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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721159/pcsk9-inhibitors-from-discovery-of-a-single-mutation-to-a-groundbreaking-therapy-of-lipid-disorders-in-one-decade
#1
Krzysztof Jaworski, Piotr Jankowski, Dariusz A Kosior
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the main risk factors for coronary heart disease and significantly contributes to the high mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases. Statin therapy represents the gold standard in the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Nevertheless, many patients still cannot achieve the recommended target levels, due to either inadequate effectiveness or intolerance of these drugs. Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have emerged as a promising option in lipid-lowering treatment...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710918/intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-eating-disorders-an-update-on-the-field
#2
REVIEW
Alice Kesby, Sarah Maguire, Rachel Brownlow, Jessica R Grisham
Pathological fear and anxiety regarding food, eating, weight and body shape are at the core of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. To manage anxiety, patients develop complicated repertoires of ritualistic and repetitive behaviours, which can lead to total functional impairment. Yet the cognitive processes underlying anxiety, fear, and anxiety-driven behaviours in EDs remain poorly understood. Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is defined as a tendency to react negatively on an emotional, cognitive, and behavioural level to uncertain situations and events...
July 5, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703954/evaluation-of-selected-properties-of-gluten-free-instant-gruels-processed-under-various-extrusion-cook-ing-conditions
#3
Magdalena Kręcisz, Agnieszka Wójtowicz
BACKGROUND: For consumers suffering with gluten intolerance, the only way to manage the condition is to avoid foods which are high in gluten. Instant gruels, processed from gluten-free corn and rice by extrusion cooking, could be used as a ready meal both for children and for adults on a gluten-free diet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of various processing conditions on selected characteristics of corn-rice instant gruels. METHODS: Corn-rice mixtures (75:25 and 50:50) were processed at 12, 14, 16 and 18% of initial moisture content, using an extruder with screw speeds of 80, 100 and 120 rpm...
April 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702325/the-human-digestive-tract-has-proteases-capable-of-gluten-hydrolysis
#4
Sergio Gutiérrez, Jenifer Pérez-Andrés, Honorina Martínez-Blanco, Miguel Angel Ferrero, Luis Vaquero, Santiago Vivas, Javier Casqueiro, Leandro B Rodríguez-Aparicio
OBJECTIVE: To identify, purify, and characterize the proteins responsible for glutenase activity in the feces of healthy subjects and patients with celiac disease (CD). METHODS: Sixteen subjects were included in this study; 8 were healthy with no known food intolerances, and 8 were treated CD patients on a gluten-free diet. Fecal samples were homogenized, and precipitated proteins were purified by chromatography. Glutenase activity was evaluated by bioassays, zymography, and high-performance liquid chromatography with immunogenic 33-mer, 19-mer, and 13-mer gliadin peptides...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702130/new-insights-in-ibs-like-disorders-pandora-s-box-has-been-opened-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Raffaele Borghini, Giuseppe Donato, Domenico Alvaro, Antonio Picarelli
The most complained gastrointestinal symptoms are chronic diarrhea, bloating and abdominal pain. Once malignancies and inflammatory bowel diseases are excluded, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the so called "IBS-like disorders" should be taken into account. The relationship between IBS as defined by Rome IV criteria and these clinical conditions is sometimes obscure, since many IBS patients identify food as a possible trigger for their symptoms. Here, we discuss IBS and the most common IBS-like disorders (celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs), lactose intolerance, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor (ATIs), nickel allergic contact mucositis), focusing on epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688885/using-the-systems-practice-framework-to-understand-food-allergen-management-practices-at-college-catering-operations-a-qualitative-study
#6
Jennie Verstappen, Miranda Mirosa, Carla Thomson
BACKGROUND: The number of individuals with food allergies or intolerances attending catered university residential colleges is increasing, and safe dining options are required to minimize the risk of allergic reactions and food-induced death. OBJECTIVE: This qualitative research study sought to advance professional knowledge of the factors affecting allergen management practices, particularly pertaining to college foodservices. DESIGN: Three catered residential colleges affiliated with a major university in New Zealand were selected as research sites...
July 6, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687198/neu-p11-a-novel-mt1-mt2-agonist-reverses-diabetes-by-suppressing-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-rats
#7
Jun Zhou, Jin Zhang, XiaoHong Luo, MaoXing Li, Ying Yue, Moshe Laudon, ZhengPing Jia, RuXue Zhang
Excessive glucocorticoid (GC) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) reduces insulin sensitivity, impairs β-cell function, increases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, impairs glucose uptake and metabolism, and reduces the insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1. Melatonin, which serves as a physiological regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has been suggested to have anti-diabetic effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the MT1/MT2 melatonin agonist Neu-P11 on glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM rats induced by a high fat diet combined with low doses of streptozotocin...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680560/health-related-quality-of-life-among-schoolchildren-aged-12-13%C3%A2-years-in-relation-to-food-hypersensitivity-phenotypes-a-population-based-study
#8
Åsa Strinnholm, Linnéa Hedman, Anna Winberg, Sven-Arne Jansson, Viveca Lindh, Eva Rönmark
BACKGROUND: While Health Related Quality of Life has been investigated among children with IgE-mediated food allergy, less is known about quality of life among children with other types of hypersensitivity to food. The aim of this study was to investigate Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) in children with and without food hypersensitivity. Further, we compared HRQL between children with different phenotypes of food hypersensitivity. METHODS: In a large population-based cohort of schoolchildren in Northern Sweden, the parents of 2612 (96% of invited) completed a questionnaire...
2017: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680065/nopal-opuntia-ficus-indica-protects-from-metabolic-endotoxemia-by-modifying-gut-microbiota-in-obese-rats-fed-high-fat-sucrose-diet
#9
Mónica Sánchez-Tapia, Miriam Aguilar-López, Claudia Pérez-Cruz, Edgar Pichardo-Ontiveros, Mei Wang, Sharon M Donovan, Armando R Tovar, Nimbe Torres
Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N)...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669591/primary-biliary-cholangitis-old-and-novel-therapy
#10
Annarosa Floreani, Chiara Mangini
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis, is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that progresses slowly to end-stage liver disease. The first Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for PBC was ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). This treatment slows the progress of the disease, but approximatively 30-40% of patients fail to respond to UDCA. A number of options are under investigation as second line treatment. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a Farnesoid X Receptor agonist, has been approved in May 2017 by FDA for patients non responders or intolerant to UDCA...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643898/identification-of-cross-reactive-b-cell-epitopes-between-bos-d-9-0101-bos-taurus-and-gly-m-5-0101-glycine-max-by-epitope-mapping-maldi-tof-ms
#11
Ángela María Candreva, Mario Ferrer-Navarro, Silvia Bronsoms, Alejandra Quiroga, Renata Curciarello, Ana Cauerhff, Silvana Petruccelli, Guillermo Horacio Docena, Sebastián Alejandro Trejo
Exposure to cow's milk constitutes one of the most common causes of food allergy. In addition, exposure to soy proteins has become relevant in a restricted proportion of milk allergic pediatric patients treated with soy formulae as a dairy substitute, because of the cross-allergenicity described between soy and milk proteins . We have previously identified several cross-reactive allergens between milk and soy that may explain this intolerance. The purpose of the present work was to identify epitopes in the purified αS1-casein and the recombinant soy allergen Gly m 5...
June 23, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641787/social-jet-lag-potentiates-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-when-combined-with-cafeteria-diet-in-rats
#12
Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Mario Velasco-Ramos, Iván Osnaya-Ramírez, Manuel Ángeles-Castellanos, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Modern lifestyle promotes shifted sleep onset and shifted wake up time between weekdays and weekends, producing a condition termed "social-jet lag." Disrupted sleep promotes increased appetite for carbohydrate and fat-rich food, which in long term leads to overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome. In order to mimic the human situation we produced an experimental model of social-jet lag (Sj-l). With this model, we explored the link between shifted sleep time with consumption of a cafeteria diet (CafD) and the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639297/autophagy-activation-not-pgc-1%C3%AE-may-mediate-exercise-induced-improvements-in-glucose-handling-during-diet-induced-obesity
#13
Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, Jacob L Brown, David E Lee, Thomas A Blackwell, Kyle W Turner, Lemuel A Brown, Richard A Perry, Wesley S Haynie, Tyrone A Washington, Nicholas P Greene
Prevalence of glucose intolerance is at alarming levels. Efforts to promote mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC-1α to mitigate glucose intolerance have been controversial. However, physical activity remains a primary means to alleviate the condition. PURPOSE: To determine combined effects of muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1α and physical activity on glucose handling during diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Wild-type (WT, ∼20) and PGC-1α muscle transgenic (MCK-PGC-1α, ∼20) mice were given Western diet (WD) at 8 wks age and allowed to consume food ab libitum throughout the study...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637315/attenuated-effects-of-bile-acids-on-glucose-metabolism-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-a-male-mouse-model-of-prenatal-undernutrition
#14
Huijuan Ma, Vicencia M Sales, Ashley R Wolf, Sathish Subramanian, Tucker J Matthews, Michael Chen, Aparna Sharma, Walt Gall, Wim Kulik, David E Cohen, Yusuke Adachi, Nicholas W Griffin, Jeffrey I Gordon, Mary-Elizabeth Patti, Elvira Isganaitis
Prenatal undernutrition and low birth weight are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Prenatal caloric restriction results in low birth weight, glucose intolerance, obesity, and reduced plasma bile acids (BA) in offspring mice. Since BAs can regulate systemic metabolism and glucose homeostasis, we hypothesized that BA supplementation could prevent diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in this model of developmental programming. Pregnant dams were food restricted by 50% from gestational days 12...
June 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633646/role-of-serotonin-on-the-intestinal-mucosal-immune-response-to-stress-induced-diarrhea-in-weaning-mice
#15
Yulan Dong, Yanan Han, Zixu Wang, Zhuoming Qin, Chenyu Yang, Jing Cao, Yaoxing Chen
BACKGROUND: During weaning, babies and young animal often experience diarrhea from food intolerance and/or decreasing levels of maternal antibodies, and diarrhea tends to be particularly severe during the early-weaned period, which often exhibits an underdeveloped immune system, a disturbed gut environment and results in nutrient malabsorption and dehydration. It was deduced that neuroendocrine might have close relation with diarrhea, especially 5-HT. METHODS: To explore the role of serotonin (5-HT) in weaning mice subjected to stress-induced diarrhea, 21-day-old weaned mice were divided into the following groups: control group, stress-induced diarrhea group (restrained by binding the hind limbs and intragastric administration of folium sennae with 0...
June 21, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625740/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-two-transgenic-low-gliadin-wheat-lines-and-non-transgenic-wheat-control
#16
María Dolores García-Molina, Vera Muccilli, Rosaria Saletti, Salvatore Foti, Stefania Masci, Francisco Barro
Gluten proteins are major determinants of the bread making quality of wheat, but also of important wheat-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), and allergies. We carried out a proteomic study using the total grain proteins from two low-gliadin wheat lines, obtained by RNAi, and the untransformed wild type as reference. The impact of silencing on both target and on non-target proteins was evaluated. Because of the great protein complexity, we performed separate analyses of four kernel protein fractions: gliadins and glutenin subunits, and metabolic and CM-like proteins, by using a classical 2D electrophoresis gel based approach followed by RP-HPLC/nESI-MS/MS...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623320/postprandial-metabolic-response-of-breast-fed-infants-and-infants-fed-lactose-free-vs-regular-infant-formula-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Carolyn M Slupsky, Xuan He, Olle Hernell, Yvonne Andersson, Colin Rudolph, Bo Lönnerdal, Christina E West
Lactose intolerance is a major concern driving the growth of lactose-free foods including lactose-free infant formula. It is unknown what the metabolic consequence is of consumption of a formula where lactose has been replaced with corn syrup solids (CSS). Here, a randomized double-blinded intervention study was conducted where exclusively formula-fed infants were fed formula containing either lactose or CSS-based infant formula and compared with an equal number of exclusively breast-fed infants. Plasma metabolites and insulin were measured at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after feeding...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606570/comparing-nutritional-requirements-provision-and-intakes-among-patients-prescribed-therapeutic-diets-in-hospital-an-observational-study
#18
Megan Rattray, Ben Desbrow, Shelley Roberts
OBJECTIVE: Nutrition is an important part of recovery for hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional adequacy of meals provided to and consumed by patients prescribed a therapeutic diet. METHODS: Patients (N = 110) prescribed a therapeutic diet (texture-modified, low-fiber, oral fluid, or food allergy or intolerance diets) for medical or nutritional reasons were recruited from six wards of a tertiary hospital. Complete (24-h) dietary provisions and intakes were directly observed and analyzed for energy (kJ) and protein (g) content...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592010/-clinical-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-three-cases-with-hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria-syndrome
#19
H Z Guan, Y Ding, D X Li, H Dong, J Q Song, Y Jin, Z J Zhu, L Y Sun, Y L Yang
Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, methods of diagnosis and treatment of hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia- homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome. Method: From July 2011 to August 2016, 3 Chinese patients with HHH syndrome were enrolled in this study. The clinical course, biochemical features, brain MRI findings, and gene mutations were analyzed. Result: The three patients' age at onset of symptoms was 3 months to 7 years, and the age of diagonosis was 3 years and 10 months to 9 years and 10 months...
June 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587391/immunoregulatory-effects-of-the-traditional-dai-prescription-yajieshaba-on-food-allergic-mice
#20
Guangyuan Zhang, Xiaohua Duan, Chao Zhang, Pu Chen, Jie Yu, Jin Zheng
The Dai prescription Yajieshaba is widely used in Traditional Dai Medicine to treat food allergies and intolerance. However, information on the active chemical ingredients, effects and mechanisms of action of Yajieshaba is limited. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects and underlying mechanisms of Yajieshaba in the treatment of food allergies. Liquid chromatography with a diode array detector was used to measure the levels of palmatine and berberine, the active ingredients of Yajieshaba. A food allergy model was established in female BALB/c mice by three injections of ovalbumin (OVA) at 0, 48, and 96 h...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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