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Justin D Roberts, Craig A Suckling, Georgia Y Peedle, Joseph A Murphy, Tony G Dawkins, Michael G Roberts
Gastrointestinal (GI) ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females) were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB⁴ANTI; 30 billion CFU·day(-1) containing 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157), 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156), 9...
November 17, 2016: Nutrients
Johnson W McRorie, Nicola M McKeown
Enduring misconceptions about the physical effects of fiber in the gut have led to misunderstandings about the health benefits attributable to insoluble and soluble fiber. This review will focus on isolated functional fibers (eg, fiber supplements) whose effects on clinical outcomes have been readily assessed in well-controlled clinical studies. This review will also focus on three health benefits (cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control, and normalizing stool form [constipation and diarrhea]) for which reproducible evidence of clinical efficacy has been published...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Emmanouil Angelakis
Antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are widely used as growth promoters in agriculture. In the 1940s, use of Streptomyces aureofaciens probiotics resulted in weight gain in animals, which led to the discovery of chlortetracycline. Tetracyclines, macrolides, avoparcin and penicillins have been commonly used in livestock agriculture to promote growth through increased food intake, weight gain, and improved herd health. Prebiotic supplements including oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, and galactosyl-lactose improve the growth performance of animals...
November 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Rita Azeredo, Marina Machado, Eva Kreuz, Sven Wuertz, Aires Oliva-Teles, Paula Enes, Benjamín Costas
Inclusion of prebiotics in aqua feeds, though a costly strategy, has increased as a means to improve growth. Still, its effects on health improvement are not fully disclosed. Regarding their immunestimulatory properties, research has focused on carbohydrates such as fructooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides demonstrating their modulatory effects on immune defences in higher vertebrates but few studies have been done on their impact on fish immunity. Replacing fish meal (FM) by plant protein (PP) sources is a current practice in the aquaculture business but their content in antinutrients is still a drawback in terms of gut well-functioning...
November 9, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Alaleh Zoghi, Kianoush Khosravi-Darani, Sarah Sohrabvandi, Hossein Attar, Sayed Abolhasan Alavi
BACKGROUND: Studies have reported the occurrence of mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. Impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks cold storage...
October 27, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Dongping Yu, Zhimou Guo, Aijin Shen, Jingyu Yan, Xuefang Dong, Gaowa Jin, Zhen Long, Lina Liang, Xinmiao Liang
Zwitterionic polymer stationary phases have attracted increasing attention in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). In this work, a zwitterionic sulfobetaine functionalized polyacrylamide stationary phase (named TENS) based on porous silica particles was prepared via controlled surface initiated reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Instead of traditional methacrylate type sulfobetaine monomer, acrylamide type sulfobetaine monomer, which has higher chemical stability and hydrophicility, was employed in this work...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Janifer Raj Xavier, Karna Venkata Ramana
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and levan attract much attention due to a wide range of applications in food technology and pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Bacillus licheniformis ANT 179, isolated from Antarctica soil, produced levansucrase and levan in a medium containing sucrose as carbon substrate. In this study, characterization of levansucrase and production of short-chain FOS and levan were investigated. Temperature and pH optimum of the enzyme were found to be 60 °C and pH 6.0, respectively. The optimization of fermentation conditions for levan production using sugarcane juice by response surface methodology (RSM) was carried out...
October 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Erika Mellado-Mojica, Luis E González de la Vara, Mercedes G López
Biosynthesis of agave fructans occurs in mesontle vacuoles which showed fluctuations in FAZY activities and synthesized a diverse spectrum of fructooligosaccharide isomers. Agave tequilana Weber Blue variety is an important agronomic crop in Mexico. Fructan metabolism in A. tequilana exhibits changes in fructan content, type, degree of polymerization (DP), and molecular structure. Specific activities of vacuolar fructan active enzymes (FAZY) in A. tequilana plants of different age and the biosynthesis of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) were analyzed in this work...
October 11, 2016: Planta
Seema A Belorkar, A K Gupta
This article reviews the varied sources of oligosaccharides available in nature as silent health promoting, integral ingredients of plants as well as animal products like honey and milk. The article focuses on exotic and unfamiliar oligosaccharides like Galactooligosaccharides, Lactulose derived Galactooligosaccharides, Xylooligosaccharides, Arabinooligosaccharides and algae derived Marine oligosaccharides along with the most acknowledged prebiotic fructooligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides are named as on the grounds of the monomeric units forming oligomers with functional properties...
December 2016: AMB Express
A Pineda, M A Ballou, J M Campbell, F C Cardoso, J K Drackley
Previous studies with calves and other species have provided evidence that blood serum-derived proteins and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) may benefit intestinal health. We assessed the effects of supplementing products containing serum proteins as a component of arrival fluid support or serum proteins plus FOS (in addition to additional solids, minerals, and vitamins) in an early life dietary supplement on performance, morbidity, and mortality of stressed (transport, cold) male calves. Male Holstein calves (n = 93) <1 wk old were stratified by arrival body weight (BW) and plasma protein concentration, and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of one-time administration of fluid support [either control electrolyte solution (E) or the serum protein-containing arrival formula (AF)] and 14 d of either no supplementation (NG) or supplementation with Gammulin (G; APC Inc...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Natalia Rosa-Sibakov, Terhi K Hakala, Nesli Sözer, Emilia Nordlund, Kaisa Poutanen, Anna-Marja Aura
The objective was to evaluate the potential of birch xylan as a food hydrocolloid and dietary fibre. High-molecular weight xylan was isolated from birch kraft pulp by alkaline extraction, and enzymatically hydrolysed. Fermentability of xylans was evaluated using an in vitro colon model and performance as a hydrocolloid was studied in low-fat acid milk gels (1.5% and 3% w/w). Texture of the gels and water holding capacity of xylans were compared with inulin, fructooligosaccharide and xylooligosaccharide. Xylans showed slower fermentation rate by faecal microbiota than the references...
December 10, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yuko Yamamoto, Toru Takahahi, Masahiro To, Yusuke Nakagawa, Takashi Hayashi, Tomoko Shimizu, Yohei Kamata, Juri Saruta, Keiichi Tsukinoki
Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) serves as a major effector in mucosal immunity by preventing submucosal invasion of pathogens. However, the mechanism by which consumption of fermentable fibers increases IgA in saliva was not fully elucidated. This study investigated the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) intake and time after feeding on IgA levels in the saliva and cecal digesta and on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the cecum in rats. Five-week-old rats were fed a fiber-free diet or a diet with 50 g/kg FOS for zero, one, four, and eight weeks...
2016: Nutrients
Yasuhiro Koga, Shouji Tokunaga, Jun Nagano, Fuyuhiko Sato, Kenta Konishi, Takumi Tochio, Youko Murakami, Natsuko Masumoto, Jun-Ichirou Tezuka, Nobuyuki Sudo, Chiharu Kubo, Rumiko Shibata
BACKGROUND: Although Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major bacterium in the intestine of adults, which is known to have anti-inflammatory effects, the development in infants or the response to prebiotics remains unclear. METHODS: The counts of F. prausnitzii in the feces were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fecal samples were obtained from 65 atopic dermatitis (AD) infants who participated in a randomized controlled clinical trial to investigate the therapeutic effect of kestose, the smallest fructooligosaccharide...
December 2016: Pediatric Research
Ram Sarup Singh, Rupinder Pal Singh, John F Kennedy
Endoinulinase is an inulolytic enzyme which is used for the production of fructooligosaccharides from inulin. A new endoinulinase producing fungal strain BGPUP6 was identified as Aspergillus tritici on the basis of its molecular characterization. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the endoinulinase production at shake-flask level from Aspergillus tritici BGPUP6 using raw Asparagus inulin as carbon source. Four independent variables (raw inulin, 2-4%; peptone, 0.3-0.7%; (NH4)H2PO4, 0.3-0.7% and pH, 4...
November 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mei-Ping Huang, Min Wu, Qiang-Sheng Xu, De-Jiao Mo, Jia-Xun Feng
In this work, Aspergillus aculeatus M105 was obtained to produce high extracellular fructooligosaccharide-producing enzyme activity. The maximum yields of fructooligosaccharides produced by its extracellular enzymes and immobilized cells were 67.54 and 65.47% (w/w), respectively. A fructosyltransferase (FTase), AaFT32A, was purified from M105. The optimal pH and temperature of AaFT32A were pH 5.0-6.0 and 65 °C, respectively. The Km, Vmax, and kcat values for the transfructosylating activity of AaFT32A were 2267 mM, 1347 μmol/min/mg protein, and 1550...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
F Azpiroz, C Dubray, A Bernalier-Donadille, J-M Cardot, A Accarino, J Serra, A Wagner, F Respondek, M Dapoigny
BACKGROUND: Short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) have beneficial effects in subjects with minor digestive complaints, but the potential mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in rectal sensitivity related to the clinical effects of scFOS in a selected group of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and rectal hypersensitivity. METHODS: In 79 IBS patients (defined by Rome III criteria) with rectal hypersensitivity (defined as discomfort threshold ≤44 g) a parallel, placebo-controlled, randomized, and double-blind study was performed to assess the effects of dietary supplementation (5 g d(-1) ) with scFOS vs placebo for 4 weeks on rectal sensitivity (primary outcome: tolerance to increasing wall tension applied by a tensostat), clinical outcomes (IBS, anxiety/depression and quality of life scores) and composition of fecal microbiota...
July 31, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Gabrielly Terassi Bersaneti, Janaina Mantovan, Agnes Magri, Suzana Mali, Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi
The objectives of this work were to produce fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) by using the microorganism Bacillus subtilis natto CCT 7712 and to employ these FOSs as a functional ingredient in cassava starch edible films, which were characterized according to their microstructure, mechanical and barrier properties. The produced FOSs could be easily dissolved, resulting in homogeneous filmogenic solutions, which were easily manipulated to obtain films by casting. FOSs were added in different concentrations (0, 1, 5 and 10g/100g solids), and glycerol was used as a plasticizer (20g/100g solids)...
October 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Brunno F R Caetano, Nelci A de Moura, Ana P S Almeida, Marcos C Dias, Kátia Sivieri, Luís F Barbisan
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a perennial plant of the family Asteraceae native to the Andean regions of South America, is an abundant source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). This comprehensive review of the literature addressed the role of yacon supplementation in promoting health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. According to several preclinical and clinical trials, FOS intake favors the growth of health-promoting bacteria while reducing pathogenic bacteria populations. Moreover, the endproducts of FOS fermentation by the intestinal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), act as substrates or signaling molecules in the regulation of the immune response, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism...
2016: Nutrients
Qianqian Xu, Ying Zang, Jie Zhou, Peng Liu, Xin Li, Qiang Yong, Jia Ouyang
Inulin is a readily available feedstock for cost-effective production of biochemicals. To date, several studies have explored the production of bioethanol, high-fructose syrup and fructooligosaccharide, but there are no studies regarding the production of D-lactic acid using inulin as a carbon source. In the present study, chicory-derived inulin was used for D-lactic acid biosynthesis by Lactobacillus bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970. Compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has demonstrated the best performance of D-lactic acid production...
November 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Gaowa Bai, Kuikui Ni, Takeshi Tsuruta, Naoki Nishino
Although diet has an important influence on the composition of gut microbiota, the impact of dietary protein sources has only been studied to a minor extent. In this study, we examined the influence of different dietary protein sources regarding the effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on the composition and metabolic activity of gut microbiota. Thirty female rats were fed casein and soy protein isolate with cellulose, raffinose (RAF), and fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Microbiota composition was examined by real-time qPCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis...
August 2016: Journal of Food Science
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