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Mineral corticoid receptor

Stefan Rupp, Christian Jux
While in adults major advances in heart failure therapy in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were documented in the last two decades, research on the mechanism and therapies of heart failure in children with left ventricular dilated cardiomyopathy has lagged behind. Despite the lack of sufficient randomized prospective studies, ACE inhibitors are first line and ß-receptor antagonists are second-line strategies in children. Following the adult guidelines, without having data concerning the pediatric population, mineral corticoids are also accepted in the treatment of pediatric heart failure, while diuretics should only be used to achieve a euvolemic status...
March 22, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Christopher Kargl, Mohammad Arshad, Fahad Salman, Regina C Schurman, Pedro Del Corral
OBJECTIVE: The enzymatic activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD2) is key to protecting mineral corticoid receptors from cortisol and has been implicated in blood pressure regulation. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) and acidity are thought to inhibit this enzyme in vitro. This study examines the effect of GFJ and intense exercise on 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity in vivo. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eighteen subjects ingested GFJ or apple juice (CON) on separate days prior to reporting to the laboratory in a randomized order...
September 18, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Takeshi Ideguchi, Toshihiro Tsuruda, Yuji Sato, Kazuo Kitamura
BACKGROUND: Atrial standstill is one of the important clinical consequences on the heart in severe hyperkalemia, but it occurs even at modest potassium ion elevation. The extent to which other factors might potentiate the electrocardiographic changes induced by hyperkalemia remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a retrospective review of the data on 12,639 hospital admissions over a 15-year period. A total of 778 patients with hyperkalemia were identified, 28 of whom had atrial standstill, and had several parameters measured prior to any treatment of hyperkalemia...
July 25, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Masanobu Miura, Koichiro Sugimura, Yasuhiko Sakata, Satoshi Miyata, Soichiro Tadaki, Takeshi Yamauchi, Takeo Onose, Kanako Tsuji, Ruri Abe, Takuya Oikawa, Shintaro Kasahara, Kotaro Nochioka, Jun Takahashi, Hiroaki Shimokawa
BACKGROUND: It remains to be elucidated whether addition of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors and/or β-blockers to loop diuretics has a beneficial prognostic impact on chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the Chronic Heart failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku district 2 (CHART-2) Study (n=10,219), we enrolled 4,134 consecutive patients with symptomatic stage C/D CHF (mean age, 69.3 years, 67.7% male). We constructed Cox models for composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke and HF admission...
May 25, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
K Kamide
Several recent clinical trials show that blocking agents of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) reduce cardiovascular events in patients with metabolic syndrome based on insulin resistance and obesity, especially accumulated visceral fat. Our laboratory has focused on the relationship between the vascular RAAS and the action of insulin on the vasculature. We first revealed that the addition of insulin to cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) markedly increases angiotensinogen and angiotensin II (Ang II) expression and production...
August 12, 2014: Current Hypertension Reviews
Toshiaki Makino
One of the most common adverse effects of traditional Japanese kampo and traditional Chinese medicine is pseudoaldosteronism caused by licorice. In this review, the authors describe the mechanisms of licorice-induced pseudoaldosteronism by the pharmacokinetics of chemical constituents and its metabolites containing licorice. Glycyrrhizin (GL), the main constituent of licorice, is absorbed as glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), which is a metabolite of GL produced by enterobacteria before its release into the circulation...
2014: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
V A Serov, A M Shutov, D V Serova, E Iu Shmel'kova, S V Shevchenko
AIM: To define the prognostic value of arterial hypotension (AH) episodes in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred and ninety-nine patients (mean age 57.2 +/- 10.5 years) were examined. Functional Class I, II, III, and IV CHF was diagnosed in 24, 92, 82, and 1 patients, respectively. The cause of CHF was coronary heart disease concurrent with hypertensive disease in 160 patients. AH was diagnosed when their blood pressure (BP) was < or = 100/60 mm Hg during medical visits and daytime BP < or = 100/60 mm Hg and nocturnal BP < or = 85/47 mm Hg were measured during 24-hour BP monitoring (BPM)...
2014: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Kazuhide Ogino, Yoshiharu Kinugasa, Masahiko Kato, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Ichiro Hisatome, Stefan D Anker, Wolfram Doehner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathophysiology in chronic heart failure (CHF). Diuretics generally have harmful effects on glucose metabolism, however, the effect of mineral corticoid receptor blockers on insulin resistance in CHF is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the aldosterone blocker spironolactone, in comparison with furosemide, on insulin resistance in CHF patients. METHODS: The effect of spironolactone (25mg/day) and furosemide (20mg/day) on IR for 16 weeks each was analyzed in 16 CHF patients using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study design...
February 15, 2014: International Journal of Cardiology
Pierpaolo Pellicori, Concetta Torromeo, Angela Calicchia, Alessandra Ruffa, Martina Di Iorio, John G F Cleland, Manuela Merli
Subtle abnormalities of cardiac structure or function are often identified in patients with liver cirrhosis and have been termed cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. However, in the absence of a precise definition, its diagnosis remains a challenge. Cardiac dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis can often be attributed to concomitant diseases such as hypertension, ischaemic heart disease or excess alcohol consumption in many patients. Further research is required to identify the existence, origin and importance of abnormal cardiac function due specifically to liver disease...
December 2013: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Rajesh Rawal, Alexander Teumer, Henry Völzke, Henri Wallaschofski, Till Ittermann, Bjørn O Åsvold, Trine Bjøro, Karin H Greiser, Daniel Tiller, Karl Werdan, Henriette E Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Angela Doering, Thomas Illig, Christian Gieger, Christa Meisinger, Georg Homuth
Thyroid hormones play key roles in cellular growth, development and metabolism. Although there is a strong genetic influence on thyroid hormone levels, the genes involved are widely unknown. The levels of circulating thyroid hormones are tightly regulated by thyrotropin (TSH), which also represents the most important diagnostic marker for thyroid function. Therefore, in order to identify genetic loci associated with TSH levels, we performed a discovery meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies including two cohorts from Germany, KORA (n = 1287) and SHIP (n = 2449), resulting in a total sample size of 3736...
July 15, 2012: Human Molecular Genetics
Teiko Ohashi, Keiko Uchida, Shinichi Uchida, Sei Sasaki, Kosaku Nitta
BACKGROUND: We reported that nephrin is phosphorylated at Y1204 and Y1228 under normal conditions and that the phosphorylation is decreased in puromycin nephrosis and in human minimal change nephrosis. These results indicate that the phosphorylation of nephrin is important for maintaining normal podocyte function. However, little is known about the regulation of nephrin phosphorylation. Here, we investigated whether glucocorticoid, a drug used to treat glomerular diseases with proteinuria, might affect the phosphorylation of nephrin...
October 2011: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Mitsutoshi Kimura, Hajime Moteki, Masahiko Ogihara
We investigated the effects of dexamethasone on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced DNA synthesis and proliferation in serum-free primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. Isolated hepatocytes were cultured at a density of 3.3 × 10⁴ cells/cm² in Williams' medium E containing 5% bovine calf serum and various concentrations of dexamethasone for 1, 2 and 3 h. After the 3-h attachment period, the medium was changed, and cells were cultured in serum-free and dexamethasone-free Williams' medium E with or without glucocorticoid receptor antagonists...
2011: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
S L Kjaer, K S Hougaard, R A Tasker, D S MacDonald, R Rosenberg, B Elfving, G Wegener
Depression and pathological anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent neurological diseases in the world and can be precipitated and exacerbated by stress. Prenatal stress alters both behavioral and endocrine responses to stressful stimuli in later life. We have previously observed increased basal acoustic startle response (ASR) in Wistar rats exposed to stress or dexamethasone (DEX) in utero when tested during the light phase of the circadian rhythm, and decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI) in similar animals tested during the dark phase of the cycle...
March 28, 2011: Physiology & Behavior
Shusuke Yagi, Masashi Akaike, Ken-ichi Aihara, Takashi Iwase, Sumiko Yoshida, Yuka Sumitomo-Ueda, Yasumasa Ikeda, Kazue Ishikawa, Toshio Matsumoto, Masataka Sata
Cognitive impairment leading to dementia is associated with high prevalence of hypertension, decreased quality of life and poor prognosis. Aldosterone is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In addition, mineral corticoid receptors are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus, which plays a pivotal role in cognitive function; however, it has not been determined whether plasma aldosterone level is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with hypertension. We enrolled 68 patients with essential hypertension and assessed their cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, history of cerebral infarction, renal function, parameters of inflammation, oxidative stress and nitric oxide bioavailability, a parameter of cerebral blood flow and carotid plaque by ultrasound examination, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC)...
January 2011: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Ellen H Stolte, Aurélia F de Mazon, Karen M Leon-Koosterziel, Maria Jesiak, Nic R Bury, Armin Sturm, Huub F J Savelkoul, B M Lidy Verburg van Kemenade, Gert Flik
In higher vertebrates, mineralo- (aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (cortisol/corticosterone) exert their multiple actions via specific transcription factors, glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. Teleostean fishes lack aldosterone and mineral regulatory processes seem under dominant control by cortisol. Despite the absence of the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone, teleostean fishes do have an MR with cortisol and possibly 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) (as alternative for aldosterone) as predominant ligands...
August 2008: Journal of Endocrinology
Joseph Fomusi Ndisang, Nina Lane, Ashok Jadhav
BACKGROUND: Aldosterone is a mineral corticoid hormone that is produced in response to angiotensin-II, and like angiotensin-II, stimulates inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis by activating nuclear factor-kappaB and activating protein-1. Recent evidence, however, indicates that aldosterone stimulates phospholipase C and activates nuclear factor-kappaB and activating protein-1. Although the heme oxygenase system is cytoprotective, its effects on aldosterone-phospholipase C signaling in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt) hypertension, a model of aldosteronism, and spontaneously hypertensive rat, a genetic model of human essential hypertension, have not been fully characterized...
June 2008: Journal of Hypertension
N S Logvinenko
Aldosterone: a steroid hormone of adrenal cortex, has recently attracted much interest not only due to its great importance in regulation of salt and water balance, but also because of its key role in therapy of cardiovascular and renal pathology. The classical genomic mechanism of molecular action of aldosterone is mediated through interaction with mineral-corticoid receptors. Fast nongenomic pathway of cell signal transduction begins with interaction with hypothetic membrane receptors and includes activation of different kinase cascades...
July 2007: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
E N Levtchenko, J Deinum, N V A M Knoers, A R Hermus, L A H Monnens, J W M Lenders
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by deficiency of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2). 11beta-HSD2 converts cortisol into inactive cortisone and prevents the stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor by cortisol. In patients with AME, an enhanced stimulation of mineralocorticoid receptors by cortisol in the distal nephron causes an elevated sodium reabsorption and increased potassium excretion. Sodium retention leads to severe low renin hypertension...
March 24, 2007: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
R Adamec, C Muir, M Grimes, K Pearcey
The roles of beta-NER (beta-noradrenergic receptor), GR (glucocorticoid) and mineral corticoid receptors (MR) in the consolidation of anxiogenic effects of predator stress were studied. One minute after predator stress, different groups of rats were injected (ip) with vehicle, propranolol (beta-NER blocker, 5 and 10 mg/kg), mifepristone (RU486, GR blocker, 20 mg/kg), spironolactone (MR blocker, 50 mg/kg), propranolol (5 mg/kg) plus RU486 (20 mg/kg) or the anxiolytic, chloradiazepoxide (CPZ, 10 mg/kg). One week later, rodent anxiety was assessed in elevated plus maze, hole board, light/dark box, social interaction and acoustic startle...
May 16, 2007: Behavioural Brain Research
M Timio, P Saronio, S Venanzi, G Bellomo, F Timio
Diuretics are an integral part of the management of symptomatic heart failure. Although they have been used for several decades, there is still some ambiguity and confusion regarding the outcome and the optimal way of using these common agents. There are no large-scale randomized controlled trials that have evaluated the effect of diuretics on mortality and long-term morbidity in diastolic and systolic dysfunction. Nonetheless, in short-term studies furosemide has demonstrated to reduce symptomatic congestive heart failure and hospitalization, and to improve exercise capacity in the setting of systolic dysfunction...
January 2006: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
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