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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196377/speaking-tongues-are-actively-braced
#1
Bryan Gick, Blake Allen, François Roewer-Després, Ian Stavness
Purpose: Bracing of the tongue against opposing vocal-tract surfaces such as the teeth or palate has long been discussed in the context of biomechanical, somatosensory, and aeroacoustic aspects of tongue movement. However, previous studies have tended to describe bracing only in terms of contact (rather than mechanical support), and only in limited phonetic contexts, supporting a widespread view of bracing as an occasional state, peculiar to specific sounds or sound combinations. Method: The present study tests the pervasiveness and effortfulness of tongue bracing in continuous English speech passages using electropalatography and 3-D biomechanical simulations...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164383/physiological-biochemical-anthropometric-and-biomechanical-influences-on-exercise-economy-in-humans
#2
Carsten Lundby, David Montero, Saskia Gehrig, Ulrika Anderson Hall, Pascal Kaiser, Robert Boushel, Anne-Kristine Meinild Lundby, Niels Kirk, Paola Valdivieso, Martin Flück, Niels H Secher, Frederik Edin, Tobias Hein, Klavs Madsen
Inter-individual variation in running and cycling exercise economy (EE) remains unexplained although studied for more than a century. This study is the first to comprehensively evaluate the importance of biochemical, structural, physiological, anthropometric, and biomechanical influences on running and cycling EE within a single study. In 22 healthy males (VO2 max range 45.5 to 72.1 ml.min(-1) .kg(-1) ) no factor related to skeletal muscle structure (% slow twitch fibre content, number of capillaries per fibre), mitochondrial properties (volume density, oxidative capacity, or mitochondrial efficiency) or protein content (UCP3 and MFN2 expression) explained variation in cycling and running EE among subjects...
February 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161898/the-relationship-between-loading-history-and-proximal-femoral-diaphysis-cross-sectional-geometry
#3
Sirpa Niinimäki, Nathaniel Narra, Laura Härkönen, Shinya Abe, Riku Nikander, Jari Hyttinen, Christopher Knüsel, Harri Sievänen
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between loading history and bone biomechanical properties used in physical activity reconstructions. These bone properties included bone bending and torsional strength (J), cortical area (CA), the direction of the major axis (theta angle), and element shape ratios determined from cross sections of standardized bone length. In addition, we explored the applicability of anatomically determined cross sections. METHODS: Our material consisted of hip and proximal thigh magnetic resonance images of Finnish female athletes (N = 91) engaged in high-jump, triple-jump, endurance running, swimming, power-lifting, soccer and squash; along with a group of active non-athlete individuals (N = 20)...
February 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104752/reduced-prosthetic-stiffness-lowers-the-metabolic-cost-of-running-for-athletes-with-bilateral-transtibial-amputations
#4
Owen N Beck, Paolo Taboga, Alena Marie Grabowski
Inspired by the spring-like action of biological legs, running-specific prostheses are designed to enable athletes with lower-limb amputations to run. Yet, manufacturer recommendations for prosthetic stiffness and height may not optimize running performance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using different prosthetic configurations on the metabolic cost and biomechanics of running. Five athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations each performed fifteen trials on a force-measuring treadmill at 2...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103859/treatment-with-soluble-activin-type-iib-receptor-improves-bone-mass-and-strength-in-a-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#5
Tero Puolakkainen, Hongqian Ma, Heikki Kainulainen, Arja Pasternack, Timo Rantalainen, Olli Ritvos, Kristiina Heikinheimo, Juha J Hulmi, Riku Kiviranta
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of activin/myostatin pathway has emerged as a novel approach to increase muscle mass and bone strength. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disorder that leads to progressive muscle degeneration and also high incidence of fractures. The aim of our study was to test whether inhibition of activin receptor IIB ligands with or without exercise could improve bone strength in the mdx mouse model for DMD. METHODS: Thirty-two mdx mice were divided to running and non-running groups and to receive either PBS control or soluble activin type IIB-receptor (ActRIIB-Fc) once weekly for 7 weeks...
January 19, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097064/phalangeal-joints-kinematics-during-ostrich-struthio-camelus-locomotion
#6
Rui Zhang, Qiaoli Ji, Gang Luo, Shuliang Xue, Songsong Ma, Jianqiao Li, Lei Ren
The ostrich is a highly cursorial bipedal land animal with a permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint supported by only two toes. Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running ostriches have been examined, these studies have been largely limited to above the metatarsophalangeal joint. In this study, kinematic data of all major toe joints were collected from gaits with double support (slow walking) to running during stance period in a semi-natural setup with two selected cooperative ostriches. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of locomotor gait on toe joint kinematics...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095075/a-pilot-study-using-entropy-as-a-non-invasive-assessment-of-running
#7
Andrew M Murray, Joong Hyun Ryu, John Sproule, Anthony P Turner, Phil Graham-Smith, Marco Cardinale
PURPOSE: Running performance is influenced by the interaction of biomechanical and physiological factors. Miniaturised accelerometers worn by the athlete can be used to quantify mechanical aspects of running and be used as a non-invasive tool to assess training status and progression. The aim of this study was to define and validate a method to assess running regularity and allow the estimation of an individual's V̇O2 and/or blood lactate [La]b based on data collected with accelerometers and heart rate (HR)...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056179/descriptive-characteristics-of-concussions-in-national-football-league-games-2010-2011-to-2013-2014
#8
Michael D Clark, Breton M Asken, Stephen W Marshall, Kevin M Guskiewicz
BACKGROUND: Despite a high reported incidence rate of concussion, little is known about the on-field characteristics of injurious head impacts in National Football League (NFL) games. PURPOSE: To characterize on-field features (location, player position, and time during game) and biomechanical features (anticipation status, closing distance, impact location and type) associated with concussions in NFL games over a 4-season period (2010-2011 to 2013-2014). STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992250/impact-of-a-long-run-on-injury-related-biomechanics-with-relation-to-weekly-mileage-in-trained-male-runners
#9
Max R Paquette, Daniel A Melcher
The purposes of this study were to compare selected biomechanical variables before and after a long run, and to assess the relationship between weekly running volume and changes in lower limb biomechanics after the run. Twelve trained habitual rearfoot strike male runners ran overground before and after a treadmill long run while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to compare kinematic and kinetic variables before and after the run...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935426/joint-stiffness-and-running-economy-during-imposed-forefoot-strike-before-and-after-a-long-run-in-rearfoot-strike-runners
#10
Daniel A Melcher, Max R Paquette, Brian K Schilling, Richard J Bloomer
Research has focused on the effects of acute strike pattern modifications on lower extremity joint stiffness and running economy (RE). Strike pattern modifications on running biomechanics have mostly been studied while runners complete short running bouts. This study examined the effects of an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) on RE and ankle and knee joint stiffness before and after a long run in habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Joint kinetics and RE were collected before and after a long run. Sagittal joint kinetics were computed from kinematic and ground reaction force data that were collected during over-ground running trials in 13 male runners...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918675/biomechanics-in-paralympics-implications-for-performance
#11
Floor Morriën, Matthew J D Taylor, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: To provide an overview of biomechanical studies in Paralympic research and their relevance for performance in Paralympic sports. METHODS: Search terms ' Paralympic Biomechanics', 'Paralympic Sport Performance', 'Paralympic Athlete Performance', and Paralympic Athlete' were entered into the electronic database PubMed. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were included. Biomechanical studies in Paralympics mainly contributed to performance enhancement by technical optimization (n=32) and/or injury prevention (n=6)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900189/novel-coaching-cricket-bat-can-it-be-used-to-enhance-the-backlift-and-performance-of-junior-cricket-batsmen
#12
M Habib Noorbhai, Russell C Woolmer, Timothy D Noakes
BACKGROUND: In the current literature, it is questionable whether cricket bats in their current form and dimensions allow a young cricketer to hit the ball effectively. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a novel coaching cricket bat among junior cricket batsmen with regard to enhancing performance and the direction of the backlift. METHODS: A cross-sectional research study with analytical research methods was employed, in which 2 groups (coached: n=12 and uncoached: n=35) of participants (ages 9-13) took part in a pilot and intervention study...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885522/efficacy-and-safety-of-fractional-co2-laser-versus-fractional-er-yag-laser-in-the-treatment-of-facial-skin-wrinkles
#13
Reza M Robati, Elmira Asadi
Ablative fractional lasers were introduced for treating facial rhytides. Few studies have compared fractional CO2 and Er:YAG lasers on cutaneous photodamages by a split trial. The aim of the present study was to compare these modalities in a randomized controlled double-blind split-face design with multiple sessions and larger sample size compared to previous studies done before. Forty patients with facial wrinkles were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive three monthly treatments on each side of the face, one with a fractional CO2 and one with a fractional Er:YAG laser...
February 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872403/biomechanical-analysis-of-weighted-ball-exercises-for-baseball-pitchers
#14
Glenn S Fleisig, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Kyle T Aune, Brett Ivey, Walter A Laughlin
BACKGROUND: Weighted-ball throwing programs are commonly used in training baseball pitchers to increase ball velocity. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematics and kinetics among weighted-ball exercises with values from standard pitching (ie, pitching standard 5-oz baseballs from a mound). HYPOTHESIS: Ball and arm velocities would be greater with lighter balls and joint kinetics would be greater with heavier balls. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
November 21, 2016: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865154/a-narrow-bimalleolar-width-is-a-risk-factor-for-ankle-inversion-injury-in-male-military-recruits-a-prospective-study
#15
Hannah Rice, Michael Nunns, Carol House, Joanne Fallowfield, Adrian Allsopp, Sharon Dixon
BACKGROUND: Ankle inversion injuries are one of the most common and burdensome injuries in athletic populations. Research that prospectively identifies characteristics associated with this injury is lacking. This prospective study compared baseline anthropometric and biomechanical gait characteristics of military recruits who sustained an ankle inversion injury during training, with those who remained injury-free. METHODS: Bilateral plantar pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were recorded in 1065 male, injury-free military recruits, during barefoot running...
January 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855362/are-the-arms-and-head-required-to-accurately-estimate-centre-of-mass-motion-during-running
#16
Niamh Gill, Stephen J Preece, Samantha Young, Christopher Bramah
Accurate measurement of centre of mass (CoM) motion can provide valuable insight into the biomechanics of human running. However, full-body kinematic measurement protocols can be time consuming and difficult to implement. Therefore, this study was performed to understand whether CoM motion during running could be estimated from a model incorporating only lower extremity, pelvic and trunk segments. Full-body kinematic data was collected whilst (n=12) participants ran on a treadmill at two speeds (3.1 and 3.9ms(-1))...
January 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852765/light-level-impacts-locomotor-biomechanics-in-a-secondarily-diurnal-gecko-rhoptropus-afer
#17
Aleksandra V Birn-Jeffery, Timothy E Higham
Locomotion through complex habitats relies on the continuous feedback from a number of sensory systems, including vision. Animals face a visual trade-off between acuity and light sensitivity that depends on light levels, which will dramatically impact the ability to process information and move quickly through a habitat, making ambient illumination an incredibly important ecological factor. Despite this, there is a paucity of data examining ambient light in the context of locomotor dynamics. There have been several independent transitions from the nocturnal ancestor to a diurnal activity pattern among geckos...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834504/redistribution-of-mechanical-work-at-the-knee-and-ankle-joints-during-fast-running-in-minimalist-shoes
#18
Joel T Fuller, Jonathan D Buckley, Margarita D Tsiros, Nicholas A T Brown, Dominic Thewlis
CONTEXT: Minimalist shoes have been suggested as a way to alter running biomechanics to improve running performance and reduce injuries. However, to date, researchers have only considered the effect of minimalist shoes at slow running speeds. OBJECTIVE: To determine if runners change foot-strike pattern and alter the distribution of mechanical work at the knee and ankle joints when running at a fast speed in minimalist shoes compared with conventional running shoes...
October 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813684/altered-vertical-ground-reaction-forces-in-participants-with-chronic-ankle-instability-while-running
#19
John Bigouette, Janet Simon, Kathy Liu, Carrie L Docherty
CONTEXT: Altered gait kinetics may increase the risk of long-term injuries in participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs) can provide insight into how body loading is altered. OBJECTIVE: To compare the components of vGRFs while running in participants with or without CAI. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: University biomechanics laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four experienced, college-aged runners...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802142/a-different-angle-comparative-analyses-of-whole-animal-transport-costs-when-running-uphill
#20
Lewis G Halsey, Craig R White
Comparative work on the cost of terrestrial locomotion in animals has focused on the underpinning physiology and biomechanics. Often, much of an animal's energy budget is spent on moving around; thus, there is also value in interpreting such data from an ecological perspective. When animals move through their environment, they encounter topographical variation, and this is a key factor that can dramatically affect their energy expenditure. We collated published data on the costs for birds and mammals to locomote terrestrially on inclines, and investigated the scaling relationships using a phylogenetically informed approach...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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