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Carlo Pinna, Carla Giuditta Vecchiato, Carmen Bolduan, Monica Grandi, Claudio Stefanelli, Wilhelm Windisch, Giuliano Zaghini, Giacomo Biagi
BACKGROUND: Feeding dogs with diets rich in protein may favor putrefactive fermentations in the hindgut, negatively affecting the animal's intestinal environment. Conversely, prebiotics may improve the activity of health-promoting bacteria and prevent bacterial proteolysis in the colon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on fecal microbiota and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs fed kibbles differing in protein content...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Yoshitake Orikasa, Yuji Oda, Takuji Ohwada
Rhizopus microsporus NBRC 32995 was found to hydrolyze fructooligosaccharides (FOS), as well as sucrose, almost completely into monosaccharides through the production of sufficient amounts of organic acids, indicating that the complete hydrolysis of FOS was caused by the secretion of β-fructofuranosidase from fungal cells. Thus, the sucA gene, encoding a β-fructofuranosidase, was amplified by degenerate PCR, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. The total length of the sucA gene was 1590 bp, and the SucA protein of R...
March 13, 2018: Microorganisms
Asad Nawaz, Allah Bakhsh Javaid, Sana Irshad, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Hanguo Xiong
The gut immune system is, the main option for maintaining host's health, affected by numerous factors comprising dietary constituents and commensal bacteria. These dietary components that affect the intestinal immunity and considered as an alternative of antibiotics are called immunosaccharides. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), Galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin, dietary carbohydrates, and xylooligosaccharide (XOS) are among the most studied prebiotics in human as well as in aquaculture. Although prebiotics and probiotics have revealed potential as treatment for numerous illnesses in both human and fish, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism behind direct and indirect effect on the intestinal immune response will help more and perhaps extra effective therapy intended for ailments...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Quan Gan, Xin Li, Xinwei Zhang, Lanlan Wu, Chongjun Ye, Ying Wang, Junshan Gao, Yan Meng
β-fructofuranosidase (β-FFase) belongs to the glycosyl-hydrolase family 32 (GH32), which can catalyze both the release of β-fructose from β-d-fructofuranoside substrates to hydrolyze sucrose and the synthesis of short-chain fructooligosaccharide (FOS). BmSuc1 has been cloned and identified from the silkworm Bombyx mori as a first animal type of β-FFase encoding gene. It was hypothesized that BmSUC1 plays an important role in the silkworm-mulberry adaptation system. However, there is little information about the enzymatic core sites of BmSUC1...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Haoran Xing, Varoujan A Yaylayan
Although chemical reactions driven by mechanical force is emerging as a promising tool in the field of physical sciences, its applications in the area of food sciences are not reported. In this paper, we propose ball milling as an efficient tool for the controlled generation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) mixtures from inulin with a degree of polymerization (dp) ranging between 4 and 7. The addition of catalytic amounts of AlCl3 together with ball milling (30 min, at 30 Hz) generated mixtures rich in dehydrated disaccharides such as di-D-fructose dianhydrides...
February 19, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Zohoor Nabhani, Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami Hezaveh, Elham Razmpoosh, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Bahram Pourghassem Gargari
AIMS: The role of gut microbiota in the management of diabetes is shown. In this randomized clinical trial we assessed the effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin, lipid profile and antioxidative status among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Ninety pregnant women with GDM were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either a daily synbiotic capsule - consisting of L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. gasseri (1.5-7...
February 10, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Barbara Speranza, Daniela Campaniello, Noemi Monacis, Antonio Bevilacqua, Milena Sinigaglia, Maria Rosaria Corbo
The aim of this study was to develop a functional fresh cream cheese with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 or Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 and prebiotics (inulin, FOS and lactulose). The research was divided into two steps: in vitro evaluation of the effects of prebiotic compounds; validation at laboratory level with production of functional cream mini-cheeses. Prebiotics showed a protective effect: B. animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 cultivability on Petri dishes was positively influenced by lactulose, whereas fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were the prebiotic compounds able to prolong Lb...
June 2018: Food Microbiology
Jennifer M Erickson, Justin L Carlson, Maria L Stewart, Joanne L Slavin
Resistant starches are non-digestible starches that are fermented in the colon by microbiota. These carbohydrates are prebiotic and can be beneficial to consumer health. Many types of resistant starch exist with varying physical properties that may result in differences in fermentability. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of four novel resistant starches using an in vitro fermentation system and measuring changes in total gas production, pH, and formation of SCFAs (short chain fatty acids)...
February 1, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Maria Wiese, Bekzod Khakimov, Sebastian Nielsen, Helena Sørensen, Frans van den Berg, Dennis Sandris Nielsen
Driven by the growing recognition of the influence of the gut microbiota (GM) on human health and disease, there is a rapidly increasing interest in understanding how dietary components, pharmaceuticals and pre- and probiotics influence GM. In vitro colon models represent an attractive tool for this purpose. With the dual objective of facilitating the investigation of rare and expensive compounds, as well as an increased throughput, we have developed a prototype in vitro parallel gut microbial fermentation screening tool with a working volume of only 5 ml consisting of five parallel reactor units that can be expanded with multiples of five to increase throughput...
2018: PeerJ
Jingyi Song, Qian Qin, Tong Li, Fazheng Ren, Hongxing Zhang, Yuanhong Xie, Junhua Jin
In this study, the regularity of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) secretion during growth and the effect of the addition of various carbohydrates on AI-2 secretion in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68 were investigated. The results indicated that the AI-2 concentration reached its highest level (2536.60 nmol l-1 ) at the early stationary growth phase, and then decreased to 1263.72 nmol l-1 at the late stationary growth phase in Bifidobacterium cultures. When the density of the cultures which mannose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose had been added to reached an OD600 nm of 1...
January 22, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Thaisa Moro Cantu-Jungles, Andrea Caroline Ruthes, Marwa El-Hindawy, Roberta Barbara Moreno, Xiaowei Zhang, Lucimara M C Cordeiro, Bruce R Hamaker, Marcello Iacomini
Dietary fiber chemical and physical structures may be critical to the comprehension of how they may modulate gut bacterial composition. We purified insoluble polymers from Cookeina speciosa, and investigated its fermentation profile in an in vitro human fecal fermentation model. Two glucans, characterized as a (1 → 3),(1 → 6)-linked and a (1→3)-linked β-D-glucans were obtained. Both glucans were highly butyrogenic and propiogenic, with low gas production, during in vitro fecal fermentation and led to distinct bacterial shifts if compared to fructooligosaccharides...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mursalin Sajib, Peter Falck, Roya R R Sardari, Sindhu Mathew, Carl Grey, Eva Nordberg Karlsson, Patrick Adlercreutz
Brewer's spent grain (BSG) accounts for around 85% of the solid by-products from beer production. BSG was first extracted to obtain water-soluble arabinoxylan (AX). Using subsequent alkali extraction (0.5 M KOH) it was possible to dissolve additional AX. In total, about 57% of the AX in BSG was extracted with the purity of 45-55%. After comparison of nine xylanases, Pentopan mono BG, a GH11 enzyme, was selected for hydrolysis of the extracts to oligosaccharides with minimal formation of monosaccharides. Growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis (ATCC 15703) was promoted by the enzymatic hydrolysis to arabinoxylooligosaccharides, while Lactobacillus brevis (DSMZ 1264) utilized only unsubstituted xylooligosaccharides...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Sehad Alarifi, Alan Bell, Gemma Walton
Interest in the consumption of gum acacia (GA) has been associated with beneficial health effects, which may be mediated in part by prebiotic activity. Two doses of GA and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) (1 and 2%) were tested for their efficacy over 48 h in pH- and temperature-controlled anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faeces. Samples were taken after 0, 5, 10, 24 and 48 h of fermentation. The selective effects of GA (increases in Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.) were similar to those of the known prebiotic FOS...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
F F Yao, P Y Zheng, H Huang, L M Bai, Y R Ding, L Mei, S M Liu
Objective: To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 combined with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice and its possible mechanism. Methods: A total of 50 male C57 mice were randomly and equally divided into five experimental groups. Group 1 received a normal diet (ND). Other four groups received a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish NAFLD models. In addition to HFD, group 3 received Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 (2.2×10(9) CFU/mL), group 4 received FOS (4 g/kg per day), and group 5 received Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 (2...
December 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Maria de Fátima Gomes da Silva, Ana Paula Dionísio, Fernando Antonio Pinto de Abreu, Edy Sousa de Brito, Nedio Jair Wurlitzer, Lorena Mara Alexandre E Silva, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Sueli Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Kenji Taniguchi, Dorasilvia Ferreira Pontes
A complete characterization of yacon syrup was performed by analytical techniques, including NMR and UPLC-QTOF-MSE. The effect of the different stages of yacon syrup production on fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) contents were also evaluated. As a result, in addition to higher levels of FOS and CGA, some mineral elements, such as K, Ca and P, and essential amino acids, such as tryptophan, valine, and threonine, were determined in yacon syrup. Twenty-five compounds were putatively identified, and the main compounds were phenolics derived from quinic and trans-cinnamic acids...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Diling Chen, Xin Yang, Jian Yang, Guoxiao Lai, Tianqiao Yong, Xiaocui Tang, Ou Shuai, Gailian Zhou, Yizhen Xie, Qingping Wu
Gut microbiota influences the central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prebiotics and probiotics can improve the host cognition. A previous study demonstrated that fructooligosaccharides from Morinda officinalis (OMO) exert effective memory improvements in AD-like animals, thereby considered as potential prebiotics; however, the underlying mechanism still remains enigma. Thus, the present study investigated whether OMO is effective in alleviating AD by targeting the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Lázaro Hernández, Carmen Menéndez, Enrique R Pérez, Duniesky Martínez, Dubiel Alfonso, Luis E Trujillo, Ricardo Ramírez, Alina Sobrino, Yuliet Mazola, Alexis Musacchio, Eulogio Pimentel
The non-saccharolytic yeast Pichia pastoris was engineered to express constitutively the mature region of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST, EC from Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus). The increase of the transgene dosage from one to nine copies enhanced 7.9-fold the recombinant enzyme (Sa1-SSTrec) yield without causing cell toxicity. Secretion driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor signal peptide resulted in periplasmic retention (38%) and extracellular release (62%) of Sa1-SSTrec to an overall activity of 102...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Gerard Neeraj, Shobana Ravi, Ravindran Somdutt, ShriAishvarya Kaliyur Ravi, Vaidyanathan Vinoth Kumar
In recent times, inulinase has emerged as one the most prominent and industrially upcoming enzymes applied to meet the ever increasing demand of d-fructose and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as sweetener and prebiotics in the food and pharmaceutical industry, respectively. This review deals with types of inulinase and the attempts made to modify it for better thermal stability and shelf life. The ease of immobilization of inulinase has led us to the path of experimenting with different methods of enzyme immobilization since 1979...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jitrayut Jitonnom, James R Ketudat-Cairns, Supa Hannongbua
Fructosyltransferases (FTs) act on sucrose by cleaving the β-(2→1) linkage, releasing glucose, and then transferring the fructosyl group to an acceptor molecule. These enzymes are capable of producing prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) that are of industrial interest. While several FOS-synthesizing enzymes FTs have been investigated, their catalytic mechanism is not yet fully understood, especially the molecular details of how FOS are enzymatically synthesized from sucrose. Here, we present a comparative quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) study on the hydrolysis and transfructosylation reactions catalyzed by A...
January 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Lucía Cassani, Mauricio Santos, Esteban Gerbino, María Del Rosario Moreira, Andrea Gómez-Zavaglia
In this work, a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based method was developed for simultaneously quantifying simple sugars and exogenously added fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in strawberry juices preserved for up to 14 d using nonthermal techniques (geraniol and vanillin+ultrasound). The main spectral differences were observed in the 1200 to 900 cm-1 region. The presence of FOS was identified by the typical bands at 1134, 1034, and 935 cm-1 . During storage, a significant decrease of sucrose was concomitant to an increase of glucose and fructose in juices stored without any previous preservation treatment, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science
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