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metabolic alkalosis

Sarah Wills, Hugues Beaufrère, Gwyneth Watrous, Michelle L Oblak, Dale A Smith
CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Kunal Gandhi, Dharmendra Prasad, Vinay Malhotra, Dhananjai Agrawal
Gitelman's syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypocalciuria, and metabolic alkalosis. Hypocalcemic tetany as a presentation of Gitelman's syndrome has rarely been reported in literature. We report a rare case of Gitelman's syndrome presenting with hypocalcemic tetany along with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. A 17-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with a history of perioral numbness and carpal spasms of five days duration with progressive quadriparesis developing over a period of few hours...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Martin Kimmel, Mark Dominik Alscher
The regulation of the acid-base balance and pH is critical for the organism. The most important buffer system is CO2 / HCO3(-). The kidney controls systemic bicarbonate and therefore the metabolic regulation and the lung is relevant for respiratory regulation by an effective CO2 elimination. There are four acid-base disorders with two metabolic and two respiratory disorders (acidosis and alkalosis). The anion gap enables a further workup of metabolic acidosis.
October 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Carolina López, Andrés José Alcaraz, Blanca Toledo, Lucía Cortejoso, Maite Augusta Gil-Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: Patients in PICUs frequently present hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis secondary to loop diuretic treatment, especially those undergoing cardiac surgery. This study evaluates the effectiveness of acetazolamide therapy for metabolic alkalosis in PICU patients. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: A tertiary care children's hospital PICU. PATIENTS: Children receiving at least a 2-day course of enteral acetazolamide...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Anders Breinbjerg, Charlotte Siggaard Rittig, Niels Gregersen, Søren Rittig, Jane Hvarregaard Christensen
AIM: Bartter syndrome is an autosomal recessive inherited disease in which patients present with hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis. We present two apparently non-related cases with antenatal Bartter syndrome type I, due to a novel variant in the SLC12A1 gene encoding the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-(potassium)-chloride cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. METHODS: Blood samples were received from the two cases and 19 of their relatives and deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted...
October 17, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Gouranga Santra, Rudrajit Paul, Avik Karak, Somnath Mukhopadhay
A 22 year-old lady with multi-drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis was on Kanamycin, Cycloserine, Ethionamide, Pyrazinamide and Moxifloxacin since more than two months. She presented with muscle cramps and carpopedal spasm. Investigation revealed hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. She also had hypomagnesemia, hypochloremia and hypocalciuria. Serum urea and creatinine levels were normal. Patient was treated with intravenous and oral potassium chloride. Kanamycin was stopped. Metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia improved gradually over one month...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Simon Green, Jason C Siegler
Biphasic responses of blood HCO3(-) concentration and H(+) concentration following ingestion of 3 doses of NaHCO3 (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 g·kg(-1)) were assessed in 8 men. For HCO3(-) concentration, there were significant effects of dose on maximum responses and timing, as well amplitudes, onsets, and/or time constants of phases 1 and 2. Fewer significant effects of dose were observed for H(+) concentration and additional data demonstrated differential effects of dose on HCO3(-) concentration and H(+) concentration responses and underlying phases...
July 25, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma, Soo Wan Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Chonnam Medical Journal
Özmert Ma Özdemir, Ceren Çıralı, Sebahat Yılmaz Ağladıoğlu, Havva Evrengül, Emre Tepeli, Hacer Ergin
Neonatal Bartter syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder. This disease is characterized by hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and metabolic alkalosis that is often associated with failure to thrive and recurrent episodes of dehydration. The combination of BS and cholelithiasis in an infant is very rare. Herein, we report a premature male infant with NBS who developed cholelithiasis and hydrocephalus on clinical follow up. We recommend that periodic routine hepatobiliary ultrasonograpic screening for cholelithiasis should be performed in patients with NBS...
September 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Jason C George, Deepak Vedamurthy, Maria Bermudez, John W Kennedy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
C Gils, M-C Eckhardt, P E Nielsen, M Nybo
Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Jason C Siegler, Kurt Mudie, Paul Marshall
The effect of metabolic alkalosis on fibre-specific maximal force production and rates of force development (RFD) has been previously investigated in animal models, with evidence suggesting an improved capacity to rapidly develop force in fast- compared to slow-twitch muscle. We have attempted to model in vivo the fatigue profile of voluntary and involuntary maximal force and RFD in the triceps' surae and brachii after sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) ingestion. In a double-blind, 3-way repeated measures design participants (n = 10) ingested either 0...
September 16, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Otto Schück, Miroslava Horáčková
UNLABELLED: The differential diagnosis of hyponatremia is often difficult. This most frequently occurring disorder of the water and electrolyte metabolism is frequently connected with deviations relating to the acid-base balance (ABB). This survey analyzes the relationship between the changes of the volume of body fluids and ABB and infers to what extent the analysis of combinations of the two disorders can support the differential diagnosis of different forms of hyponatremia (differentiation between the dilution vs...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Juan F Masa, Jaime Corral, Auxiliadora Romero, Candela Caballero, Joaquin Terán-Santos, Maria L Alonso-Álvarez, Teresa Gomez-Garcia, Mónica González, Soledad López-Martínez, Pilar De Lucas, José M Marin, Sergi Marti, Trinidad Díaz-Cambriles, Eusebi Chiner, Miguel Merchan, Carlos Egea, Ana Obeso, Babak Mokhlesi
RATIONALE: Low flow supplemental oxygen is commonly prescribed to patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). However, there is a paucity of data regarding its efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVES: To assess the medium-term treatment efficacy of adding supplemental oxygen therapy to commonly prescribed treatment modalities in OHS. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of a previous randomized controlled trial, we studied 302 sequentially screened OHS patients who were randomly assigned to noninvasive ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure, or lifestyle modification...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Jianghui Hou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The paracellular pathway through the tight junction provides an important route for chloride reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidney. This review describes recent findings of how defects in paracellular chloride permeation pathway may cause kidney diseases and how such a pathway may be regulated to maintain normal chloride homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: The tight junction in the collecting duct expresses two important claudin genes - claudin-4 and claudin-8...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
(no author information available yet)
<strong>Objective </strong>To investigate the value of chloride clearance test in differential diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome (GS). <strong>Methods </strong>For patients with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and highly suspected GS,clinical data were documented and SLC12A3 gene screening was performed as gold standard to diagnose GS. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) test and furosemide (FUR) test were performed according to the standard process. Baseline and maximal increasement of chloride excretion fraction (FECl,the net and relative increase measured as εFECl) were compared between patients and controls to evaluated the reaction to the corresponding diuretics...
June 10, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Ricardo Villa-Bellosta, Emilio González-Parra, Jesús Egido
BACKGROUND: Extracellular pyrophosphate is a potent endogenous inhibitor of vascular calcification, which is degraded by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and generated by hydrolysis of ATP via ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (eNPP1). ALP activity (as routinely measured in clinical practice) represents the maximal activity (in ideal conditions), but not the real activity (in normal or physiological conditions). For the first time, the present study investigated extracellular pyrophosphate metabolism during hemodialysis sessions (including its synthesis via eNPP1 and its degradation via ALP) in physiological conditions...
2016: PloS One
Yaerim Kim, Seong Sik Kang, Woo Yeong Park, Kyubok Jin, Dae-Kwang Kim, Seungyeup Han
A 42-year-old man came to the hospital presenting chest discomfort and general weakness. He had come to the hospital with the same symptoms 3 months ago and 12 years prior. His laboratory test showed hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. The arterial blood gas analysis showed hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. He had an ultrasonography guided renal biopsy, the result was normal at light microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy. However, a special stain for Na-Cl cotransporter was weakly expressed compared with the control...
June 2016: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
Tommaso Azzarito, Luana Lugini, Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini, Rossella Canese, Alessio Gugliotta, Stefano Fidanza, Stefano Fais
Tumor extracellular acidity is a hallmark of malignant cancers. Thus, in this study we evaluated the effects of the oral administration of a commercially available water alkalizer (Basenpulver®) (BP) on tumor growth in a syngenic melanoma mouse model. The alkalizer was administered daily by oral gavage starting one week after tumor implantation in CB57/BL mice. Tumors were calipered and their acidity measured by in vivo MRI guided 31P MRS. Furthermore, urine pH was monitored for potential metabolic alkalosis...
2016: PloS One
Manoocher Soleimani, Sharon Barone, Jie Xu, Saeed Alshahrani, Marybeth Brooks, Francis X McCormack, Roger D Smith, Kamyar Zahedi
Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO) mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion...
2016: PloS One
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