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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081589/preemptive-antiviral-therapy-with-entecavir-can-reduce-acute-deterioration-of-hepatic-function-following-transarterial-chemoembolization
#1
Sun Hong Yoo, Jeong Won Jang, Jung Hyun Kwon, Seung Min Jung, Bohyun Jang, Jong Young Choi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatic damage during transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a critical complication in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Apart from its role in preventing HBV reactivation, there is some evidence for the benefits of preemptive antiviral therapy in TACE. This study evaluated the effect of preemptive antiviral therapy on acute hepatic deterioration following TACE. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included a prospectively collected cohort of 108 patients with HBV-related HCC who underwent TACE between January 2007 and January 2013...
December 2016: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079146/nitrosative-stress-induced-disruption-of-baroreflex-neural-circuits-in-a-rat-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-dti-study
#2
Ching-Yi Tsai, Chia-Hao Su, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
The onset of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in liver failure is associated with high mortality; the underlying mechanism is undecided. Here we report that in an acute liver failure model employing intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide in Sprague-Dawley rats, diffusion weighted imaging revealed a progressive reduction in apparent diffusion coefficient in the brain stem. Diffusion tensor imaging further showed that the connectivity between nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the terminal site of baroreceptor afferents in brain stem and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of sympathetic innervation of blood vessels, was progressively disrupted until its disappearance, coincidental with the irreversible cessation of baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone signifying clinically the occurrence of brain death...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078470/appropriate-timing-to-start-and-optimal-response-evaluation-of-high-dose-corticosteroid-therapy-for-patients-with-acute-liver-failure
#3
Keisuke Kakisaka, Kojiro Kataoka, Yuji Suzuki, Hidekatsu Kuroda, Yasuhiro Takikawa
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid therapy has been commonly administered to patients with acute liver injury (ALI)/acute liver failure (ALF) in Japan to prevent the development of hepatic encephalopathy, but the appropriate timing to start corticosteroid therapy has not been determined and optimal response evaluation of the therapy has not been conducted. We prospectively investigated the optimal timing to start therapy on the established severity indication: the Japan Hepatic Encephalopathy Prediction Model (JHEPM) and prothrombin time (PT)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076712/hepatic-encephalopathy
#4
LETTER
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074668/in-vivo-evidence-of-nephrotoxicity-and-altered-hepatic-function-in-rats-following-administration-of-diglycolic-acid-a-metabolite-of-diethylene-glycol
#5
Corie N Robinson, Brian Latimer, Fleurette Abreo, Kiera Broussard, Kenneth E McMartin
CONTEXT: Diglycolic acid (DGA) is one of the two primary metabolites of diethylene glycol (DEG). DEG is an industrial solvent that has been implicated in mass poisonings resulting from product misuse in the United States and worldwide, with the hallmark toxicity being acute kidney injury, hepatotoxicity, encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Our laboratory has generated in-vitro evidence suggesting that DGA is the metabolite responsible for the proximal tubule necrosis and decreased kidney function observed following DEG ingestion...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070704/sleep-disturbances-in-patients-of-liver-cirrhosis-with-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-before-and-after-lactulose-therapy
#6
Jatinderpal Singh, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Vinod Puri, Sanjeev Sachdeva, Siddharth Srivastava
Sleep disturbances are common in patients of cirrhosis with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and affect health related quality of life (HRQOL). No study has evaluated effect of lactulose on sleep disturbances and correlation with HRQOL in patients with MHE. We assessed sleep disturbances in cirrhosis with MHE and effect of lactulose on sleep disturbances and HRQOL. One hundred patients of cirrhosis [MHE; (n = 50, age 45.3 ± 11.2 years, 45 males) no-MHE (n = 50, age 46.3 ± 10.4 years, 44 males)] were included...
January 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069286/hepatic-encephalopathy
#7
REVIEW
Adam G Gow
This article reviews hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in companion animals. Clinical signs and categories of hepatic disease likely to cause HE are discussed. Ammonia has a key role in pathogenesis and current concepts in body ammonia metabolism are reviewed. Inflammation and manganese accumulation are also thought to be important in pathogenesis. Treatment of HE in acute and chronic cases is discussed along with the rationale for current treatment recommendations. Potential avenues for new treatments and human treatments, which may be transferable to companion animals, are reviewed...
January 6, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066966/updating-neuropsychological-test-system-for-the-elderly-and-modern-touch-screen-tablet-society-by-resetting-of-the-cut-off-values
#8
Takumi Kawaguchi, Mika Konishi, Akinobu Kato, Motoichiro Kato, Yohei Kooka, Kei Sawara, Ryujin Endo, Takuji Torimura, Kazuyuki Suzuki, Yasuhiro Takikawa
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is frequently seen in cirrhotic patients. CHE can be diagnosed by a computerized neuropsychological test system (NPT); however, NPT has not been updated about two decades in Japan. The aim of this study is to update the NPT for fitting the elderly and modern society by resetting of the cut-off values. METHODS: We enrolled 367 healthy subjects with 40 to 79 years old between 2003 and 2010. NPT consist of following 8 tests: number connection tests A and B, a figure position test, a digit symbol test, a block design test, and reaction time test A, B, and C...
January 8, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066916/ammonia-mediates-cortical-hemichannel-dysfunction-in-rodent-models-of-chronic-liver-disease
#9
Anna Hadjihambi, Francesco De Chiara, Patrick S Hosford, Abeba Habtetion, Anastassios Karagiannis, Nathan Davies, Alexander V Gourine, Rajiv Jalan
: The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in cirrhosis is multifactorial and ammonia is thought to play a key role. Astroglial dysfunction is known to be present in HE. Astrocytes are extensively connected by gap junctions formed of connexins, which also exist as functional hemichannels allowing exchange of molecules between the cytoplasm and the extracellular milieu. The astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis suggests that neuronal activity is fuelled (at least in part) by lactate provided by neighbouring astrocytes...
January 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065671/glutamine-triggers-long-lasting-increase-in-striatal-network-activity-in-vitro
#10
Wiebke Fleischer, Stephan Theiss, Alfons Schnitzler, Olga Sergeeva
Accumulation of ammonium and glutamine in blood and brain is a key factor in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) - a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by various cognitive and motor deficits. MRI imaging identified abnormalities notably in the basal ganglia of HE patients, including its major input station, the striatum. While neurotoxic effects of ammonia have been extensively studied, glutamine is primarily perceived as "detoxified" form of ammonia. We applied ammonium and glutamine to striatal and cortical cells from newborn rats cultured on microelectrode arrays...
January 6, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059938/the-effects-of-probiotics-and-symbiotics-on-risk-factors-for-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#11
Daniela Viramontes Hörner, Amanda Avery, Ruth Stow
Alterations in the levels of intestinal microbiota, endotoxemia, and inflammation are novel areas of interest in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Probiotics and symbiotics are a promising treatment option for HE due to possible beneficial effects in modulating gut microflora and might be better tolerated and more cost-effective than the traditional treatment with lactulose, rifaximin or L-ornithine-L-aspartate. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted for randomized controlled clinical trials in adult patients with cirrhosis, evaluating the effect of probiotics and symbiotics in changes on intestinal microflora, reduction of endotoxemia, inflammation, and ammonia, reversal of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), and improvement of quality of life...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059612/fecal-microbial-transplantation-as-a-therapeutic-option-in-patients-colonized-with-antibiotic-resistant-organisms
#12
Michael Laffin, Braden Millan, Karen L Madsen
Despite increasing interest in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), its full therapeutic potential has yet to be determined. Since its increase in popularity, FMT has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of both Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its recurrent form. Interest in FMT now expands well beyond the treatment of CDI to other processes with known associations to the microbiota such as antibiotic resistant infections, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hepatic encephalopathy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and metabolic disease...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058594/an-algorithm-for-management-after-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt-placement-according-to-clinical-manifestations
#13
REVIEW
Seung Kwon Kim, Bryan G Belikoff, Carlos J Guevara, Seong Jin Park
We propose an algorithm for management after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement according to clinical manifestations. For patients with an initial good clinical response, surveillance Doppler ultrasound is recommended to detect stenosis or occlusion. A TIPS revision can be performed using basic or advanced techniques to treat stenosis or occlusion. In patients with an initial poor clinical response, a TIPS venogram with pressure measurements should be performed to assess shunt patency...
January 5, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055330/hepatic-lipodystrophy-in-galloway-calves
#14
M Wieland, S Mann, A Hafner-Marx, A Ignatius, M Metzner
Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051803/%C3%A2-observational-cohort-study-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-after-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt-tips
#15
Michaela Routhu, Vaclav Safka, Sunil Kumar Routhu, Tomas Fejfar, Vaclav Jirkovsky, Antonin Krajina, Eva Cermakova, Ladislav Hosak
:  Introduction and Aim: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS). It is associated with a reduced quality of life and poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare two groups of patients who did and did not develop overt HE after TIPS. We looked for differences between these groups before TIPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study of 895 patients was conducted based on a retrospective analysis of clinical data...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051800/%C3%A2-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhosis-how-long-to-treat
#16
Omesh Goyal, Sandeep S Sidhu, Harsh Kishore
INTRODUCTION: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) can reverse after short-term treatment. However, relapse rate of MHE after stopping treatment has not been studied so far. We aimed to evaluate long-term (9 months) efficacy of a short-term (3 months) treatment of MHE with lactulose/rifaximin, for maintenance of remission from MHE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, consecutive patients with cirrhosis and MHE were treated with lactulose/rifaximin for 3 months...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044452/nitric-oxide-mediates-effects-of-acute-not-chronic-naltrexone-on-lps-induced-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhotic-rats
#17
Bentolhoda Ghiassy, Nastaran Rahimi, Mehrak Javadi-Paydar, Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi, Abbas Norouzi-Javidan, Ahmad R Dehpour
Recent studies suggest endogenous opioids and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In this study, the interaction between the opioid receptor antagonist and NO was investigated on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced HE in cirrhotic rats. Male rats were divided in the sham- and bile duct ligation (BDL)-operated groups. Animals were treated with saline; naltrexone (10 mg/kg, i.p.); or L-NAME (3 mg/kg, i.p.), alone or in combination with naltrexone. To induce HE, LPS (1 mg/kg, i...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039670/hepatic-encephalopathy-is-associated-with-persistent-learning-impairments-despite-adequate-medical-treatment-a-multicenter-international-study
#18
Silvia Nardelli, Sanath Allampati, Oliviero Riggio, Kevin D Mullen, Ravi Prakash, Stefania Gioia, Ariel Unser, Melanie B White, Andrew C Fagan, James B Wade, Alessio Farcomeni, Edith A Gavis, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is considered reversible regarding mental status but may not be cognitively in single-center studies. AIM: To evaluate persistence of learning impairment in prior HE compared to those who never experienced HE (no-HE) in a multicenter study. METHODS: A total of 174 outpatient cirrhotics from three centers (94 Virginia, 30 Ohio, and 50 Rome; 36 prior HE) underwent psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) and inhibitory control (ICT) testing at baseline and then at least 7 days apart...
December 30, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031453/acute-liver-failure-meets-soph-syndrome-a-case-report-on-an-intermediate-phenotype
#19
Fanny Kortüm, Iris Marquardt, Malik Alawi, Georg Christoph Korenke, Stephanie Spranger, Peter Meinecke, Kerstin Kutsche
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening condition in the absence of preexisting liver disease in children. The main clinical presentation comprises hepatic dysfunction, elevated liver biochemical values, and coagulopathy. The etiology of ALF remains unclear in most affected children; however, the recent identification of mutations in the neuroblastoma amplified sequence (NBAS) gene in autosomal recessively inherited ALF has shed light on the cause of a subgroup of fever-triggered pediatric ALF episodes...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027071/covert-hepatic-encephalopathy-can-my-patient-drive
#20
Jawaid Shaw, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Liver cirrhosis is a public health problem and hepatic encephalopathy is one of its main complications, which can be either overt meaning thereby evident and readily diagnosed, or covert/minimal (covert hepatic encephalopathy-CHE) needing psychometric testing for diagnosis. Patients with CHE hepatic encephalopathy have deficits in multiple domains including visuospatial assessment, attention, response inhibition, working memory, along with psychomotor speed to name a few areas. These patients have poor navigational skills, get fatigued easily, and demonstrate poor insight into their driving deficits...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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