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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929820/high-dose-interleukin-2-il-2-for-the-treatment-of-melanoma-safety-considerations-and-future-directions
#1
Stephen Marabondo, Howard L Kaufman
In 1998, high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) was the first immunotherapy approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma based on durable objective responses documented in a subset of patients but widespread utilization was limited by significant toxicity. Advances in targeted therapy and the emergence of T cell checkpoint inhibitors, which can generally be given in the ambulatory setting, have further limited consideration of IL-2 for melanoma patients and the role of IL-2 in the current landscape of melanoma treatment is uncertain...
September 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929342/perception-of-originator-biologics-and-biosimilars-a-survey-among-belgian-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-and-rheumatologists
#2
Eline van Overbeeke, Birgit De Beleyr, Jan de Hoon, Rene Westhovens, Isabelle Huys
BACKGROUND: Among patients and rheumatologists, current knowledge and perception of biosimilars in comparison with originator biologics is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate this knowledge and perception in Belgian rheumatologists and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: Anonymous web surveys were conducted in Belgian RA patients (n = 121) and rheumatologists (n = 41) during the period January-March 2016...
September 19, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929012/current-practice-in-the-management-of-new-onset-atrial-fibrillation-in-critically-ill-patients-a-uk-wide-survey
#3
Chung Shen Chean, Daniel McAuley, Anthony Gordon, Ingeborg Dorothea Welters
BACKGROUND: New-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in critically ill patients. Although evidence base and expert consensus opinion for management have been summarised in several international guidelines, no specific considerations for critically ill patients have been included. We aimed to establish current practice of management of critically ill patients with new-onset AF. METHODS: We designed a short user-friendly online questionnaire...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927311/successes-and-failures-in-human-tuberculosis-vaccine-development
#4
Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2016, the WHO estimated 10.5 million new cases and 1.8 million deaths, making this disease the leading cause of death by an infectious agent. The current and projected TB situation necessitates the development of new vaccines with improved attributes compared to the traditional BCG method. Areas covered: In this review, the authors describe the most promising candidate vaccines against TB and discuss additional key elements in vaccine development, such as animal models, new adjuvants and immunization routes and new strategies for the identification of candidate vaccines...
September 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924463/development-of-a-valid-and-reliable-questionnaire-to-identify-professional-opinion-regarding-organ-transplantation-system
#5
B Sah, A Ayer, B N Yadav, S Jha, S K Yadav
BACKGROUND: Currently, the Nepalese law permits organ donation by an individual who falls into the category of a "close relative" of the recipient. There is a need for expansion of the live organ donor pool beside close relatives. Different systems of organ transplantation are followed by several countries and the professional opinions that underpin these systems need to be studied. OBJECTIVE: To generate a questionnaire related to different organ transplant systems and validate it so that it can be used to collect mass professional opinions...
2017: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922023/fatty-acid-synthase-fasn-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-breast-cancer
#6
Javier A Menendez, Ruth Lupu
Ten years ago, we put forward the metabolo-oncogenic nature of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in breast cancer. Since the conception of this hypothesis, which provided a model to explain how FASN is intertwined with various signaling networks to cell-autonomously regulate breast cancer initiation and progression, FASN has received considerable attention as a therapeutic target. However, despite the ever-growing evidence demonstrating the involvement of FASN as part of the cancer-associated metabolic reprogramming, translation of the basic science-discovery aspects of FASN blockade to the clinical arena remains a challenge...
September 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921641/pharmacokinetic-guided-dosing-of-new-oral-cancer-agents
#7
Catherine J Lucas, Jennifer H Martin
Generally, licensed drug-dosing recommendations for chemotherapy are based on results from clinical trials in which subjects are usually of relatively normal body size, middle-aged, and are relatively racially homogeneous, with minimal comorbidity and specific tumor characteristics. Very few nontrial patients meet these characteristics, resulting in clinical practice having to extrapolate dosing recommendations to the specific patient. There is insufficient research on the impact of obesity-associated physiological changes prevalent in patients with common cancers on standard pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920461/discovery-and-development-of-tramadol-for-the-treatment-of-pain
#8
Lidia Bravo, Juan Antonio Mico, Esther Berrocoso
Tramadol is an opioid drug that, unlike classic opioids, also modulates the monoaminergic system by inhibiting noradrenergic and serotoninergic reuptake. For this reason, tramadol is considered an atypical opioid. These special pharmacological characteristics have made tramadol one of the most commonly prescribed analgesic drugs to treat moderate to severe pain. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide a historical description of the biochemistry, pharmacokinetics and particularly, the mechanisms of action of tramadol...
September 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918665/considerations-in-establishing-bioequivalence-of-inhaled-compounds
#9
Irvin Mayers, Mohit Bhutani
Generic inhalers are often perceived as inferior to their branded counterparts; however, they are safe and effective if they can meet the regulatory requirements. The approach to assess bioequivalence (BE) in oral dosage form products is not sufficient to address the complexities of inhalational products (e.g., patient-device interface); hence, more considerations are needed and caution should be applied in determining BE of inhaled compounds. Areas covered: This review outlines the evaluation process for generic inhalers, explores the regulatory approaches in BE assessment, and highlights the considerations and challenges in the current in vitro and in vivo approaches (lung deposition, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic/clinical studies, and patient-device interface) for establishing BE of inhaled compounds...
September 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917678/optical-frequency-domain-imaging-versus-intravascular-ultrasound-in-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-opinion-trial-results-from-the-opinion-imaging-study
#10
Hiromasa Otake, Takashi Kubo, Hachidai Takahashi, Toshiro Shinke, Takayuki Okamura, Kiyoshi Hibi, Gaku Nakazawa, Yoshihiro Morino, Junya Shite, Tetsuya Fusazaki, Ken Kozuma, Tetsuya Ioji, Hideaki Kaneda, Takashi Akasaka
OBJECTIVES: We sought to clarify how intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography affect percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with current-generation drug-eluting stents in a pre-specified substudy of the OPINION (OPtical frequency domain imaging versus INtravascular ultrasound in percutaneous coronary interventiON) trial, a multicenter, prospective, randomized, noninferiority trial comparing optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI)-guided PCI with IVUS-guided PCI...
September 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914561/oral-and-depot-progestin-therapy-for-endometriosis-towards-a-personalized-medicine
#11
Laura Buggio, Edgardo Somigliana, Giussy Barbara, Maria Pina Frattaruolo, Paolo Vercellini
Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory disorder that requires a life-long management plan. Long-term adherence to treatment is pivotal to ensure an effective clinical management. In this optic, one of the cornerstone of endometriosis medical treatment is represented by progestins. Areas covered: This narrative review examines the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral and depot progestins used in the treatment of endometriosis. The material included in the current manuscript was obtained with a MEDLINE search through PubMed from inception until January 2017...
September 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913341/assessing-the-risk-of-a-canine-rabies-incursion-in-northern-australia
#12
Emily G Hudson, Victoria J Brookes, Michael P Ward
Rabies is a globally distributed virus that causes approximately 60,00 human deaths annually with >99% of cases caused by dog bites. Australia is currently canine rabies free. However, the recent eastward spread of rabies in the Indonesian archipelago has increased the probability of rabies entry into northern Australian communities. In addition, many northern Australian communities have large populations of free-roaming dogs, capable of maintaining rabies should an incursion occur. A risk assessment of rabies entry and transmission into these communities is needed to target control and surveillance measures...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912728/-you-re-only-as-strong-as-your-weakest-link-a-current-opinion-about-the-concepts-and-characteristics-of-functional-training
#13
Cauê V La Scala Teixeira, Alexandre L Evangelista, Jefferson S Novaes, Marzo E Da Silva Grigoletto, David G Behm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912289/using-best-interests-meetings-for-people-in-a-prolonged-disorder-of-consciousness-to-improve-clinical-and-ethical-management
#14
Derick T Wade
Current management of people with prolonged disorders of consciousness is failing patients, families and society. The causes include a general lack of concern, knowledge and expertise; a legal and professional framework which impedes timely and appropriate decision-making and/or enactment of the decision; and the exclusive focus on the patient, with no legitimate means to consider the broader consequences of healthcare decisions. This article argues that a clinical pathway based on the principles of (a) the English Mental Capacity Act 2005 and (b) using time-limited treatment trials could greatly improve patient management and reduce stress on families...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911882/aromatase-inhibitors-a-new-approach-for-controlling-ovarian-function-in-cattle
#15
M J Yapura, E M Zwiefelhofer, R A Pierson, G P Adams
Numerous treatments and protocols have been used to control the reproductive cycle in cattle, with varying effectiveness and many involving the administration of steroid hormones. Steroid hormones, such as estradiol, are perceived as having a negative impact on consumer health. This internationally shared opinion has led to a ban on the use of steroid hormones in food producing animals in many countries (i.e., European Union, New Zealand, and Australia). Letrozole, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, inactivates the aromatase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of estrogens by reversibly binding to the "heme" group of the P450 subunit...
September 11, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906153/investigational-drugs-in-phase-ii-clinical-trials-for-the-treatment-of-neuroblastoma
#16
Loredana Amoroso, Riccardo Haupt, Alberto Garaventa, Mirco Ponzoni
Neuroblastoma (NB) is an embryonal tumor originating from undifferentiated neural crest cell, highly heterogeneous ranging from spontaneous regression to progression despite multimodal treatments. Approximately, 20% of patients are refractory to frontline therapy and 50% will relapse/progress after an initial response. The overall five year survival for high-risk neuroblastoma ranges from 35-45%. Despite enhanced understanding of NB biology and the addition of myeloablative chemotherapy, isotretinoin and immunotherapy, survival for high-risk NB remains less than 50%...
September 14, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903875/risk-assessment-of-the-entry-of-canine-rabies-into-papua-new-guinea-via-sea-and-land-routes
#17
Victoria J Brookes, Andy Keponge-Yombo, David Thomson, Michael P Ward
Canine-rabies is endemic in parts of Indonesia and continues to spread eastwards through the Indonesian archipelago. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a land border with Papua Province, Indonesia, as well as logging and fishing industry connections throughout Asia. PNG has a Human Development Index of 0.505; therefore, an incursion of canine-rabies could have devastating impacts on human (7.5 million) and animal populations. Given the known difficulties of rabies elimination in resource-scarce environments, an incursion of rabies into PNG would also likely compromise the campaign for global elimination of rabies...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903644/the-curvilinear-relationship-between-attitude-certainty-and-attitudinal-advocacy
#18
Lauren B Cheatham, Zakary L Tormala
Do people advocate more on behalf of their own attitudes and opinions when they feel certain or uncertain? Although considerable past research suggests that people are more likely to advocate when they feel highly certain, there also is evidence for the opposite effect-that people sometimes advocate more when they experience a loss of certainty. The current research seeks to merge these insights. Specifically, we explore the possibility that the relationship between attitude certainty and attitudinal advocacy is curvilinear...
January 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901643/renal-function-monitoring-in-heart-failure-what-is-the-optimal-frequency-a-narrative-review
#19
REVIEW
A Al-Naher, D J Wright, M A J Devonald, M Pirmohamed
The second most common cause of hospitalisation due to adverse drug reactions in the UK is renal dysfunction due to diuretics, particularly in patients with heart failure, where diuretic therapy is a mainstay of treatment regimens. Therefore the optimal frequency for monitoring renal function in these patients is an important consideration for preventing renal failure and hospitalisation. This review looks at the current evidence for optimal monitoring practices of renal function in patients with heart failure according to national and international guidelines on the management of heart failure (AHA/NICE/ESC/SIGN)...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895370/eosinophilic-esophagitis-current-evidence-based-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-children-and-adults
#20
Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a disease caused by an immune response to food antigens in contact with the esophageal mucosa that has arisen as a common disorder in current clinical practice. Its diagnosis is defined by the combination of symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and inflammation of the esophageal mucosa predominantly by eosinophils. Its chronic course and frequent progression to subepithelial fibrosis leading to strictures and narrow-caliber esophagus indicate the need for treatment. Information provided by recent clinical trials and systematic reviews allowed for the development of new clinical guidelines, endorsed by several European scientific societies...
September 11, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
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