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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766745/incidence-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-virus-receiving-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-and-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-a-real-world-urban-ryan-white-clinic
#1
Jessica L Michal, Saira Rab, Manish Patel, Alison Kyle, Lesley Miller, Kirk A Easley, Aley Kalapila
Background Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), an antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an antiretroviral for treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), may be co-administered in patients co-infected with these viruses. A drug interaction between LDV and TDF could increase TDF-associated nephrotoxicity rates; however, there is minimal clinical evidence describing acute kidney injury (AKI) rates in this population. Setting This study was conducted at a Ryan White-funded facility in Atlanta, Georgia, that cares for over 5,000 patients with AIDS...
May 16, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758235/innovation-and-trends-in-the-development-and-approval-of-antiviral-medicines-1987-2017-and-beyond
#2
REVIEW
Shuvam Chaudhuri, Julian A Symons, Jerome Deval
2017 marked the 30th anniversary of the approval of zidovudine (AZT) as the first HIV/AIDS therapy. Since then, more than eighty antiviral drugs have received FDA approval, half of which treat HIV infection. Here, we provide a retrospective analysis of approved antiviral drugs, including therapeutics against other major chronic infections such as hepatitis B and C, and herpes viruses, over the last thirty years. During this time, only a few drugs were approved to treat acute viral infections, mainly influenza...
May 15, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757718/us-of-right-upper-quadrant-pain-in-the-emergency-department-diagnosing-beyond-gallbladder-and-biliary-disease
#3
Gayatri Joshi, Kevin A Crawford, Tarek N Hanna, Keith D Herr, Nirvikar Dahiya, Christine O Menias
Acute cholecystitis is the most common diagnosable cause for right upper quadrant abdominal (RUQ) pain in patients who present to the emergency department (ED). However, over one-third of patients initially thought to have acute cholecystitis actually have RUQ pain attributable to other causes. Ultrasonography (US) is the primary imaging modality of choice for initial imaging assessment and serves as a fast, cost-effective, and dynamic modality to provide a definitive diagnosis or a considerably narrowed list of differential possibilities...
May 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746648/effects-of-sofosbuvir-based-hepatitis-c-treatment-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-tenofovir-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-individuals-receiving-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#4
Christine E MacBrayne, Kristen M Marks, Daniel S Fierer, Susanna Naggie, Raymond T Chung, Michael D Hughes, Arthur Y Kim, Marion G Peters, Diana M Brainard, Sharon M Seifert, Jose R Castillo-Mancilla, Lane R Bushman, Peter L Anderson, Jennifer J Kiser
Background: The nucleotide analogues tenofovir and sofosbuvir are considered to have low potential for drug interactions. Objectives: To determine the effect of sofosbuvir-based HCV treatment on plasma concentrations of tenofovir and cellular concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate. Methods: HIV-infected participants with acute HCV were treated for 12 weeks with sofosbuvir + ribavirin in Cohort 1 or 8 weeks with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in Cohort 2 of AIDS Clinical Trials Group study 5327...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731749/adaptive-nkg2c-cd57-natural-killer-cell-and-tim-3-expression-during-viral-infections
#5
Hassen Kared, Serena Martelli, Shu Wen Tan, Yannick Simoni, Meng Li Chong, Siew Hwei Yap, Evan W Newell, Sylvia L F Pender, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Reena Rajasuriar, Anis Larbi
Repetitive stimulation by persistent pathogens such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces the differentiation of natural killer (NK) cells. This maturation pathway is characterized by the acquisition of phenotypic markers, CD2, CD57, and NKG2C, and effector functions-a process regulated by Tim-3 and orchestrated by a complex network of transcriptional factors, involving T-bet, Eomes, Zeb2, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein, and Foxo3. Here, we show that persistent immune activation during chronic viral co-infections (HCMV, hepatitis C virus, and HIV) interferes with the functional phenotype of NK cells by modulating the Tim-3 pathway; a decrease in Tim-3 expression combined with the acquisition of inhibitory receptors skewed NK cells toward an exhausted and cytotoxic phenotype in an inflammatory environment during chronic HIV infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721240/mexican-patients-with-hiv-have-a-high-prevalence-of-vertebral-fractures
#6
José Antonio Mata-Marín, Carla I Arroyo-Anduiza, María de Los Ángeles Berrospe-Silva, Alberto Chaparro-Sánchez, Ana Gil-Avila, Jesús Gaytán-Martínez
Low bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures are common in individuals infected with HIV, who are undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). In high-income countries, dual energy X-ray absorptiometrry is typically used to evaluate osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV infected individuals. However, this technology is unavailable in low andmiddle income countries, so a different approach is needed. The aim of this study was to use X-ray scans of the spine to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for vertebral fractures in HIVinfected patients in a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718082/integration-of-neuropsychological-services-in-a-va-hiv-primary-care-clinic
#7
Moira C Dux, Terry Lee-Wilk
The Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) is the largest health care provider for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with >28,000 Veterans with HIV/AIDS enrolled in care. Advances in medical treatment have improved the life-limiting effects of the disease, though many chronic symptoms persist. Comprehensive care is critical to manage the diverse constellation of symptoms. However, many patients face challenges to receiving optimal care due to limited resources, mistrust of health care providers, and/or co-occurring medical, psychiatric, and substance use disorders...
May 1, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700417/progression-and-regression-of-fibrosis-in-viral-hepatitis-in-the-treatment-era-the-beijing-classification
#8
Neil D Theise, Jidong Jia, Yameng Sun, Aileen Wee, Hong You
In this new era of successful long term suppression of hepatitis B viral replication and consistent eradication of hepatitis C virus the necessity for routine pre-treatment biopsies has often been eliminated. Thus, whether there is utility to perform liver biopsy in chronic viral hepatitis is undergoing re-examination. In response to these changing needs, we have developed a new staging system, the Beijing Classification, for assessment of biopsy specimens from patients with chronic viral hepatitis. The most important novelty of the Beijing Classification is that it includes not only extent (stage) of fibrosis, but the quality of fibrosis, namely if the specimen shows predominantly regressive vs...
April 26, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697467/evaluation-of-abnormal-liver-tests-in-the-adult-asymptomatic-patient
#9
Andrew D Schreiner, Don C Rockey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Liver blood tests, including bilirubin, aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase, are among the most commonly encountered tests in medicine. With roles including the investigation of symptoms, medication monitoring, assessment of chronic disease, and routine assessment, these tests serve many purposes and result in abnormality in up to 40% of patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The toll of liver disease continues to rise and abnormal liver tests offer an opportunity to identify hepatic disease early, when treatment is most effective and before patients suffer the potential downstream consequences of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692313/the-prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-antibody-in-hiv-negative-persons-in-kenya-2007
#10
Kathleen N Ly, Andrea A Kim, Jan Drobenuic, Maja Kodani, Joel M Montgomery, Barry S Fields, Eyasu H Teshale
The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the Kenyan population has not been previously determined. We estimated the Kenyan HCV prevalence in HIV-negative persons aged 15-64 years. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study using data from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey-a nationally representative sample of 15,853 persons aged 15-64 years who completed a health interview and provided a blood specimen. Of the 1,091 randomly selected participants, 50 tested positive for HCV antibody using the automated chemiluminescence immunoassay, corresponding to a weighted HCV antibody positivity rate of 4...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682306/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-levels-are-reduced-in-women-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-compared-to-control-women-a-case-control-study-from-copenhagen-denmark
#11
EDITORIAL
Maria Wessman, Anne-Sofie Korsholm, Janne Gasseholm Bentzen, Anders Nyboe Andersen, Magnus Glindvad Ahlström, Terese Lea Katzenstein, Nina Weis
Objectives: Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) is a marker of ovarian reserve. The purpose of this study was to compare AMH in women living with HIV with an age-matched control group of HIV-uninfected women, and to identify possible variables associated with decreasing AMH levels in women living with HIV. Methods: AMH was measured in frozen EDTA samples from 84 white women living with HIV, aged 20 -40 years, with fully suppressed HIV RNA viral loads for at least 6 months and no hepatitis B or C virus co-infection...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630030/hiv-serostatus-and-having-access-to-a-physician-for-regular-hepatitis-c-virus-care-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#12
Tara Beaulieu, Kanna Hayashi, Michael J Milloy, Ekaterina Nosova, Kora DeBeck, Julio Montaner, Thomas Kerr, Lianping Ti
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWIDs) and who are living with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are vulnerable to a range of health-related harms, including liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. There is limited evidence describing how HIV serostatus shapes access to a physician for regular HCV care among PWID. SETTING: Data were collected through the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS), the AIDS Care Cohort to evaluate Exposure to Survival Services (ACCESS), and the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), 3 prospective cohorts involving people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada, between 2005 and 2015...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620815/a-descriptive-study-of-patients-receiving-foundational-financial-assistance-through-local-specialty-pharmacies
#13
Julia Zhu, Randall Odebralski, Safia Boghani, Clorinda Walley, Frank Koen, Chad Conley, Heather S Kirkham
OBJECTIVES: To describe the population of patients who received financial assistance from the Good Days Foundation (GDF) as facilitated by Walgreens local specialty pharmacies (LSPs). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective descriptive study. METHODS: This study used a joint foundational and pharmacy claim database between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016. RESULTS: Among 1572 eligible patients who received GDF financial assistance as facilitated by Walgreens LSPs, 1524 had disease state information and 14 of these patients receveived financial assistance for 2 disease states (patient count denominator, 1538)...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607354/consequence-of-hiv-and-hcv-co-infection-on-host-immune-response-persistence-and-current-treatment-options
#14
REVIEW
Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Mohd Suhail, Ashraf Ali, Ishtiaq Qadri, Steve Harakeh, Esam I Azhar
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common opportunistic pathogen especially among Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Due to incongruous studies, the pathological effect of HCV on HIV induced disease are still not fully understood. While some studies have showed no effect of HCV on HIV infection, others reported a defined role of HCV in aggravating the rates of AIDS-related illnesses and mortality. The explanation of such variances may be due to the host immune response, viral genotypes, sub-type and quasi-species distribution...
March 2018: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606698/an-education-and-field-experience-program-to-increase-detection-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus
#15
Risha Irvin, Ayesha McAdams-Mahmoud, Jordan White, Zackiya Grant, Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Susan Sherman, Chris Beyrer, Mark Sulkowski, David L Thomas, Shruti H Mehta, Richard Chaisson
BACKGROUND: Baltimore is an urban center that has been highly impacted by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, many individuals are unaware of their HIV and/or HCV status. In 2013, the Johns Hopkins Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) developed Generation Tomorrow, an HIV and HCV education, testing, and counseling program with community input and collaboration. OBJECTIVES: The aims of Generation Tomorrow are to increase HIV and HCV awareness and detection in Baltimore and engage the next generation of health professionals (students) and community members (peers) in HIV and HCV outreach services...
2018: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590151/untreated-depression-among-persons-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-kazakhstan-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Dina Terloyeva, Zhamilya Nugmanova, Gulzhakhan Akhmetova, Aikan Akanov, Nimish Patel, Victoria Lazariu, Lisa Norelli, Louise-Anne McNutt
BACKGROUND: In Kazakhstan, scarce official prevalence data exists for mood disorders. This study investigates the occurrence of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and the relationship between depressive symptoms, HIV treatment initiation and antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients seen at the Almaty AIDS Center between April and December 2013. Two data sources were used: 1) self-administered survey that included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to capture depression symptoms and 2) medical record review...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589101/regression-of-human-cirrhosis-an-update-18-years-after-the-pioneering-article-by-wanless-et-al
#17
REVIEW
Prodromos Hytiroglou, Neil D Theise
Cirrhosis has been traditionally viewed as an irreversible, end-stage condition. Eighteen years ago, Wanless, Nakashima, and Sherman published a study that was based on the concept that hepatic architecture is under constant remodeling in the course of chronic liver diseases, even during their most advanced stages; depending on the balance between injury and repair, the histologic changes might be progressing or regressing. These authors described in detail the morphologic features of regressing cirrhosis, identified a set of histologic features of regression that they called the "hepatic repair complex," and provided convincing morphologic evidence that incomplete septal cirrhosis represents regressed cirrhosis...
March 27, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578854/increasing-access-to-hepatitis-c-virus-medications-a-program-model-using-patient-navigators-and-specialty-pharmacy-to-obtain-prior-authorization-approval
#18
Trang M Vu, Wilma Toribio, Farah Riazi, Genesis Ciprian, Nathalia Gibbs, Martha Giardina, Jocelyn A Camacho, Korin Parrella, Joy Cambe, Catherine Amory, Rachel Chasan, Keith M Sigel, Jeffrey J Weiss
BACKGROUND: Obtaining prior authorization (PA) approval for the new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) hepatitis C medications is time consuming and requires specific expertise. Our primary care-based program treats hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients at an urban academic medical center and employs patient navigators trained in the PA process who collaborate with a nurse and specialty pharmacy to manage the PA process. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the rate of PA approvals for our programmatic model and determine potential predictors of PA approval...
April 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563388/prevalence-of-opportunistic-infections-and-causes-of-death-among-hospitalized-hiv-infected-patients-in-sichuan-china
#19
Wenwen Pang, Pengcheng Shang, Qingfeng Li, Jiao Xu, Lei Bi, Jing Zhong, Xiaofang Pei
Opportunistic infections (OIs) are the most significant complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prevalence of OIs differs among various countries in part due to different climates and socio-economic conditions. We, therefore, carried out the retrospective study at the Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu, Sichuan to comprehensively investigate the prevalence of OIs, predictors of OIs, and risk factors for in-hospital death among HIV-infected patients. Sichuan in West China is characterized by the largest population living with HIV/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) across China...
March 2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557296/-it-s-not-much-of-a-life-the-benefits-and-ethics-of-using-life-history-methods-with-people-who-inject-drugs-in-qualitative-harm-reduction-research
#20
Magdalena Harris, Tim Rhodes
A life history approach enables study of how risk or health protection is shaped by critical transitions and turning points in a life trajectory and in the context of social environment and time. We employed visual and narrative life history methods with people who inject drugs to explore how hepatitis C protection was enabled and maintained over the life course. We overview our methodological approach, with a focus on the ethics in practice of using life history timelines and life-grids with 37 participants...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
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