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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231271/applying-antibody-sensitive-hypervariable-region-1-deleted-hepatitis-c-virus-to-the-study-of-escape-pathways-of-neutralizing-human-monoclonal-antibody-ar5a
#1
Rodrigo Velázquez-Moctezuma, Mansun Law, Jens Bukh, Jannick Prentoe
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of end-stage liver diseases. With 3-4 million new HCV infections yearly, a vaccine is urgently needed. A better understanding of virus escape from neutralizing antibodies and their corresponding epitopes are important for this effort. However, for viral isolates with high antibody resistance, or antibodies with moderate potency, it remains challenging to induce escape mutations in vitro. Here, as proof-of-concept, we used antibody-sensitive HVR1-deleted (ΔHVR1) viruses to generate escape mutants for a human monoclonal antibody, AR5A, targeting a rare cross-genotype conserved epitope...
February 23, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222098/multicenter-study-of-skin-rashes-and-hepatotoxicity-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-positive-patients-receiving-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-plus-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-in-taiwan
#2
Pei-Ying Wu, Chien-Yu Cheng, Chun-Eng Liu, Yi-Chien Lee, Chia-Jui Yang, Mao-Song Tsai, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Shih-Ping Lin, De-Yu Lin, Ning-Chi Wang, Yi-Chieh Lee, Hsin-Yun Sun, Hung-Jen Tang, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVES: Two nucleos(t)ide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus 1 non-NRTI (nNRTI) remain the preferred or alternative combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive patients in Taiwan. The three most commonly used nNRTIs are nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and rilpivirine (RPV). This study aimed to determine the incidences of hepatotoxicity and skin rashes within 4 weeks of initiation of cART containing 1 nNRTI plus 2 NRTIs. METHODS: Between June, 2012 and November, 2015, all antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive adult patients initiating nNRTI-containing cART at 8 designated hospitals for HIV care were included in this retrospective observational study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219610/bictegravir-versus-dolutegravir-each-with-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-alafenamide-for-initial-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection-a-randomised-double-blind-phase-2-trial
#3
Paul E Sax, Edwin DeJesus, Gordon Crofoot, Douglas Ward, Paul Benson, Robin Dretler, Anthony Mills, Cynthia Brinson, Julie Peloquin, Xuelian Wei, Kirsten White, Andrew Cheng, Hal Martin, Erin Quirk
BACKGROUND: All recent treatment guidelines recommend integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) as components of initial HIV therapy. Bictegravir, a novel, once-daily, unboosted INSTI, showed potent activity in a 10 day monotherapy study and has a high in-vitro resistance barrier. On the basis of these results, we did a phase 2 trial comparing bictegravir with dolutegravir. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, phase 2 trial, we recruited previously untreated adults (aged ≥18 years) with HIV-1 infections from 22 outpatient centres in the USA...
February 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199798/the-hotel-study-clinical-and-health-service-effectiveness-in-a-cohort-of-homeless-or-marginally-housed-persons
#4
William G Honer, Alejandro Cervantes-Larios, Andrea A Jones, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Julio S Montaner, Howard Tran, Jimmy Nham, William J Panenka, Donna J Lang, Allen E Thornton, Talia Vertinsky, Alasdair M Barr, Ric M Procyshyn, Geoffrey N Smith, Tari Buchanan, Mel Krajden, Michael Krausz, G William MacEwan, Kristina M Gicas, Olga Leonova, Verena Langheimer, Alexander Rauscher, Krista Schultz
OBJECTIVE: The Hotel Study was initiated in Vancouver's Downtown East Side (DTES) neighborhood to investigate multimorbidity in homeless or marginally housed people. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of existing, illness-specific treatment strategies and assessed the effectiveness of health care delivery for multimorbid illnesses. METHOD: For context, we mapped the housing locations of patients presenting for 552,062 visits to the catchment hospital emergency department (2005-2013)...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188030/unveiling-of-hiv-dynamics-among-transgender-women-a-respondent-driven-sampling-study-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#5
Beatriz Grinsztejn, Emilia M Jalil, Laylla Monteiro, Luciane Velasque, Ronaldo I Moreira, Ana Cristina F Garcia, Cristiane V Castro, Alícia Krüger, Paula M Luz, Albert Y Liu, Willi McFarland, Susan Buchbinder, Valdilea G Veloso, Erin C Wilson
BACKGROUND: The burden of HIV in transgender women (transwomen) in Brazil remains unknown. We aimed to estimate HIV prevalence among transwomen in Rio de Janeiro and to identify predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections. METHODS: We recruited transwomen from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by respondent-driven sampling. Eligibility criteria were self-identification as transwomen, being 18 years of age or older, living in Rio de Janeiro or its metropolitan area, and having a valid peer recruitment coupon...
February 7, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164720/applications-of-computer-aided-approaches-in-the-development-of-hepatitis-c-antiviral-agents
#6
Aravindhan Ganesan, Khaled Barakat
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem that causes several chronic life-threatening liver diseases. The numbers of people affected by HCV are rising annually. Since 2011, the FDA has approved several anti-HCV drugs; while many other promising HCV drugs are currently in late clinical trials. Areas covered: This review discusses the applications of different computational approaches in HCV drug design. Expert opinion: Molecular docking and virtual screening approaches have emerged as a low-cost tool to screen large databases and identify potential small-molecule hits against HCV targets...
February 4, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151750/hepatitis-c-in-a-mobile-low-threshold-methadone-program
#7
Mário J Silva, Cláudia Pereira, Rafaela Loureiro, Catarina Balsa, Paulo Lopes, Ivone Água-Doce, Elsa Belo, Helena C Martins, Rodrigo Coutinho, Elizabeth Pádua
INTRODUCTION: Data on the epidemiology of hepatitis C among individuals who use drugs in low-threshold settings are lacking, although crucial to assess the burden of disease and aid in the design of treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and disease related to hepatitis C in a population attending a low-threshold methadone program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study in the population attending the Mobile Low-Threshold Methadone Program in Lisbon, Portugal, was carried out...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150510/quality-of-life-in-an-italian-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-the-era-of-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-evidence-from-i-a-n-u-a-study-investigation-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
A Venturini, G Cenderello, A Di Biagio, B Giannini, M Ameri, M Giacomini, M Montefiori, M Setti, G Mazzarello, C Merlano, P Orcamo, C Viscoli, G Cassola
The aims of this study were to assess the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who attend outpatient services in Genoa, Italy, and to evaluate the relationship between HRQoL and clinical factors, primarily: CD4+ cell count, viral load and HIV-Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) coinfection. A cross-sectional study was performed involving a sample of 943 consecutive patients. Firstly the EuroQol-Five Dimensions-Three Level (EQ-5D-3L) self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate HRQoL, while socio-demographic information was collected using a separate self-administered questionnaire...
February 2, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148799/computational-prediction-of-the-heterodimeric-and-higher-order-structure-of-gpe1-gpe2-envelope-glycoproteins-encoded-by-the-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv
#9
Holly Freedman, Michael R Logan, Darren Hockman, Julia Koehler Leman, John Lok Man Law, Michael Houghton
: Despite the recent success of newly developed direct acting antivirals against Hepatitis C, the disease continues to be a global health threat due to lack of diagnosis of most carriers and the high cost of treatment. The heterodimer formed by the glycoproteins E1 and E2 within the hepatitis C virus (HCV) lipid envelope is a potential vaccine candidate and antiviral target. While the structure of E1/E2 has not yet been resolved, partial crystal structures of the E1 and E2 ectodomains have been determined...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132048/-donation-and-some-problems-of-defect-of-donor-s-blood
#10
K Tashtemirov, S Imangazinov, O Tashtemirova, V Egoshin
There was analyzed the prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors and its components by examining the monitoring of donor withdrawal to donations, the absolute structure of defect in the Blood Center of Pavlodar region (BCPR) of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The results quality was ensured by the compliance of the rules and conditions of the analytical and post analytical stages of the internal quality control. It is shown that the need to improve the work of a single donor's information center (EDITS), because Only 11...
December 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122494/hyponatremia-is-a-marker-of-disease-severity-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Philippe Braconnier, Marc Delforge, Maria Garjau, Karl Martin Wissing, Stéphane De Wit
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is a frequent electrolyte disorder in HIV-infected patients with a prevalence of up to 56% in the pre-cART era. Several studies have demonstrated that patients with hyponatremia are at an increased risk of death. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of hyponatremia in the recent cART-era and evaluate its association with mortality. METHODS: Single-center retrospective cohort study. A total of 1196 newly diagnosed and cART-naïve HIV patients followed at the AIDS Reference Center, St Pierre University Hospital in Brussels, Belgium, between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2013 were included...
January 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060856/hiv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-fatty-infiltration-of-the-thigh-muscle-with-aging-independent-of-fat-distribution
#12
Javzandulam Natsag, Kristine M Erlandson, Deborah E Sellmeyer, Sabina A Haberlen, Joseph Margolick, Lisa P Jacobson, Frank J Palella, Susan L Koletar, Jordan E Lake, Wendy S Post, Todd T Brown
BACKGROUND: Lower muscle density on computed tomography (CT) provides a measure of fatty infiltration of muscle, an aspect of muscle quality that has been associated with metabolic abnormalities, weakness, decreased mobility, and increased fracture risk in older adults. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between HIV serostatus, age, thigh muscle attenuation, and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Mean CT-quantified Hounsfield units (HU) of the thigh muscle bundle and CSA were evaluated in 368 HIV-infected and 145 HIV-uninfected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) Cardiovascular Substudy using multivariable linear regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047564/su-f-j-221-adjusted-dose-and-its-relation-to-radiation-induced-liver-disease-during-hepatocellular-carcinoma-radiotherapy
#13
P Huang, H Li, J Chen, C Ma, Y Gang, S Qin, Y Yin, D Li
PURPOSE: Many patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) had hepatic anatomy variations as a result of inter-fraction deformation during fractionated radiotherapy, which may result in difference from the planned dose. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adjusted dose and radiation induced liver disease (RILD) in HCC patients receiving three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). METHODS: Twenty-three HCC patients received conventional fractionated 3DCRT were enrolled in this retrospective investigation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998171/co-infections-of-tuberculosis-hepatitis-b-or-c-viruses-in-a-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-china-predictors-and-sequelae
#14
Chen Zhang, Xiaoming Li, Yu Liu, Shan Qiao, Yi Chen, Yuejiao Zhou, Zhiyong Shen
The co-infection of viral hepatitis and tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) makes the syndemic of HIV even worse as there is higher mortality and morbidity among PLWHA with co-infections compared to people with HIV mono-infection. In the current study, we explored predictors and sequelae among a group of Chinese PLWHA to guide future program strategies and enhance the repertoire of action for both preventative and clinical purposes. Between October 2012 and August 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) of China...
December 21, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956454/hepatitis-c-infection-and-the-risk-of-non-liver-related-morbidity-and-mortality-in-hiv-positive-persons-in-the-swiss-hiv-cohort-study
#15
Helen Kovari, Andri Rauch, Roger Kouyos, Mathieu Rougemont, Matthias Cavassini, Patrick Schmid, Marcel Stöckle, Enos Bernasconi, Rainer Weber, Bruno Ledergerber
BACKGROUND: HCV infection has been associated with increased non-liver-related morbidity and mortality. However, studies have yielded inconsistent results. METHODS: The incidence of clinical events in HIV-infected HCV-seropositive and incidence-density-matched HCV-seronegative participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study from 08/1994 to 12/2014 was studied. We compared firstly, HCV-seropositive with HCV-seronegative participants, and secondly, HCV-viremic with successfully treated nonviremic patients...
December 12, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932294/large-scale-structure-based-prediction-and-identification-of-novel-protease-substrates-using-computational-protein-design
#16
Manasi A Pethe, Aliza B Rubenstein, Sagar D Khare
Characterizing the substrate specificity of protease enzymes is critical for illuminating the molecular basis of their diverse and complex roles in a wide array of biological processes. Rapid and accurate prediction of their extended substrate specificity would also aid in the design of custom proteases capable of selectively and controllably cleaving biotechnologically or therapeutically relevant targets. However, current in silico approaches for protease specificity prediction, rely on, and are therefore limited by, machine learning of sequence patterns in known experimental data...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931691/risk-assessment-of-hepatotoxicity-among-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-aids-coinfected-patients-under-tuberculosis-treatment
#17
Williams Ngouleun, Prosper Cabral Biapa Nya, Anatole Constant Pieme, Phelix Bruno Telefo
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide public health problem. It is a contagious and grave disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Current drugs such as isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and rifampicin used for the treatment of tuberculosis are potentially hepatotoxic and can lead to drug hepatitis. In order to improve the follow-up of TB patients in Cameroon, we carried out a study which aimed to evaluate the hepatotoxicity risk factors associated with anti-TB drugs. METHODS: The studies were performed on 75 participants who had visited the Loum District Hospital located in the littoral region of Cameroon for their routine consultation...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931232/retention-in-georgia-opioid-substitution-therapy-program-and-associated-factors
#18
Ekaterine Ruadze, Khatuna Todadze
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse has been considered as a growing challenge in Georgia that is closely linked with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C transmission due to unsafe injection and other uncontrolled behaviors. Methadone maintenance therapy is one of the major treatment options for opioid-dependent individuals. It has proven efficacy in decreasing illegal opioid consumption and criminal behavior as well as reducing the level of HIV infection, mortality, HCV infection, and increasing social functioning...
December 8, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927207/acute-glycaemic-effects-of-co-trimoxazole-at-prophylactic-dose-in-healthy-adults
#19
Bernold Kenteu, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Martine Claude Etoa, Marcel Azabji-Kenfack, Mesmin Dehayem, Eugene Sobngwi
BACKGROUND: Cases of severe hypoglycaemia were reported in HIV/AIDS patients receiving high dose of the sulfonylurea co-trimoxazole for opportunistic infections. Whether co-trimoxazole at prophylactic dose would induce similar side effects is unknown. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of co-trimoxazole at prophylactic dose on glucose metabolism in healthy adults. METHODS: We enrolled 20 healthy volunteers (15 males and 5 females) aged 23.0 (SD 2.0) years, with mean BMI of 22...
November 15, 2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922518/hepatitis-c-point-of-care-testing-in-vulnerable-populations-a-human-factors-study
#20
Donna M Zucker, Akshaya Shanmugam
One third of all hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases in the United States are incarcerated in jails and prisons. Hepatitis C virus testing is primarily accomplished through a clinical laboratory, yet point-of-care (POC) testing is less invasive and results are available in 20 minutes compared with up to 3 weeks. The purpose of this article was to describe the findings of a collaborative project between the Colleges of Engineering and Nursing at the University of Massachusetts Amherst in executing a human factors study for HCV antibody testing and screening...
November 2016: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
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