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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140125/diabetes-area-patent-participation-analysis-part-ii-years-2011-2016
#1
Markus Boehm, Matthew Crawford, Jamie E Moscovitz, Philip A Carpino
Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of plasma glucose. When untreated, diabetes increases the risk of developing co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease. Several drugs, often used as part of combination therapies, have been approved to treat the disease, but these drugs will eventually fail to effectively control blood glucose levels, at which point insulin replacement therapy is required. A medical need exists for new anti-diabetic drugs that exhibit good efficacy with improved safety/toleration profiles and can be added on top of existing therapies, or that can provide additional benefits beyond glucose lowering such as pancreatic beta (β)-cell protection...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140112/a-2017-review-of-pharmacotherapy-for-treating-focal-epilepsy-where-are-we-now-and-how-will-treatment-develop
#2
Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
Focal epilepsy is the most common type of epilepsy with approximately 30 million patients affected worldwide. There is a major challenge to develop new antiepileptic treatments as currently approximately one third of patients remain uncontrolled under our best standards of care. Areas covered: An overview is given on first- and second generation antiepileptic drugs and their mechanisms of action, and on recent new strategies for antiepileptic targets, including drugs aiming at disease modification. Expert opinion: Newer antiepileptic drugs have enabled a better tolerated and individualized treatment for many patients...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138883/hallmarks-of-bone-metastasis
#3
REVIEW
Rachelle W Johnson, Larry J Suva
Breast cancer bone metastasis develops as the result of a series of complex interactions between tumor cells, bone marrow cells, and resident bone cells. The net effect of these interactions are the disruption of normal bone homeostasis, often with significantly increased osteoclast and osteoblast activity, which has provided a rational target for controlling tumor progression, with little or no emphasis on tumor eradication. Indeed, the clinical course of metastatic breast cancer is relatively long, with patients likely to experience sequential skeletal-related events (SREs), often over lengthy periods of time, even up to decades...
November 14, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137679/trial-of-acute-femoral-fracture-fixation-traffix-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-trial
#4
Xavier L Griffin, Matthew L Costa, Juul Achten, Melina Dritsaki, Janis Baird, Nicholas Parsons
BACKGROUND: Distal femoral fractures are a source of considerable morbidity and best treatment is currently uncertain. The Trial of Acute Femoral Fracture Fixation (TrAFFix) is a randomised, parallel-group feasibility study designed to inform the design of a later, definitive clinical trial comparing intramedullary nails and locking plates for the treatment of distal femoral fractures. METHODS/DESIGN: Patients aged 50 years and older with a femoral fracture within the distal two Müller squares are potentially eligible for inclusion...
November 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137489/androgen-deprivation-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer-a-focus-on-pharmacokinetics
#5
Charles F Polotti, Christopher J Kim, Nadiya Chuchvara, Alyssa B Polotti, Eric A Singer, Sammy Elsamra
Medical therapy has undergone many changes as our understanding of prostate cancer cell biology has improved. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the mainstay of therapy for metastatic disease. Metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an important concern since we are unable to stop progression with currently available agents. Areas covered: Pharmacologic ADT is the most commonly used treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. Multiple agents are available for both first-line and second-line use: antiandrogens, estrogens, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists/antagonists, and CYP17 inhibitors...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135751/perceptions-experiences-and-preferences-of-patients-receiving-a-clinician-s-touch-during-intimate-care-and-procedures-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#6
Chad O'Lynn, Adam Cooper, Lisa Blackwell
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice frequently involves the practitioner touching patients' bodies in areas that are highly personal. If inappropriately performed, such intimate touch may result in much anxiety, confusion and misinterpretation. Examination of evidence is necessary to guide practice in this area to mitigate risks and foster optimal clinician-patient relations and care. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this qualitative systematic review was to identify and synthesize findings on the perceptions, experiences and preferences of patients receiving a clinician's touch during intimate care and procedures INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: The current review considered studies that included patients who had received a clinician's touch during intimate care and procedures...
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135674/the-pursuit-of-scholarship-why-we-should-care-about-resident-research
#7
Joan E Bechtold, Benjamin R Williams, Stuart L Weinstein, David W Polly, Andrew J Pugely, Joseph A Buckwalter, Stephen A Albanese, Kevin J Bozic, Brian D Snyder
Research is a foundational component of an orthopaedic residency. It fosters intellectual curiosity and pursuit of excellence, while teaching discipline and the scientific method. These are the key principles for careers in both community-based practice and academia. Currently, no consensus exists on how to best engage residents and support their research endeavors. In 2014, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Board of Specialty Societies Research and Quality Committee convened a Clinician-Scientist Collaboration Workgroup...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135578/when-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-fails-preventing-pretreatment-drug-resistance-in-african-children
#8
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Job Calis, Ragna Boerma, Kim Sigaloff, Clement Zeh, Peter Mugyenyi, Sulaimon Akanmu, Tobias F Rinke de Wit
: The scale-up of antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV has significantly reduced new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. However, among infants who become HIV-infected despite prevent mother-to-child transmission, more than 50% have drug-resistant HIV. Given high levels of resistance, WHO recommends the use of protease inhibitors as part of first-line pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) to optimize treatment response, but costs and logistic challenges restrict access...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135537/status-and-perception-of-risk-management-in-radiation-therapy-survey-among-korean-medical-physicists
#9
Sohyun Ahn, Dong Oh Shin, Sang Hyoun Choi, Jihye Koo, Soon Sung Lee, Dong-Wook Park, Yoon-Jin Oh, Sohyun Park, Dong Wook Kim
This study was conducted as part of an endeavor to improve the risk management system of radiation therapy departments in the Republic of Korea. An online survey on the status and perception of Korea's medical physicists on risk management in radiation therapy was carried out. A total of 40 domestic radiation oncology departments participated. This survey is divided into three categories: (1) work environment; (2) risk management status; and (3) opinions on how to improve risk management. Based on the results of the survey, the conclusions that can be derived are (1) the majority of respondents have a high interest in the risk management of radiation therapy; (2) the lack of staffing is one cause of risk management difficulties; (3) a risk-related terminology and classification system at the national or professional association level are required; (4) each hospital should create a voluntary reporting system for the handling of incidents; (5) medical physicists should establish incident reporting, analysis and countermeasures; and (6) government should develop education and training programs...
November 10, 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134824/an-overview-of-the-role-of-carfilzomib-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#10
Dimitrios C Ziogas, Evangelos Terpos, Efstathios Kastritis, Meletios A Dimopoulos
Carfilzomib is a second-generation proteasome inhibitor that binds selectively and irreversibly with the chymotrypsin-like site of the proteolytic core. Its initial approval by the Food and Drug Administration, as monotherapy for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RR-MM), followed soon by a global authorization of its combination with dexamethasone or with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone for the treatment of RR-MM after 1-3 prior lines. In order to optimize its administration, carfilzomib is currently examined in different doses and regimens in relapsed/refractory as well as in newly diagnosed myeloma...
November 14, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134820/pharmacokinetics-of-intravitreal-anti-vegf-drugs-in-vitrectomized-versus-non-vitrectomized-eyes
#11
Magdalena Edington, Julie Connolly, Ngaihang Victor Chong
Introduction The review aims to discuss effects of vitrectomy on pharmacokinetics of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents, and attempt to provide treatment guidance. Areas Covered An Embase search was conducted using the terms 'anti-VEGF', 'pegaptanib', 'ranibizumab', 'bevacizumab', 'aflibercept', 'pharmacokinetics', 'half-life', 'clearance', 'metabolism', 'vitrectomy', 'vitrectomized'. Published data regarding the pharmacokinetic properties of the above drugs and the effect of vitrectomy in animal and human eyes was reviewed...
November 14, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134817/the-bcr-abl1-negative-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-a-review-of-jak-inhibitors-in-the-therapeutic-armamentarium
#12
Martin Griesshammer, Parvis Sadjadian
The classical BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) include primary myelofibrosis (PMF), polycythaemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET). They are characterized by stem cell-derived clonal proliferation, harbour Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), or calreticulin (CALR), or myeloproliferative leukaemia virus oncogene (MPL) driver mutations and exert an over activated JAK-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway. Therefore JAK inhibiting strategies have been successfully investigated in MPN clinical trials...
November 14, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130349/regenerating-%C3%AE-cells-of-the-pancreas-potential-developments-in-diabetes-treatment
#13
Shengli Dong, Hongju Wu
The etiology of diabetes is mainly attributed to insulin deficiency due to the lack of β cells (type 1), or to insulin resistance that eventually results in β cell dysfunction (type 2). Therefore, an ultimate cure for diabetes requires the ability to replace the lost insulin-secreting β cells. Strategies for regenerating β cells are under extensive investigation. Areas covered: Herein, the authors first summarize the mechanisms underlying embryonic β cell development and spontaneous adult β cell regeneration, which forms the basis for developing β cell regeneration strategies...
November 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129904/perception-survey-on-the-introduction-of-clinical-performance-examination-as-part-of-the-national-nursing-licensing-examination-in-korea
#14
Su Jin Shin, Yeong Kyeong Kim, Soon-Rim Suh, Duk Yoo Jung, Yunju Kim, Mi Kyoung Yim
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze opinions about the action plan for implementation clinical performance exam as part of the national nursing licensing examination and presents the expected effects of the performance exam and aspects to consider regarding its implementation. Methods: This study used a mixed-methods design. Quantitative data were collected by a questionnaire survey, while qualitative data were collected by focus group interviews with experts...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128854/pharmacological-management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-in-infants-current-opinions
#15
REVIEW
Mohamed A El-Mahdy, Fatma A Mansoor, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) constitutes a troublesome symptom complex resulting from retrograde passage of gastric contents into the esophagus or extra-esophageal regions. Premature-born, high-risk infants and those with neuro-aero-digestive pathologies are at increased risk. Critical review over the last 3 years was conducted, and current opinions on pharmacological targets include agents aimed at prevention of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, modification of the physico-chemical composition of gastric contents, modification of gut motility, or altering sensory thresholds to ameliorate the troublesome symptoms...
November 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126601/an-international-cross-sectional-survey-of-the-management-of-vancouver-type-b1-periprosthetic-femoral-fractures-around-total-hip-arthroplasties
#16
Brent D Bates, David W Walmsley, Milena R Vicente, Paul R Kuzyk, Aaron Nauth, James P Waddell, Michael D McKee, Emil H Schemitsch
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of periprosthetic femoral fractures around total hip arthroplasties is increasing. Fractures around a stable implant stem (Vancouver type B1) are among the most common of these fractures. Various fixation strategies for Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic fractures have been reported in the literature; however, little high-level evidence exists. This study was designed to determine the current management strategies and opinions among orthopaedic surgeons treating Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic femoral fractures, and to evaluate the need for a large prospective randomized controlled trial for the management of these injuries...
October 26, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125406/bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-first-and-second-generation-agents-for-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cll
#17
Philip A Thompson, Jan A Burger
The BTK inhibitor ibrutinib is effective in both low- and high-risk CLL patients, achieving durable remissions with continuous therapy in the majority of patients. Ibrutinib lacks myelotoxicity and is generally well tolerated by older and unfit patients; however, side effects, such as atrial fibrillation or hemorrhage, can result in treatment interruption or discontinuation. Given the high efficacy and overall safety, ibrutinib is increasingly used in untreated and previously treated CLL patients. Second-generation BTK inhibitors are being developed, with different and generally more BTK-selective kinase inhibition profiles, which may increase the safety and/or efficacy...
November 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125055/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-cerebral-microbleeds-and-implications-for-anticoagulation-decisions-the-need-for-a-balanced-approach
#18
Andreas Charidimou, Ashkan Shoamanesh, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Charlotte Cordonnier, Luke A Perry, Kevin N Sheth, Alessandro Biffi, Jonathan Rosand, Anand Viswanathan
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common hemorrhagic small vessel disease of the brain, often associated with high risk of spontaneous lobar intracerebral hemorrhage. When the suspicion of cerebral amyloid angiopathy is raised, clinicians are hesitant in prescribing oral anticoagulation in patients in whom it is otherwise indicated, including the case of non-valvular atrial fibrillation. This is one of the thorniest clinical dilemmas in the field currently. In this short Leading Opinion piece by an international panel of clinicians-researchers active in the field, we present our consistent approach and future outlook on oral anticoagulation post intracerebral hemorrhage and in the setting of clinical-radiologic evidence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123384/functional-outcomes-by-age-after-inpatient-stroke-rehabilitation-in-saudi-arabia
#19
Saad M Bindawas, Vishal Vennu, Hussam Mawajdeh, Hisham Alhaidary
Background: Among various risk factors, age has been identified as a nonmodifiable risk factor for stroke that influences functional outcomes after inpatient stroke rehabilitation in the developed world as well as in Saudi Arabia (SA). The demand for inpatient stroke rehabilitation services increases with population aging and stroke incidence; however, these services are limited in SA. Objective: To examine functional outcomes by age after inpatient stroke rehabilitation in SA...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122740/the-perceptions-of-medical-school-students-and-faculty-toward-obesity-medicine-education-survey-and-needs-analysis
#20
Mary Metcalf, Karen Rossie, Katie Stokes, Bradley Tanner
BACKGROUND: Recent trends in obesity show that over two-thirds of US adults are considered at least overweight (body mass index, BMI≥25 kg/m(2)) and of those, about one-third are categorized as obese (BMI≥30 kg/m(2)). Physicians can address the health impacts of obesity; yet research has suggested that physicians-in-training frequently fail to recognize obesity, are not properly educated regarding treatment options, and spend relatively little clinic time treating obesity. Medical school is a unique opportunity to address this area of need so that the doctors of tomorrow are prepared to treat obesity appropriately...
November 9, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
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