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A Amaddeo, L de Sanctis, J Olmo Arroyo, J-P Giordanella, P-J Monteyrol, B Fauroux
Obesity, along with hypertrophy of the adenoids and the tonsils, represents one of the major risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Obesity is associated with an increase in the prevalence and the severity of OSA and is a major factor in the persistence and aggravation of OSA over time. Neurocognitive dysfunction and abnormal behavior are the most important and frequent end-organ morbidities associated with OSA in children. Other deleterious consequences such as cardiovascular stress and metabolic syndrome are less common in children than in adults with OSA...
October 18, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Jayasundara Mudiyanselage Kanchana Ganga Kumari Jayasundara, Stephen William Walkden-Brown, Magaret Elizabeth Katz, A F M Fakhrul Islam, Katrin Gondola Renz, Jody McNally, Peter Hunt
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is endemic to most poultry-producing countries worldwide. Immunosuppressive classical and variant IBDV strains endemic to Australia are genetically distinct from other international strains. We report the results of infection experiments with Australian classical strain 06/95 and variant strain 02/95 in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. We tested the effects of strain and age of infection on bursal atrophy, viral RNA (vRNA) load in bursa of Fabricius (bursa), spleen, thymus, caecal tonsils, faeces, litter and exhaust dust as determined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Nir Hirshoren, Olivia Ruskin, Tsien Fua, Stephen Kleid, Matthew Magarey, Benjamin Dixon
BACKGROUND: Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is now a well-validated technique for resection of head and neck cancers. Benefits include reduced patient morbidity, swallowing preservation and rationalization of adjuvant therapies. METHODS: This was a single-centre, retrospective review of 35 patients who underwent TORS of oro-, retro- and parapharyngeal tumours between March 2014 and August 2015. Outcome measures included resection margins, swallowing function and impact on post-operative radiotherapy...
October 21, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Taniya Mitra, Ivana Bilic, Michael Hess, Dieter Liebhart
Evaluation of reference genes for expression studies in chickens and turkeys is very much limited and unavailable for various infectious models. In this study, eight candidate reference genes HMBS, HPRT1, TBP, VIM, TFRC, RPLP0, RPL13 and RPS7 were evaluated by five different algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper©, delta CT, RefFinder) to assess their stability. In order to analyze a broad variation of tissues, spleen, liver, caecum and caecal tonsil of different aged specific pathogen free (SPF) layer chickens and commercial turkeys, uninfected or infected with the extracellular pathogen Histomonas meleagridis, were included...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
Qianqian Xu, Yuqiu Chen, Wenjun Zhao, Tingting Zhang, Chenggang Liu, Tianming Qi, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Deying Ma, Shengwang Liu
Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a highly contagious disease of birds that is responsible for heavy economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. However, little is known about host-virus interactions in waterfowl, goose. In this study, we aim to characterize the host immune response in goose, based on the previous reports on the host response to NDV in chickens. Here, we evaluated viral replication and mRNA expression of 27 immune-related genes in 10 tissues of geese challenged with a genotype VIId NDV strain of goose origin (go/CH/LHLJ/1/06)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Omar N Pathmanaban, Kerry A Burke, Paul Leach, John Thorne, Ian D Kamaly-Asl
BACKGROUND: Positional plagiocephaly is the most common cause of cranial asymmetry. The underlying cause of Chiari-1 malformation has many possible theories, and anecdotally some pediatric neurosurgeons have had experience of severe cases of positional brachycephaly with Chiari-1. However, to date there have been no published cases linking non-synostotic plagiocephaly with Chiari-1 malformation. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 18-month-old boy presented with a head injury...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
R Mcleod, P Brahmabhatt, D Owens
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of the introduction of the SIGN Clinical guidelines in 1999 and subsequent revision in 2005 on tonsillectomy, hospital admission with tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess rates in four countries. METHODS: Retrospective analysis using English, Welsh, Australian and New Zealand National healthcare hospital admission databases between 2000 and 2013. Primary outcomes measures included tonsillectomy rates and hospital admission rates for tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Frédéric Chamberland, Tristan Maurina, Séverine Degano-Valmary, Thierry Spicarolen, Loïc Chaigneau
Angiosarcomas are one of the rarest subtypes of sarcomas; those are malignant vascular tumors arising from vascular endothelial cells. Occurrence of intra-oral angiosarcoma is extremely rare (0.0077% of all cancers in Europe). We present here, to our knowledge, the first case of a 83-year-old man with gingival and both palatine tonsils localization of a grade-two angiosarcoma discovered after a two months history of a painful lesion followed by hematoma and spontaneous bleeding. Chemotherapy with paclitaxel and hemostatic radiotherapy were inefficient and he died seven months after the first symptoms...
September 5, 2016: Rare Tumors
Kathrin Günther, Ronja Foraita, Juliane Friemel, Frauke Günther, Jörn Bullerdiek, Rolf Nimzyk, Dominique Nadine Markowski, Thomas Behrens, Wolfgang Ahrens
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor high-mobility AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) is involved in stem cell renewal and is expressed in many tumor tissues. Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) comprise tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and are characterized by high recurrence rates that represent a challenge to patient management. The study addresses the potential of HMGA2 as a molecular biomarker for HNSCC patient survival. METHODS: Patients with HNSCC of the larynx, pharynx, tonsils, or oral cavity were recruited in a hospital-based case-control study (n=202)...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Mohammad Farmarzi, Mahmood Shishegar, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Arash Haghighi, Hadi Sharouny
INTRODUCTION: Adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) may present with growth retardation. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mediates the anabolic effects of growth hormone (GH) on tissues. Most of the circulating IGF-1 molecules are bound to insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum levels reflect the levels of daily mean serum GH and are used as indices for evaluating the serum level of GH. This study aimed to determine the effect of adenotonsillectomy on IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum levels in patients with ATH or recurrent tonsillitis...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Howard Faden, Vincent Callanan, Michael Pizzuto, Mark Nagy, Mark Wilby, Daryl Lamson, Brian Wrotniak, Stefan Juretschko, Kirsten St George
BACKGROUND: Airway obstruction due to enlargement of tonsils and adenoids is a common pediatric problem resulting in sleep disordered breathing. The cause for the relatively abnormal growth of tonsils and adenoids is poorly understood. METHODS: Non-acutely ill children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) for various reasons were enrolled prospectively in a study to determine the frequency of asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in each lymphoid tissue and to relate the number and types of virus to the degree of airway obstruction...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
(no author information available yet)
Our back cover features an immunofluorescence staining for TCR Vα7.2 on both the surface and the cytoplasm of the T lymphocytes (red) in human tonsil. The image is taken from article by Wang et al. (pp. 2409-2419), in which the authors show that Vα7.2(+) mucosa- associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are numerically and functionally altered in peripheral blood (PB) of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients. The reduction of MAIT cells in PB might be partially due to migration into the target tissue, as supported by MAIT cells detected in the salivary gland tissue from pSS patients, but not in controls...
October 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Fatih Bingöl, Hilal Balta, Buket Özel Bingöl, Recai Muhammet Mazlumoğlu, Korhan Kılıç
Lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) is the most commonly encountered congenital neck pathology in the lateral part of the neck. A 66-year-old woman presented to the ENT clinic due to difficulty in swallowing persisting for approximately 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic mass at right tonsil. Surgery was performed due to this unilateral tonsillar mass, which was excised together with the right tonsil. LEC was diagnosed at histopathological examination. LEC in the palatine tonsil is rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
Kathleen Yaremchuk
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty was the first surgical procedure described, other than tracheostomy, for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in 1981. It was recognized then that there were responders who were cured of OSA with the procedure and others that were not. It took many years for a staging system to be described that categorized patients based on Mallampati score, tonsil size, and body mass index to better predict success rates. It was recognized that individuals with retro-palatal obstruction as the cause of the airway obstruction responded well but that the morbidity associated with the inpatient procedure was often problematic...
October 6, 2016: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Xiaofei Bai, Yuzhou Wang, Xin Xu, Zhe Sun, Yan Xiao, Guobiao Ji, Yingying Li, Feifei Tan, Xiangdong Li, Kegong Tian
NADC30-like PRRSV has been recently reported and became endemic in vaccinated pig herds in China. The outbreaks of disease in vaccinated pigs indicated the inefficacy of commercial PRRSV vaccines. In this study, five commercial PRRSV vaccines that have been widely used in China were used to evaluate the efficacy to a NADC30-like PRRSV infection. The vaccinated pigs were challenged with HNjz15, a NADC30-like PRRSV at 28days post vaccination. Compared to unvaccinated pigs, the vaccinated pigs clinically shortened the period of fever with less pig numbers of clinical manifestations and had improved body weight gain at the end of the study...
October 3, 2016: Vaccine
Glenn Harvin, Eslam Ali, Amit Raina, William Leland, Sabeen Abid, Zahid Vahora, Hossein Movahed, Sumyra Kachru, Rick Tee
BACKGROUND: This pilot study examined airway characteristics during upper endoscopy to determine who is at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Patients undergoing routine upper endoscopy were divided into 2 groups according to the Berlin Questionnaire (high and low risk for sleep disordered breathing). Patients underwent routine upper endoscopy using propofol sedation. The airway was then evaluated for no, partial, or complete collapse at the levels of the palate/uvula/tonsils, the tongue base, the hypopharynx, and the larynx...
October 2016: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Stina Syrjänen, Jaana Rautava, Kari Syrjänen
The interesting history of papillomavirus (PV) research has been reviewed before. The history of human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck region starts in 1901 when the contagious transmission of warty lesions into the mouth via oral sex was described, although the confirmation of their viral etiology had to wait until 1907. Ullman was the first to associate the human wart virus with laryngeal warts. Parsons and Kidd described the natural history of oral PV infections in rabbits already in 1942, but these findings were corroborated in humans only recently...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Ewa Zabrocka, Ewa Sierko, Stefan Jelski, Marek Z Wojtukiewicz
We herein report the case of a 74 year-old woman with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and bilateral renal masses identified on computed tomography scans during the initial staging process. Following partial bilateral nephrectomy, histopathological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and oncocytoma in the left and the right kidneys, respectively. Shortly afterwards, lymphoma of the left palatine tonsil was diagnosed and the patient received chemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP regimen), followed by radiotherapy...
October 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Adthakorn Madapong, Gun Temeeyasen, Kepalee Saeng-Chuto, Thitima Tripipat, Wichian Navasakuljinda, Alongkot Boonsoongnern, Angkana Tantituvanont, Dachrit Nilubol
The antibody response and pattern of shedding of vaccine virus following vaccination with modified live genotype I or II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines (MLVs) were investigated. Ninety PRRSV-free pigs were divided randomly seven, groups including the NEG, EU1, EU2, US1, US2, US3 and US4 groups. The NEG group was unvaccinated. The EU1, EU2, US1, US2, US3 and US4 groups were vaccinated with the following MLVs: AMERVAC(®) PRRS, Porcillis(®) PRRS, Fostera™ PRRS, Ingelvac(®) PRRS MLV, Ingelvac(®) PRRS ATP, and PrimePac™ PRRS+ , respectively...
September 30, 2016: Archives of Virology
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