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Gastrointestinal motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818674/effects-of-electroacupuncture-administered-24hours-prior-to-surgery-on-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-and-pain-in-patients-undergoing-gynecologic-laparoscopic-surgery-a-feasibility-study
#1
Sha Li, Man Zheng, Wenzhong Wu, Jie Guo, Fangbin Ji, Zhen Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of preoperative electroacupuncture (EA), delivered 24hours before surgery, on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and postoperative pain in patients undergoing gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 40 patients scheduled for elective gynecologic laparoscopic surgery were randomly assigned to the usual care (UC) group and the EA group (n = 20 each)...
June 30, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816560/gastroprotective-and-antiulcer-effects-of-celastrus-paniculatus-seed-oil-against-several-gastric-ulcer-models-in-rats
#2
Suresh Palle, A Kanakalatha, Ch N Kavitha
Peptic ulcer is a recurrent chronic illness and has become almost a hallmark of the so-called civilized life. In folk medicine, the Celastrus paniculatus plant has been used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases and gastrointestinal disturbances, including dyspepsia and stomach ulcers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the gastroprotective and antiulcer effects of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (CPO) against several gastric ulcer models in rats. The gastroprotective and antiulcer effects of CPO were evaluated using pylorus-ligated ulcer ethanol- and indomethacin-induced ulcers using rantidine (40 mg/kg per os [PO]) as standard...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816177/electrical-stimulation-of-gut-motility-guided-by-an-in-silico-model
#3
Bradley Brigham Barth, Craig S Henriquez, Warren M Grill, Xiling Shen
OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems is becoming increasingly important for treating a diverse set of diseases-ranging from Parkinson's Disease and epilepsy to chronic pain. However, neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has achieved relatively limited success in treating functional GI disorders, which affect a significant population, because the effects of stimulation on the enteric nervous system (ENS) and gut motility are not well understood...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#4
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808081/%C3%A2-eluxadoline-for-ibs-d
#5
(no author information available yet)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic relapsing gastrointestinal problem characterised by intestinal pain and associated alterations of defecation and/or bowel habit (constipation: IBS-C or diarrhoea: IBS-D).(1,2) Opioid receptors in the gut have a role in gastrointestinal motility, secretion and sensation.(3) Τ Eluxadoline (Truberzi-Allergan) is a locally acting, mixed opioid receptor agonist/antagonist licensed for the treatment of IBS-D in adults.(4) Here, we consider the evidence for eluxadoline and how it fts with current management strategies for IBS-D...
August 2017: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807282/age-of-haemonchus-contortus-third-stage-infective-larvae-is-a-factor-influencing-the-in-vitro-assessment-of-anthelmintic-properties-of-tannin-containing-plant-extracts
#6
G S Castañeda-Ramírez, C Mathieu, G Vilarem, H Hoste, P Mendoza-de-Gives, P G González-Pech, J F J Torres-Acosta, C A Sandoval-Castro
The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) of infective larvae (L3) is an in vitro method used to evaluate the anthelmintic (AH) activity of tannin-containing plant extracts against different species of gastrointestinal nematodes, including Haemonchus contortus. Some conditions remain to be defined in order to standardize the LEIA, i.e. the optimal age of larvae produced from donor animals to use in the assays. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying the effect of age and age-related vitality of H. contortus infective larvae produced under tropical conditions, on the in vitro AH activity measured with the LEIA...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806761/transcriptome-analysis-of-pdgfr%C3%AE-cells-identifies-t-type-ca2-channel-cacna1g-as-a-new-pathological-marker-for-pdgfr%C3%AE-cell-hyperplasia
#7
Se Eun Ha, Moon Young Lee, Masaaki Kurahashi, Lai Wei, Brian G Jorgensen, Chanjae Park, Paul J Park, Doug Redelman, Kent C Sasse, Laren S Becker, Kenton M Sanders, Seungil Ro
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα)+ cells are distributed into distinct morphological groups within the serosal, muscular, and submucosal layers as well as the myenteric and deep muscular plexi. PDGFRα+ cells directly interact with interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) in gastrointestinal smooth muscle tissue. These three cell types, SMC, ICC, and PDGFRα+ cells (SIP cells), form an electrical syncytium, which dynamically regulates gastrointestinal motility. We have previously reported the transcriptomes of SMC and ICC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802231/phytochemical-properties-and-pharmacological-effects-of-quercus-ilex-l-aqueous-extract-on-gastrointestinal-physiological-parameters-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Kaïs Rtibi, Imen Hammami, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amri, Lamjed Marzouki
INTRODUCTION: Several research studies have reported on the pharmacological relevance of the medicinal plants used for treating various gastrointestinal disorders and controlling the dietary glucose uptake in the intestinal tract. METHODS: Male rats were used to investigate the pharmacological effects of green oak acorn aqueous extract (GOAE) on gastrointestinal physiological parameters in vivo and in vitro. In this respect, the gastro-intestinal motility and hypersecretion essays were evaluated using a simple test meal (10% charcoal in 5% gum arabic) and castor oil induced diarrhea...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782271/comparison-of-nitrergic-signaling-in-circular-and-longitudinal-smooth-muscle-of-murine-ileum
#9
B Voussen, K Beck, N Mauro, J Keppler, A Friebe
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility originates from coordinated movements of circular (CM) and longitudinal (LM) smooth muscle. How the two muscle layers react individually to nitrergic input and how they integrate nitrergic signaling is not thoroughly understood. METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry to unveil expression of NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) in the ileum. For functional analyses, we measured tone of ileal CM and spontaneous contractions in both ileal muscle layers from mice lacking NO-GC globally (GCKO) and specifically in smooth muscle cells (SMC-GCKO)...
August 7, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782145/manometric-evaluation-of-the-motilin-receptor-agonist-camicinal-gsk962040-in-humans
#10
E Deloose, I Depoortere, J de Hoon, A Van Hecken, O E Dewit, L S Vasist Johnson, M E Barton, G E Dukes, J Tack
BACKGROUND: The gut hormone motilin stimulates gastrointestinal motility by inducing gastric phase III of the migrating motor complex (MMC) and enhancing the rate of gastric emptying. Camicinal (GSK962040), a small molecule motilin receptor agonist, has been shown to increase gastrointestinal motility. METHODS: In this proof of concept study the effects of camicinal on MMC activity, esophageal and gastric pH was evaluated in eight healthy volunteers as a secondary endpoint...
August 6, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776826/intragastric-infusion-of-the-bitter-tastant-quinine-suppresses-hormone-release-and-antral-motility-during-the-fasting-state-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#11
E Deloose, M Corsetti, L Van Oudenhove, I Depoortere, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Intragastric administration of the bitter tastant denatonium benzoate inhibits the increase of motilin plasma levels and antral contractility. While these findings suggest that gastrointestinal bitter taste receptors could be new targets to modulate gastrointestinal motility and hormone release, they need confirmation with other bitter receptor agonists. The primary aim was to evaluate the effect of intragastric administration of the bitter tastant quinine-hydrochloride (QHCl) on motilin and ghrelin plasma levels...
August 4, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776825/influence-of-food-on-the-gastric-motor-effect-of-the-kampo-medicine-rikkunshito-in-rat
#12
M Nahata, Y Mizuhara, C Sadakane, J Watanabe, N Fujitsuka, T Hattori
BACKGROUND: Rikkunshito, one of the Kampo medicines, is widely prescribed as a remedy for various upper gastrointestinal syndromes. The effect of rikkunshito is related to endogenous ghrelin and its active ingredient atractylodin enhances ghrelin receptor signaling. Kampo medicines are traditionally administered before or between meals; however, no definitive benefit of the timing of administration has been proven yet. To clarify the influence of food on the pharmacological action of rikkunshito, we investigated the gastric motor activity and pharmacokinetic profiles of atractylodin after the administration of rikkunshito in fasted and fed rats...
August 4, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774488/crystalloid-versus-colloid-fluids-for-reduction-of-postoperative-ileus-after-abdominal-operation-under-combined-general-and-epidural-anesthesia
#13
Mohammad Reza Ghodraty, Faranak Rokhtabnak, Hossein Reza Dehghan, Alireza Pournajafian, Masoud Baghaee Vaji, Zahra Sadat Koleini, Jahan Porhomayon, Nader D Nader
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to compare the effect of perioperative administration of crystalloid versus colloid solutions and its impact on reversal of ileus after resection with primary anastomosis of intestine. We hypothesized that inclusion of colloids will improve the return of intestinal motility. METHODS: In a double-blinded clinical trial, 91 the American Society of Anesthesiologists I to III patients undergoing abdominal operation for resection with anastomosis of small or large intestine were randomized to receive either lactated Ringer solution crystalloid group or 6% hydroxyethyl starch colloid group to replace intraoperative fluid loss (blood loss + third space)...
July 31, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769580/esophageal-motility-after-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy
#14
Eleni Sioka, George Tzovaras, Fotios Tsiopoulos, Dimitris Papamargaritis, Spyros Potamianos, Constantine Chatzitheofilou, Dimitris Zacharoulis
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) modifies the upper gastrointestinal tract motility. Controversial data currently exist. The aim of the study was to evaluate esophageal motility before and after LSG. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Morbid obese patients scheduled for LSG underwent reflux symptoms evaluation and manometry preoperatively and postoperatively. The preoperative and postoperative results were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were enrolled...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762592/effect-of-intragastric-fodmap-infusion-on-upper-gastrointestinal-motility-gastrointestinal-and-psychological-symptoms-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-vs-healthy-controls
#15
I Masuy, L Van Oudenhove, J Tack, J R Biesiekierski
BACKGROUND: The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a treatment strategy to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Acute effects of FODMAPs on upper gastrointestinal motility are incompletely understood. Our objectives were to assess the acute effects of intragastric FODMAP infusions on upper gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms in healthy controls (HC) and IBS patients. METHODS: A high-resolution solid-state manometry probe and an infusion tube were positioned into the stomach...
August 1, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761904/iglon5-antibody-neurological-accompaniments-and-outcomes-in-20-patients
#16
Josephe A Honorat, Lars Komorowski, Keith A Josephs, Kai Fechner, Erik K St Louis, Shannon R Hinson, Sabine Lederer, Neeraj Kumar, Avi Gadoth, Vanda A Lennon, Sean J Pittock, Andrew McKeon
OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenotypes, treatment response, and outcome of IgLON5 autoimmunity. METHODS: Archived serum and CSF specimens from 367 patients known to harbor unclassified antibodies which stained neural synapses diffusely (mimicking amphiphysin-IgG) were reevaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using a composite of mouse tissues and recombinant IgLON5-transfected cell-based assay (CBA, Euroimmun). RESULTS: Available specimens (serum, 25; CSF, 9) from 26/367 patients (7%) had identical IFA appearance and robust IgLON5 CBA positivity...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761578/esophageal-motility-and-rikkunshito-treatment-for-proton-pump-inhibitor-refractory-nonerosive-reflux-disease-a-prospective-uncontrolled-open-label-pilot-study-trial
#17
Takeo Odaka, Shigeru Yamato, Osamu Yokosuka
BACKGROUND: Only a few reports focused on esophageal motility in patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and there has been no established strategy for treatment. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the characteristics of esophageal motility in patients with PPI-refractory NERD, we evaluated esophageal function using combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal manometry (MII-EM). In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of rikkunshito (RKT), which is a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759975/gastrointestinal-transit-time-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-a-magnetic-tracking-system
#18
Karoline Knudsen, Anne-Mette Haase, Tatyana D Fedorova, Anne Charlotte Bekker, Karen Østergaard, Klaus Krogh, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND: Symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract are highly prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD), but knowledge of the underlying pathology is incomplete and valid objective markers on regional gastrointestinal function are limited. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to evaluate gastrointestinal transit time and motility in PD patients and controls. METHODS: Twenty-two PD patients and 15 controls were included. Gastric-, small intestinal-, and caecum-ascending colonic transit times as well as colonic motility, defined as mass- and fast movements, were performed using the ambulatory 3D-Transit system...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759281/balanced-caloric-restriction-minimizes-changes-caused-by-aging-on-the-colonic-myenteric-plexus
#19
Renata de Britto Mari, Sandra Regina Stabille, Haroldo Garcia de Faria, Joice Naiara Bertaglia Pereira, Juliana Plácido Guimarães, Gabriela Pustiglione Marinsek, Romeu Rodrigues de Souza
Aging can promote significant morphofunctional changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Regulation of GIT motility is mainly controlled by the myenteric neurons of the enteric nervous system. Actions that aim at decreasing the aging effects in the GIT include those related to diet, with caloric restriction (CR). The CR is achieved by controlling the amount of food or by manipulating the components of the diet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate different levels of CR on the plasticity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate- (NADPH-) reactive myenteric neurons in the colon of Wistar rats during the aging process using ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) and morphoquantitative analysis...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758244/lung-transplantation-delays-gastric-motility-in-patients-without-prior-gastro-intestinal-surgery-a-single-center-experience-of-412-consecutive-patients
#20
Sameer A Hirji, Brian C Gulack, Brian R Englum, Paul J Speicher, Asvin M Ganapathi, Asishana A Osho, Rahul A Shimpi, Alexander Perez, Matthew G Hartwig
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of lung transplantation on gastric motility. METHODS: Adult recipients at a large, single center, who were retrospectively evaluated with solid gastric emptying (SGE) study post lung transplantation, but had no history of gastrointestinal intervention (i.e. pyloroplasty or fundoplication), were selected between June 2005 and August 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors associated with delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after transplantation...
July 31, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
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