther Ibáñez-Marcelo, Sean T Osis, Reed Ferber
The increasing amount of data in biomechanics research has greatly increased the importance of developing advanced multivariate analysis and machine learning techniques, which are better able to handle "big data". Consequently, advances in data science methods will expand the knowledge for testing new hypotheses about biomechanical risk factors associated with walking and running gait-related musculoskeletal injury. This paper begins with a brief introduction to an automated three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical gait data collection system: 3D GAIT, followed by how the studies in the field of gait biomechanics fit the quantities in the 5 V's definition of big data: volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value...
2018: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620179/intensity%C3%A2-dependent-effect-of-treadmill-running-on-differentiation-of-rat-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#11
Sheng-Yao Liu, Zhe Li, Shao-Yong Xu, Lei Xu, Mo Yang, Guo-Xin Ni
The effect of running on bone mass depends on its intensity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism that associates running intensity with bone mass is unclear. The current study examined the effects of treadmill running at different intensities on bone mass and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in a rat model. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups and subjected to no running (Con group), low‑intensity running (LIR group), moderate‑intensity running (MIR group), and high‑intensity running (HIR group)...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582693/a-theoretical-analysis-and-finite-element-simulation-of-fixator-bone-system-stiffness-on-healing-progression
#12
Jianfeng Li, Xia Zhao, Xiaojie Hu, Chunjing Tao, Run Ji
INTRODUCTION: The unilateral external fixator has become a quick and easy application for fracture stabilization of the extremities; the main value for evaluation of mechanical stability of the external fixator is stiffness. The stiffness property of the external fixator affects the local biomechanical environment of fractured bone. METHODS: In this study, a theoretical model with changing Young's modulus of the callus is established by using the Castigliano's theory, investigating compression stiffness, torsional stiffness and bending stiffness of the fixator-bone system during the healing process...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576960/effect-of-fatigue-and-gender-on-kinematics-and-ground-reaction-forces-variables-in-recreational-runners
#13
Bruno Bazuelo-Ruiz, Juan V Durá-Gil, Nicolás Palomares, Enrique Medina, Salvador Llana-Belloch
The presence of fatigue has been shown to modify running biomechanics. Overall in terms of gender, women are at lower risk than men for sustaining running-related injuries, although it depends on the factors taken into account. One possible reason for these differences in the injury rate and location might be the dissimilar running patterns between men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fatigue and gender on the kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) parameters in recreational runners...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564844/effects-of-high-intensity-warm-ups-on-running-performance
#14
Fernando González-Mohíno, Raúl Martín, Daniel Juárez Santos-García, Pedro Angel Fidel, Francisco de Asis Fernandez, Inmaculada Yustres, José María González Ravé
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity warm-ups (WUs) on performance, physiological, neuromuscular and biomechanical parameters. Three randomized cross-over 105%vVO2 max time limit trials (TLimT) were performed by 11 well-trained runners following three different WU protocols. These included two experimental high-intensity variants and one control WU variant: (i) 9x20-sec level strides (105%vVO2 max; 1% gradient) with 60 s of recovery (level); (ii) 6x6-sec uphill strides (105%vVO2 max; 5% gradient), with the same recovery (uphill) and (iii) 7 min at 60%vVO2 max as control condition (control)...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559550/surface-friction-alters-the-agility-of-a-small-australian-marsupial
#15
Rebecca Wheatley, Christofer J Clemente, Amanda C Niehaus, Diana O Fisher, Robbie S Wilson
Movement speed can underpin an animal's probability of success in ecological tasks. Prey often use agility to outmanoeuvre predators, however faster speeds increase inertia and reduce agility. Agility is also constrained by grip, as the foot must have sufficient friction with the ground to apply the forces required for turning. Consequently, ground surface should affect optimum turning speed. We tested the speed-agility trade-off in buff-footed antechinus ( Antechinus mysticus ) on two different surfaces. Antechinus used slower turning speeds over smaller turning radii on both surfaces, as predicted by the speed-agility trade-off...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550754/clinical-and-biomechanical-outcomes-of-rehabilitation-targeting-intersegmental-control-in-athletic-groin-pain-prospective-cohort-of-205-patients
#16
Enda King, Andrew Franklyn-Miller, Chris Richter, Eamon O'Reilly, Mark Doolan, Kieran Moran, Siobhan Strike, Éanna Falvey
BACKGROUND: Clinical assessments and rehabilitation in athletic groin pain (AGP) have focused on specific anatomical structures and uniplanar impairments rather than whole body movement. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of rehabilitation that targeted intersegmental control in patients with AGP and to investigate post rehabilitation changes in cutting biomechanics. METHODS: Two hundred and five patients with AGP were rehabilitated focusing on clinical assessment of intersegmental control, linear running and change of direction mechanics in this prospective case series...
March 17, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498028/a-new-direction-to-athletic-performance-understanding-the-acute-and-longitudinal-responses-to-backward-running
#17
REVIEW
Aaron Uthoff, Jon Oliver, John Cronin, Craig Harrison, Paul Winwood
Backward running (BR) is a form of locomotion that occurs in short bursts during many overground field and court sports. It has also traditionally been used in clinical settings as a method to rehabilitate lower body injuries. Comparisons between BR and forward running (FR) have led to the discovery that both may be generated by the same neural circuitry. Comparisons of the acute responses to FR reveal that BR is characterised by a smaller ratio of braking to propulsive forces, increased step frequency, decreased step length, increased muscle activity and reliance on isometric and concentric muscle actions...
May 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489904/the-variations-on-the-aerodynamics-of-a-world-ranked-wheelchair-sprinter-in-the-key-moments-of-the-stroke-cycle-a-numerical-simulation-analysis
#18
Pedro Forte, Daniel A Marinho, Jorge E Morais, Pedro G Morouço, Tiago M Barbosa
Biomechanics plays an important role helping Paralympic sprinters to excel, having the aerodynamic drag a significant impact on the athlete's performance. The aim of this study was to assess the aerodynamics in different key-moments of the stroke cycle by Computational Fluid Dynamics. A world-ranked wheelchair sprinter was scanned on the racing wheelchair wearing his competition gear and helmet. The sprinter was scanned in three different positions: (i) catch (hands in the 12h position on the hand-rim); (ii) the release (hands in the 18h position on the hand-rim) and; (iii) recovery phase (hands do not touch the hand-rim and are hyperextended backwards)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489844/phalangeal-joints-kinematics-in-ostrich-struthio-camelus-locomotion-on-sand
#19
Rui Zhang, Qiaoli Ji, Dianlei Han, Haijin Wan, Xiujuan Li, Gang Luo, Shuliang Xue, Songsong Ma, Mingming Yang, Jianqiao Li
In ostriches, the toes are the only body parts that contact loose sand surfaces. Thus, toe interphalangeal joint motions may play vital biomechanical roles. However, there is little research on ostrich phalangeal joint movements while walking or running on sand. The results from the three-dimensional motion track analysis system Simi Motion show that gait pattern has no significant effect on the key indicators (angles at touch-down, mid-stance, lift-off and range of motion) of the toe joint angles. The motion of the toe phalanges when walking and running on sand is basically the same...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481980/biomechanical-evaluation-of-sacroiliac-joint-fixation-with-decortication
#20
Yushane C Shih, Brian P Beaubien, Qingshan Chen, Jonathan N Sembrano
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Fusion typically consists of joint preparation, grafting, and rigid fixation. Fusion has been successfully used to treat symptomatic disruptions of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) and degenerative sacroiliitis using purpose-specific, threaded implants. The biomechanical performance of these systems is important but has not been studied. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare two techniques for placing primary (12.5 mm) and secondary (8...
February 23, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
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