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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135773/tree-based-claims-algorithm-for-measuring-pretreatment-quality-of-care-in-medicare-disabled-hepatitis-c-patients
#1
Viktor V Chirikov, Fadia T Shaya, Ebere Onukwugha, C Daniel Mullins, Susan dosReis, Charles D Howell
BACKGROUND: To help broaden the use of machine-learning approaches in health services research, we provide an easy-to-follow framework on the implementation of random forests and apply it to identify quality of care (QC) patterns correlated with treatment receipt among Medicare disabled patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Using Medicare claims 2006-2009, we identified 1936 patients with 6 months continuous enrollment before HCV diagnosis. We ran a random forest on 14 pretreatment QC indicators, extracted the forest's representative tree, and aggregated its terminal nodes into 4 QC groups predictive of treatment...
December 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118282/the-role-of-bile-acids-in-glucose-metabolism-and-their-relation-with-diabetes
#2
José Alberto González-Regueiro, Lidia Moreno-Castañeda, Misael Uribe, Norberto C Chávez-Tapia
Bile acids (BAs), the end products of cholesterol catabolism, are essential for the absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins; but they have also emerged as novel signaling molecules that act as metabolic regulators. It has been well described that the enterohepatic circulation, a nuclear (FXR) and a cytoplasmic (TGR5/M-BAR) receptor aid in controlling hepatic bile acid synthesis. Modulating bile acid synthesis greatly impacts in metabolism, because these receptors also are implicated in glucose, lipid, and energy expenditure...
October 4, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109369/effects-of-melatonin-on-glucose-homeostasis-antioxidant-ability-and-adipokine-secretion-in-icr-mice-with-na-stz-induced-hyperglycemia
#3
Chung-Cheng Lo, Shyh-Hsiang Lin, Jung-Su Chang, Yi-Wen Chien
Diabetes is often associated with decreased melatonin level. The aim was to investigate the effects of different dosage of melatonin on glucose hemostasis, antioxidant ability and adipokines secretion in diabetic institute for cancer research (ICR) mice. Forty animals were randomly divided into five groups including control (C), diabetic (D), low-dosage (L), medium-dosage (M), and high-dosage (H) groups. Groups L, M, and H, respectively, received oral melatonin at 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg of BW (body weight) daily after inducing hyperglycemia by nicotinamide (NA)/ streptozotocin (STZ)...
October 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103633/cd8-cd28-cd127-lo-cd39-regulatory-t-cell-expansion-a%C3%A2-new-possible-pathogenic-mechanism-for-hiv-infection
#4
Daniela Fenoglio, Chiara Dentone, Alessio Signori, Antonio Di Biagio, Alessia Parodi, Francesca Kalli, Giorgia Nasi, Monica Curto, Giovanni Cenderello, Pasqualina De Leo, Valentina Bartolacci, Giancarlo Orofino, Laura Ambra Nicolini, Lucia Taramasso, Edoardo Fiorillo, Valeria Orrù, Paolo Traverso, Bianca Bruzzone, Federico Ivaldi, Eugenio Mantia, Michele Guerra, Simone Negrini, Mauro Giacomini, Sanjay Bhagani, Gilberto Filaci
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated immunodeficiency is related to loss of CD4(+) T cells. This mechanism does not explain certain manifestations of HIV disease, such as immunodeficiency events in patients with greater than 500 CD4(+) T cells/μL. CD8(+)CD28(-)CD127(lo)CD39(+) T cells are regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes that are highly concentrated within the tumor microenvironment and never analyzed in the circulation of HIV-infected patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to analyze the frequency of CD8(+)CD28(-)CD127(lo)CD39(+) Treg cells in the circulation of HIV-infected patients...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097998/differential-relationships-among-circulating-inflammatory-and-immune-activation-biomediators-and-impact-of-aging-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-a-cohort-of-injection-drug-users
#5
Gregory D Kirk, Stewart Dandorf, Huifen Li, Yiyin Chen, Shruti H Mehta, Damani A Piggott, Joseph B Margolick, Sean X Leng
As individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection live longer, aging and age-related chronic conditions have become major health concerns for this vulnerable population. Substantial evidence suggests that chronic inflammation and immune activation contribute significantly to chronic conditions in people aging with or without HIV infection. As a result, increasing numbers of inflammation and immune activation biomediators have been measured. While very few studies describe their in vivo relationships, such studies can serve as an important and necessary initial step toward delineating the complex network of chronic inflammation and immune activation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091342/ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-for-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-sofosbuvir-experienced-ns5a-treatment-naive-patients-findings-from-two-randomized-trials
#6
Edward Tam, Anne F Luetkemeyer, Parvez S Mantry, Sanjaya K Satapathy, Peter Ghali, Minhee Kang, Richard Haubrich, Xianlin Shen, Liyun Ni, Gregory Camus, Amanda Copans, Lorenzo Rossaro, Bill Guyer, Robert S Brown
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We report data from two similarly designed studies that evaluated the efficacy, safety, and optimal duration of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) ± ribavirin (RBV) for retreatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in individuals who failed to achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) with prior SOF-based, non-NS5A inhibitor-containing regimens. METHODS: The RESCUE study enrolled HCV mono-infected adults with genotype 1 or 4. Non-cirrhotic participants were randomized to 12 weeks of LDV/SOF or LDV/SOF+RBV...
November 1, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067045/rapid-virological-end-treatment-response-of-patients-treated-with-sofosbuvir-in-chronic-hepatitis-c
#7
Muhammad Shoaib Siddique, Sana Shoaib, Alvia Saad, Hamna Javed Iqbal, Noureen Durrani
OBJECTIVE: To determineRapid & End treatment response of patients treated with Sofosbuvir in Chronic Hepatitis C at tertiary care hospital. METHODS: It was an observational study conducted at Memon Medical Institute from January 2016 to July 2017. The inclusion criteria for patients was 18 years of age or older, having chronic infection with HCV. Total=201 received sofosbuvir with or without interferon in our OPDs. Patients were categorized into Treatment naïve, treatment experienced and decompensated chronic liver disease...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062325/demographic-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-hiv-opportunistic-infections-among-older-adults-in-nigeria
#8
Joshua O Akinyemi, Babatunde O Ogunbosi, Adetona S Fayemiwo, Olubukola A Adesina, Michael Obaro, Modupe A Kuti, Olutosin A Awolude, David O Olaleye, Isaac F Adewole
BACKGROUND: In view of the maturing HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, better understanding of its epidemiology among older adults is necessary in order to design appropriate care and treatment programmes for them. OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of HIV opportunistic infections among newly enrolled patients aged 50 years and above in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. METHODS: Analysis of data extracted from electronic records of 17, 312 subjects enrolled for HIV/AIDS care and treatment between January 2006 and December 2014 at the ART clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan...
June 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033906/long-non-coding-rnas-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-cells
#9
REVIEW
Marina Barriocanal, Puri Fortes
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) often leads to a chronic infection in the liver that may progress to steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several viral and cellular factors are required for a productive infection and for the development of liver disease. Some of these are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) deregulated in infected cells. After HCV infection, the sequence and the structure of the viral RNA genome are sensed to activate interferon (IFN) synthesis and signaling pathways. These antiviral pathways regulate transcription of several cellular lncRNAs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027728/hepatitis-in-aids-patients
#10
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran Qadir
The individuals with HIV infection are more susceptible to develop coinfections with infectious pathogens such as HCV and HBV. The routes of transmission of these pathogens are the same including sexual contact, injection drug use, or at birth from mother to an infant. The main reason of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals is a liver disease in the context of antiretroviral therapy, and coinfection such as HCV and HBV complicates this condition. Nucleos(t)ide analogues are used for HBV infection management, and treatment of HCV infection is done by PegIFN and ribavirin combination and protease inhibitors...
October 13, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024445/a-rapid-bio-optical-sensor-for-diagnosing-q-fever-in-clinical-specimens
#11
Bonhan Koo, Choong Eun Jin, Se Yoon Park, Tae Yoon Lee, Jeonghun Nam, Young-Rock Jang, Sun Mi Kim, Ji Yeun Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Yong Shin
Recent zoonotic outbreaks, such as Zika, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and Ebola, have highlighted the need for rapid and accurate diagnostic assays that can be used to aid pathogen control. Q-fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the transmission of Coxiella burnetii that can cause serious illness in humans via aerosols and is considered a potential bioterrorism agent. However the existing assays are not suitable for the detection of this pathogen due to its low levels in real samples. We here describe a rapid bio-optical sensor for the accurate detection of Q fever and validate its clinical utility...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022533/distribution-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-namibia
#12
P Mhata, T W Rennie, L F Small, P M Nyarang'o, Z Chagla, C J Hunter
BACKGROUND: Namibia regards hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health problem and introduced hepatitis B vaccinations for infants during 2009. However, information on HBV infection in the country remains limited, and effective public health interventions may be compromised in the absence of adequate evidence-based data. Available data from the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that 15 - 60% of the normal population in many African countries may be positive for one or more of the HBV serological markers...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990409/hiv-primary-care-by-the-infectious-disease-physician-in-the-united-states-extending-the-continuum-of-care
#13
Seetha Lakshmi, Susan E Beekmann, Philip M Polgreen, Allan Rodriguez, Maria L Alcaide
Models of care for people living with HIV (PLWH) have varied over time due to long term survival, development of HIV-associated non-AIDS conditions, and HIV specific primary care guidelines that differ from those of the general population. The objectives of this study are to assess how often infectious disease (ID) physicians provide primary care for PLWH, assess their practice patterns and barriers in the provision of primary care. We used a 6-item survey electronically distributed to ID physician members of Emerging Infections Network (EIN)...
October 9, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962612/spatial-distribution-of-hiv-hcv-and-co-infections-among-drug-users-in-the-southwestern-border-areas-of-china-2004-2014-a-cohort-study-of-a-national-methadone-maintenance-treatment-program
#14
Mingli Li, Rongjian Li, Zhiyong Shen, Chunying Li, Nengxiu Liang, Zhenren Peng, Wenbo Huang, Chongwei He, Feng Zhong, Xianyan Tang, Guanghua Lan
BACKGROUND: A methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program to curb the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use has been administered by China since 2004. Little is known regarding the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among MMT clients in the resource-constrained context of Chinese provinces, such as Guangxi. This study aimed to characterize the geographic distribution patterns and co-clustered epidemic factors of HIV, HCV and co-infections at the county level among drug users receiving MMT in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, located in the southwestern border area of China...
September 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949439/discrimination-of-patients-with-different-serological-evolution-of-hiv-and-co-infection-with-hcv-using-metabolic-fingerprinting-based-on-ft-ir
#15
Consuelo Pizarro, Isabel Esteban-Díez, Irene Arenzana-Rámila, José María González-Sáiz
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that weakens the immune system and permits opportunistic diseases such as Hepatitis C (HCV) to enter the body. These diseases induce metabolic disorders in the patients and it is therefore logical to approach them from a holistic, functional perspective, studying the metabolome comprehensively to identify metabolic signatures associated with certain disease states. The metabolomics strategy here proposed involves metabolic fingerprinting using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometric tools on 72 plasma samples (subdivided into 63 training and 9 test samples) to differentiate between healthy subjects and patients with different disease stages...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946992/combined-endeavor-of-neutrosophic-set-and-chan-vese-model-to-extract-accurate-liver-image-from-ct-scan
#16
Sangeeta K Siri, Mrityunjaya V Latte
Many different diseases can occur in the liver, including infections such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, cancer and over effect of medication or toxins. The foremost stage for computer-aided diagnosis of liver is the identification of liver region. Liver segmentation algorithms extract liver image from scan images which helps in virtual surgery simulation, speedup the diagnosis, accurate investigation and surgery planning. The existing liver segmentation algorithms try to extort exact liver image from abdominal Computed Tomography (CT) scan images...
November 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942916/protective-effect-of-coffee-consumption-on-all-cause-mortality-of-french-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients
#17
Maria Patrizia Carrieri, Camelia Protopopescu, Fabienne Marcellin, Silvia Rosellini, Linda Wittkop, Laure Esterle, David Zucman, François Raffi, Eric Rosenthal, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, François Dabis, Bruno Spire
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coffee has anti-inflammatory and hepato-protective properties. In the general population, drinking ≥3cups of coffee/day has been associated with a 14% reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of all-cause mortality in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH is an ongoing French nationwide prospective cohort of patients co-infected with HIV-HCV collecting both medical and psychosocial/behavioural data (annual self-administered questionnaires)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929125/the-association-of-inflammatory-markers-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-differs-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-serostatus
#18
Jennifer C Price, Ruibin Wang, Eric C Seaberg, Matthew J Budoff, Lawrence A Kingsley, Frank J Palella, Mallory D Witt, Wendy S Post, Chloe L Thio
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship of circulating adipokines and inflammatory biomarkers with fatty liver among men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. METHODS: Noncontrast computed tomography was used to assess fatty liver and measure abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area in 526 participants without history of cardiovascular disease, heavy alcohol use, or viral hepatitis infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations of circulating biomarker levels with fatty liver...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926404/metabolic-health-across-the-body-mass-index-spectrum-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-men
#19
Jordan E Lake, Xiuhong Li, Frank J Palella, Kristine M Erlandson, Dorothy Wiley, Lawrence Kingsley, Lisa P Jacobson, Todd T Brown
OBJECTIVES: In the general population, metabolic health (MH) often declines as body mass index (BMI) increases. However, some obese individuals maintain MH. HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been associated with metabolic disturbances. We hypothesized that HIV-infected (HIV+) men on suppressive ART experience less MH than HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men across all BMI categories. DESIGN/METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of 1018 HIV+ and 1092 HIV- men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Poisson regression with robust variance determined associations between HIV serostatus and MH prevalence (defined as meeting 2 of 5 NCEP/ATP III metabolic syndrome criteria), adjusting for age, race, BMI category, smoking and hepatitis C virus infection status...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926400/hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-and-mortality-among-hiv-positive-individuals
#20
Alicia C Thornton, Sophie Jose, Sanjay Bhagani, David Chadwick, David Dunn, Richard Gilson, Janice Main, Mark Nelson, Alison Rodger, Chris Taylor, Elaney Youssef, Clifford Leen, Mark Gompels, Stephen Kegg, Achim Schwenk, Caroline Sabin
OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of all-cause, liver-related, and AIDS-related mortality among individuals who are HIV-monoinfected with those coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B (HBV) and/or hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. DESIGN: An ongoing observational cohort study collating routinely collected clinical data on HIV-positive individuals attending for care at HIV treatment centres throughout the United Kingdom. METHODS: Individuals were included if they had been seen for care from 2004 onwards and had tested for HBV and HCV...
November 28, 2017: AIDS
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