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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702728/cd8-t-cell-expansion-in-hiv-hcv-coinfection-is-associated-with-systemic-inflammation
#1
E V Saidakova, K V Shmagel, L B Korolevskaya, N G Shmagel, V A Chereshnev
High prevalence of non-AIDS-defining illnesses in treated HIV-infected patients is associated with increased peripheral CD8(+) T cell counts. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is an additional risk factor for the development of non-AIDS events. We found that, in HIV/HCV coinfection, the increased proportion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes is due to the effector memory and terminal effector T cells gain. Moreover, in these patients, the accumulation of highly differentiated forms of CD8(+) T lymphocytes was associated with increased concentrations of inflammatory indices...
May 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702667/microengineered-cultures-containing-human-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-hepatocytes-for-drug-development
#2
Matthew D Davidson, David A Kukla, Salman R Khetani
In non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hepatic stellate cells (HSC) differentiate into myofibroblast-like cells that cause fibrosis, which predisposes patients to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, modeling interactions between activated HSCs and hepatocytes in vitro can aid in the development of anti-NASH/fibrosis therapeutics and lead to a better understanding of disease progression. Species-specific differences in drug metabolism and disease pathways now necessitate the supplementation of animal studies with data acquired using human liver models; however, current models do not adequately model the negative effects of primary human activated HSCs on the phenotype of otherwise well-differentiated primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) as in vivo...
July 12, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691797/caught-before-released-structural-mapping-of-the-reaction-trajectory-for-the-sofosbuvir-activating-enzyme-human-histidine-triad-nucleotide-binding-protein-1-hhint1
#3
Rachit Shah, Kimberly M Maize, Xin Zhou, Barry C Finzel, Carston R Wagner
Human histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (hHint1) is classified as an efficient nucleoside phosphoramidase and acyl-adenosine monophosphate hydrolase. Human Hint1 has been shown to be essential for the metabolic activation of nucleotide antiviral pronucleotides (i.e., proTides), such as the FDA approved hepatitis C drug, sofosbuvir. The active site of hHint1 comprises an ensemble of strictly conserved histidines, including nucleophilic His112. To structurally investigate the mechanism of hHint1 catalysis, we have designed and prepared nucleoside thiophosphoramidate substrates that are able to capture the transiently formed nucleotidylated-His112 intermediate (E*) using time-dependent crystallography...
July 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687813/cancer-risk-factors-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Zi-Yi Jin, Xing Liu, Ying-Ying Ding, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Na He
Cancer is a leading cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate prevalence of cancer risk factors among Chinese PLWHA based on 102 articles. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the summary prevalence estimate (sPrev) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each cancer risk factor by demographic group. Overall, the sPrev for each risk factor among Chinese PLWHA was: 41.1% (95% CI: 35.3-46.9%) for current smoking; 30.3% (95% CI: 23...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667038/post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-presented-in-a-form-of-primary-effusion-lymphoma-with-t-8-14
#5
Sadia Sultana, Suhair Al Salihi, Nidhi Tandon, Jesse Jaso, Nghia D Nguyen, Songlin Zhang, Jing Liu
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are emergent complications of organ transplantation occurring in 2% to 10% of transplanted patients. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are considered the most important factors for the development of these heterogeneous disorders. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder predominantly described in patients with advanced AIDS and it is almost universally associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). In rare case, PEL also occurs in HHV8-negative patient, in the setting of hepatitis B and C virus infection...
May 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665938/trends-and-outcomes-of-late-initiation-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-driven-by-late-presentation-among-hiv-positive-taiwanese-patients-in-the-era-of-treatment-scale-up
#6
Kuan-Yin Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Chia-Wen Li, Chia-Jui Yang, Mao-Song Tsai, Chun-Eng Liu, Yuan-Ti Lee, Hung-Jen Tang, Ning-Chi Wang, Te-Yu Lin, Yi-Chien Lee, Shih-Ping Lin, Yu-Shan Huang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Wen-Chien Ko, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVES: The international and national HIV treatment guidelines in 2016 have focused on scaling up access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We aimed to assess the trends and treatment outcomes of late cART initiation in Taiwan. METHODS: Between June 2012 and May 2016, we retrospectively included antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive adults who initiated cART. Late initiation was defined as when cART was initiated in patients with a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 or having experienced AIDS-defining illnesses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637397/ursolic-acid-derivatives-for-pharmaceutical-use-a-patent-review-2012-2016
#7
Hidayat Hussain, Ivan R Green, Iftikhar Ali, Ikhlas A Khan, Zulfiqar Ali, Abdullah M Al-Sadi, Ishtiaq Ahmed
Ursolic acid (UA), belongs to a group of pentacyclic triterpenoids and is known to possess some very interesting biological properties. Protocols have been developed in order to synthesize bioactive UA analogs which have resulted in numerous ursolic acid analogs being synthesized during the period 2012-2016. Ursolic acid and its analogues can be employed to treat various cancers, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and AIDS to mention but a few...
June 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632794/migrants-healthy-worker-effect-and-mortality-trends-in-the-gulf-cooperation-council-countries
#8
Karima Chaabna, Sohaila Cheema, Ravinder Mamtani
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Saudi Arabia, have experienced unique demographic changes. The major population growth contributor in these countries is young migrants, which has led to a shift in the population age pyramid. Migrants constitute the vast proportion of GCC countries' population reaching >80% in Qatar and UAE. Using Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015) and United Nations data, for the GCC countries, we assessed the association between age-standardized mortality and population size trends with linear and polynomial regressions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630341/pig-model-mimicking-chronic-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-immunocompromised-patients-to-assess-immune-correlates-during-chronicity
#9
Dianjun Cao, Qian M Cao, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Adam J Rogers, Scott P Kenney, Debin Tian, Shannon R Matzinger, Christopher Overend, Nicholas Catanzaro, Tanya LeRoith, Heng Wang, Pablo Piñeyro, Nicole Lindstrom, Sherrie Clark-Deener, Lijuan Yuan, Xiang-Jin Meng
Chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a significant clinical problem in immunocompromised individuals such as organ transplant recipients, although the mechanism remains unknown because of the lack of an animal model. We successfully developed a pig model of chronic HEV infection and examined immune correlates leading to chronicity. The conditions of immunocompromised patients were mimicked by treating pigs with an immunosuppressive regimen including cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone. Immunocompromised pigs infected with HEV progressed to chronicity, because 8/10 drug-treated HEV-infected pigs continued fecal virus shedding beyond the acute phase of infection, whereas the majority (7/10) of mock-treated HEV-infected pigs cleared fecal viral shedding at 8 wk postinfection...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627604/the-c-terminus-domain-of-the-hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-stimulates-the-proliferation-of-mouse-foetal-hepatic-progenitor-cells-although-it-is-not-required-for-the-formation-of-spheroids
#10
Liming Yu, Shu Chen, Na Luo, Song He
The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein is an important factor in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The C-terminal region of HBx plays a major role in the replication of HBV. Notably, HBx promotes the expansion and tumourigenesis of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) in mice. However, it remains unclear as to whether the C-terminal region of HBx is required for the stimulation fo the proliferation of mouse foetal HPCs (FHPCs). In our study, we used EpCAM+, CD133+ and CD49f+ FHPCs, which are bipotential clonogenic cells...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622754/prevalence-of-non-infectious-comorbidities-in-the-hiv-positive-population-in-belgium-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#11
Jessie Gunter, Steven Callens, Stephane De Wit, Jean-Christophe Goffard, Michel Moutschen, Gilles Darcis, Christelle Meuris, Charlotte van den Bulcke, Karine Fombellida, Marc Del Forge, Homie Razavi, Chloe Wyndham-Thomas
OBJECTIVES: In Belgium, eleven AIDS Reference Centers (ARCs) and seven AIDS Reference Laboratories diagnose and treat HIV-positive individuals and track patients under care. As AIDS-related deaths are avoided and the HIV-positive population ages, non-infectious comorbidities (NICMs), such as cardiovascular disease, renal disease and certain cancers, play a larger role in the quality and length of patients' lives. This study aims to characterize the HIV-positive population in Belgium in terms of the prevalence of key NICMs...
June 16, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606059/observed-versus-predicted-cardiovascular-events-and-all-cause-death-in-hiv-infection-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#12
Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Giacomo Pucci, Franco Baldelli, Giuseppe Schillaci
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of an algorithm predicting 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) generated in the setting of the Framingham Heart Study to a real-life, contemporary Italian cohort of HIV-positive subjects. METHODS: The study was an observational longitudinal cohort study. The probability for 10-year CVD events according to the Framingham algorithm was assessed in 369 consecutive HIV-positive participants free from overt CVD enrolled in 2004, who were followed for a median of 10...
June 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579170/vaccination-coverage-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-receiving-care-at-an-aids-outpatient-clinic-in-esp%C3%A3-rito-santo-brazil
#13
Lauro Ferreira da Silva Pinto Neto, Julia Vescovi Vieira, Nathália Rossoni Ronchi
This cross-sectional study assessed the immunization status of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving care at an outpatient clinic in Brazil. The sociodemographic characteristics, CD4 count and HIV viral load of 281 out of 612 adult outpatients were analyzed. A total of 331 patients were excluded because of no availability of vaccination cards. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used. Immunization coverage was higher for diphtheria/tetanus (59.79%) and hepatitis B (56.7%), and lowest for hepatitis A (6...
June 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562715/evaluation-of-hiv-sti-and-cd4-results-among-voluntary-attendees-at-the-hiv-aids-program-of-mexico-city
#14
Luis Alfredo Juárez-Figueroa, Felipe Javier Uribe-Salas, Andrea González-Rodríguez, Patricia Iracheta-Hernández, Verónica Ruiz-González, Yazmín Medina-Islas
Objective: To describe results of HIV, sexually transmitted diseases (STI) and CD4 counts at the HIV-specialized Condesa Clinic (CC) in Mexico City. Materials and methods: Individuals who requested voluntary counseling and testing at CC were studied. We identified antibodies against HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C, and hepatitis B HBsAg. CD4 cell counts and viral load of HIV positive individuals were also obtained. Late HIV infection diagnosis was established if CD4 counts were lower than 200 cells/μL...
March 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552946/partial-sequencing-analysis-of-the-ns5b-region-confirmed-the-predominance-of-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-infection-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#15
Sahar El Hadad, Hesa Al-Hamdan, Sabah Linjawi
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its progression are major health problems that many countries including Saudi Arabia are facing. Determination of HCV genotypes and subgenotypes is critical for epidemiological and clinical analysis and aids in the determination of the ideal treatment strategy that needs to be followed and the expected therapy response. Although HCV infection has been identified as the second most predominant type of hepatitis in Saudi Arabia, little is known about the molecular epidemiology and genetic variability of HCV circulating in the Jeddah province of Saudi Arabia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512091/conformational-flexibility-in-the-immunoglobulin-like-domain-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-glycoprotein-e2
#16
Ieva Vasiliauskaite, Ania Owsianka, Patrick England, Abdul Ghafoor Khan, Sarah Cole, Dorothea Bankwitz, Steven K H Foung, Thomas Pietschmann, Joseph Marcotrigiano, Felix A Rey, Arvind H Patel, Thomas Krey
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E2 is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and is therefore highly relevant for vaccine design. Its structure features a central immunoglobulin (Ig)-like β-sandwich that contributes to the binding site for the cellular receptor CD81. We show that a synthetic peptide corresponding to a β-strand of this Ig-like domain forms an α-helix in complex with the anti-E2 antibody DAO5, demonstrating an inside-out flip of hydrophobic residues and a secondary structure change in the composite CD81 binding site...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508573/regional-differences-in-the-management-and-outcome-of-kidney-transplantation-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-3-year-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Marina P Cristelli, Federico Cofán, Helio Tedesco-Silva, Joan Carles Trullàs, Daniel Wagner C L Santos, Cristian Manzardo, Fernando Agüero, Asunción Moreno, Federico Oppenheimer, Fritz Diekmann, Jose O Medina-Pestana, Jose Maria Miro
BACKGROUND: In the developed world, kidney transplantation (KT) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is well established. Developing countries concentrate 90% of the people living with HIV, but their experience is underreported. Regional differences may affect outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We compared the 3-year outcomes of patients with HIV infection receiving a KT in two different countries, in terms of incomes and development. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective, double-center study, including all HIV-infected patients >18 years old undergoing KT...
May 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504650/neutrophil-derived-s100-calcium-binding-proteins-a8-a9-promote-reticulated-thrombocytosis-and-atherogenesis-in-diabetes
#18
Michael J Kraakman, Man Ks Lee, Annas Al-Sharea, Dragana Dragoljevic, Tessa J Barrett, Emilie Montenont, Debapriya Basu, Sarah Heywood, Helene L Kammoun, Michelle Flynn, Alexandra Whillas, Nordin Mj Hanssen, Mark A Febbraio, Erik Westein, Edward A Fisher, Jaye Chin-Dusting, Mark E Cooper, Jeffrey S Berger, Ira J Goldberg, Prabhakara R Nagareddy, Andrew J Murphy
Platelets play a critical role in atherogenesis and thrombosis-mediated myocardial ischemia, processes that are accelerated in diabetes. Whether hyperglycemia promotes platelet production and whether enhanced platelet production contributes to enhanced atherothrombosis remains unknown. Here we found that in response to hyperglycemia, neutrophil-derived S100 calcium-binding proteins A8/A9 (S100A8/A9) interact with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) on hepatic Kupffer cells, resulting in increased production of IL-6, a pleiotropic cytokine that is implicated in inflammatory thrombocytosis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503671/hiv-hcv-co-infection-liver-disease-progression-and-age-related-igf-1-decline
#19
Jeffrey Quinn, Jacquie Astemborski, Shruti H Mehta, Gregory D Kirk, David L Thomas, Ashwin Balagopal
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that persons co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) had liver disease stages similar to HIV-uninfected individuals who were approximately 10 years older. Insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) levels have long been known to decline with advancing age in humans and non-humans alike. We examined whether HIV infection affects the expected decline in IGF-1 in persons with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and if that alteration in IGF-1 decline contributes to the link between HIV, aging, and liver disease progression...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503303/a-study-on-hiv-syphilis-and-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-among-female-sex-workers-in-the-republic-of-congo
#20
Fabien Roch Niama, Nadia Claricelle Loukabou Bongolo, Pembe Issamou Mayengue, Franck Fortuné Mboussou, Edith Sophie Kombo Bayonne, Florian Michael Kouckodila Nzingoula, Louis Regis Dossou-Yovo, Igor Louzolo, Mandingha Kosso Etoka-Beka, Achile Lanzy, Irène Yameogo, Davy Louvouezo, Simon Charles Kobawila, Marie-Francke Puruhence, Henri Joseph Parra
BACKGROUND: Female Sex Workers (FSWs) are considered to be at high risk for transmission of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and are defined as a priority of the national HIV/AIDS response in the Republic of Congo (RoC). However, no data are available regarding STIs in this group. This study aimed to determine the prevalences of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C among FSWs in five cities in the country. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2(nd) 2011 to May 15(th) 2012...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
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