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Gastrointestinal motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454616/zoledronate-modulates-intracellular-vesicle-trafficking-in-mast-cells-via-disturbing-the-interaction-of-myosinva-rab3a-and-sytaxin4-vamp7
#1
Shuang Liu, Muhammad N A Sahid, Erika Takemasa, Kazutaka Maeyama, Masaki Mogi
Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) have been widely used as bone anti-resorptive drugs for the treatment of osteoclast-dependent bone disorders. Zoledronate is currently the most potent NBP, and has potential as an inhibitor of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the possible effects of zoledronate on FcεRI-dependent mast cell activity in vitro, which is essential for in maintaining homeostasis of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Treatment with zoledronate significantly diminished exocytosis of mast cells, which was reflected by a decrease of FcεRI-dependent histamine release compared to that in vehicle-treated mast cells...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446765/gut-microbiota-based-therapies-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
Emily K Stern, Darren M Brenner
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, heterogeneous disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with changes in bowel habits. The pathogenesis of IBS is multifactorial and may relate to alterations in the gut microbiota, changes in visceral sensation and motility, and genetic and environmental factors. Administration of systemic antibiotics may increase the risk of IBS by altering gastrointestinal homeostasis. Therapeutic interventions for IBS with diarrhea that are thought to target alterations in the gut microbiota include the nonsystemic antibiotic rifaximin, the medical food serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin, prebiotics, probiotics, and dietary modification...
February 15, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441683/cardiovascular-safety-of-prokinetic-agents-a-focus-on-drug-induced-arrhythmias
#3
REVIEW
J R Giudicessi, M J Ackerman, M Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal sensorimotor dysfunction underlies a wide range of esophageal, gastric, and intestinal motility and functional disorders that collectively constitute nearly half of all referrals to gastroenterologists. As a result, substantial effort has been dedicated toward the development of prokinetic agents intended to augment or restore normal gastrointestinal motility. However, the use of several clinically efficacious gastroprokinetic agents, such as cisapride, domperidone, erythromycin, and tegaserod, is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular safety profiles, leading to restrictions in their use...
February 14, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436142/the-effect-of-arabinoxylooligosaccharides-on-upper-gastroduodenal-motility-and-hunger-ratings-in-humans
#4
E Scarpellini, E Deloose, R Vos, I Francois, J A Delcour, W F Broekaert, K Verbeke, J Tack
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prebiotics such as Arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) are non-digestible, fermentable food ingredients stimulating growth/activity of colonic bacteria with enhanced carbohydrates fermentation (CF) in humans. The migrating motor complex (MMC) of the gastrointestinal tract has been recently identified as an important hunger signal, but no data are available yet on the role of acute CF on MMC activity and related hunger ratings. Thus, we aimed to study the effect of acute AXOS CF on MMC and hunger in humans...
February 13, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435819/expanding-role-of-third-space-endoscopy-in-the-management-of-esophageal-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Dennis Yang, Peter V Draganov
OPINION STATEMENT: "Third space" endoscopy, also commonly referred as submucosal endoscopy, is founded on the principle that the deeper layers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be accessed by tunneling in the submucosal space without compromising the integrity of the overlying mucosa. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER) are innovative techniques within the field of third space endoscopy in the management of esophageal disorders...
February 12, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430647/the-cells-and-conductance-mediating-cholinergic-neurotransmission-in-the-murine-proximal-stomach
#6
Tae Sik Sung, Sung Jin Hwang, Sang Don Koh, Yulia Bayguinov, Lauen E Peri, Peter J Blair, Timothy I Webb, David M Pardo, Jason R Rock, Kenton M Sanders, Sean M Ward
Enteric motor neurotransmission is essential for normal gastrointestinal (GI) motility. Controversy exists regarding the cells and ionic conductance(s) that mediate post-junctional neuroeffector responses to motor neurotransmitters. Isolated intramuscular ICC (ICC-IM) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from murine fundus muscles were used to determine the conductances activated by carbachol (CCh) in each cell-type. The calcium-activated chloride conductance (CaCC), Ano1 is expressed by ICC-IM but not resolved in SMCs, and CCh activated a Cl- conductance in ICC-IM and a non-selective cation conductance (NSCC) in SMCs...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430111/scintigraphic-evaluation-of-esophageal-motility-and-gastroesophageal-reflux-in-patients-presenting-with-upper-respiratory-tract-symptoms
#7
Jaykanth Amalachandran, Shelley Simon, Indirani Elangoven, Avani Jain, Thangalakshmi Sivathapandi
Purpose of Study: The purpose is to evaluate the findings and utility of esophageal transit scintigraphy (ETS) and gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy (GES) in patients presenting with upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms suspected to be due to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients aged between 19 and 60 years underwent nasopharyngolaryngoscopy (NPL), ETS, and GES. Correlation between GER, esophageal motility, and NPL was evaluated...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428470/dsp-6952-a-novel-5-ht4-receptor-partial-agonist-inhibits-visceral-hypersensitivity-and-ameliorates-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-experimental-animals
#8
Yukiko Mine, Tomohiro Itakura, Seiko Oku, Reiko Asada, Isao Shimizu
The pharmacological profile of DSP-6952, a novel 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist, was investigated to evaluate the potential use for GI disorders, and to compare its effects in some GI dysfunction models with those of clinically efficacious prokinetic agents. DSP-6952 enhanced gastric motility and caused colonic giant migrating contractions (GMCs) associated with defecation in conscious dogs, having ED50 value for inducing GMCs of 1.56mg/kg. DSP-6952 (3-10mg/kg, i.g.) significantly enhanced colonic transit rate in guinea pigs; this enhancement was antagonized by SB-207266, a selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425286/central-neuropeptide-y-plays-an-important-role-in-mediating-the-adaptation-mechanism-against-chronic-stress-in-male-rats
#9
Yu Yang, Reji Babygirija, Jun Zheng, Bei Shi, Weinan Sun, Xiaojiao Zheng, Fan Zhang, Yu Cao
Exposure to continuous life stress often causes gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Studies have shown that neuropeptide Y (NPY) counteracts the biological actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), and is involved in the termination of the stress response. However, in chronic repeated restraint stress (CRS) conditions, the actions of NPY on GI motility remain controversial. To evaluate the role of NPY in mediation of the adaptation mechanism and GI motility in CRS conditions, a CRS rat model was set up...
February 7, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421814/herbal-preparation-stw%C3%A2-5-for-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-clinical-experience-in-everyday-practice
#10
Tatiana L Lapina, Alexander S Trukhmanov
BACKGROUND: The most common functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with a prevalence in the general population of 15-20% (FD) and 10% (IBS), respectively. The complexity of pathophysiologic mechanisms and limitations in therapeutic options make the management of FD and IBS patients a challenge in routine clinical practice. SUMMARY: Syndromes classified as FGID frequently overlap, and coexist with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)...
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413206/gastrointestinal-motility-problems-in-critically-ill-patients
#11
REVIEW
Christine Frazer, Leslie Hussey, Mary Bemker
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility problems are common complications in critical care patients. GI problems contribute to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Toxic megacolon (TM) is a type of acquired megacolon categorized as a medical emergency and includes severe inflammation affecting all layers of the colon wall. The high incidence of GI complications in critically ill patients requires the critical care nurse to provide close monitoring of patients at risk and an acute awareness of the causation, signs and symptoms, and treatment of various GI motility disorders, including gastroparesis, ileus, and TM...
March 2018: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412827/biochemical-properties-and-biological-actions-of-obestatin-and-its-relevence-in-type-2-diabetes
#12
Brian D Green, David J Grieve
Obestatin was initially discovered in rat stomach extract, and although it is principally produced in the gastric mucosa, it can be found throughout the gastrointestinal tract. This 23-amino acid C-terminally amidated peptide is derived from preproghrelin and has been ascribed a wide range of metabolic effects relevant to type 2 diabetes. Obestatin reportedly inhibits gastrointestinal motility, reduces food intake and lowers body weight and improves lipid metabolism. Furthermore, it appears to exert actions on the pancreatic β-cell, most notably increasing β-cell mass and upregulating genes associated with insulin production and β-cell regeneration, with relevance to type 2 diabetes...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412766/porcine-response-to-a-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-i-4-5-12-i-outbreak-isolate
#13
Daniel C Shippy, Bradley L Bearson, Devin B Holman, Brian W Brunelle, Heather K Allen, Shawn M D Bearson
Salmonella enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- has emerged as a common nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar to cause human foodborne illness. An interesting trait of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- is that it only expresses the fliC gene for bacterial motility (i.e., monophasic), while most Salmonella strains alternately express two flagellin genes (fliC and fljB). The goal of this study was to characterize the porcine response following inoculation with a multidrug-resistant (MDR) serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- isolate associated with a multistate pork outbreak to determine if the increased prevalence of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- in swine is due to enhanced pathogenicity...
February 7, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411405/fibrosis-in-ulcerative-colitis-is-directly-linked-to-severity-and-chronicity-of-mucosal-inflammation
#14
I O Gordon, N Agrawal, E Willis, J R Goldblum, R Lopez, D Allende, X Liu, D Y Patil, L Yerian, F El-Khider, C Fiocchi, F Rieder
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis in ulcerative colitis has remained largely unexplored despite its clinical implications. AIMS: This cross-sectional study was aimed at characterising the presence, anatomical location and degree of ulcerative colitis-associated fibrosis and its possible link to clinical parameters. METHODS: Seven hundred and six individual tissue cross-sections derived every 10 cm along the length of 89 consecutive Ulcerative colitis colectomy specimens were examined and compared to Crohn's disease colitis, diverticular disease and uninvolved areas from colorectal cancer patients...
February 6, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406791/functional-abdominal-pain-disorders-in-children
#15
Shaman Rajindrajith, Judith Zeevenhooven, Niranga Manjuri Devanarayana, Bonaventure Jayasiri Crispus Perera, Marc A Benninga
Chronic abdominal pain is a common problem in pediatric practice. The majority of cases fulfill the Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). At times, these disorders may lead to rather serious repercussions. Area covered: We have attempted to cover current knowledge on epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors related to pathophysiology, clinical evaluation and management of children with FAPDs. Expert commentary: FAPDs are a worldwide problem with a pooled prevalence of 13.5%. There are a number of predisposing factors and pathophysiological mechanisms including stressful events, child maltreatment, visceral hypersensitivity, altered gastrointestinal motility and change in intestinal microbiota...
February 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406186/current-concepts-of-fluid-management-in-enhanced-recovery-pathways
#16
REVIEW
R Makaryus, T E Miller, T J Gan
Perioperative fluid management impacts outcomes and plays a pivotal role in enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs). There have been major advances in understanding the effects of fluid therapy and administration during the perioperative period. Improving fluid management during this period leads to a decrease in complications, decrease in length of stay (LOS), and enhanced patient outcomes. It is important to consider preoperative and postoperative fluid management to be just as critical as intraoperative management given multiple associated benefits to the patients...
February 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404698/novel-derivatives-of-1-2-3-triazole-cannabinoid-1-receptor-ligands-modulate-gastrointestinal-motility-in-mice
#17
Agata Szymaszkiewicz, Marta Zielinska, Kun Li, Mani Ramanathan, Safiul Alam, Duen-Ren Hou, Jakub Fichna, Martin Storr
Cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptors are broadly distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems; among others, they are located in the enteric nervous system. In the gastrointestinal (GI) system, they participate in regulation of intestinal motility or ion transport. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives (compound 1: 2-[4,5-bis(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2H-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl]-N-(2-fluorobenzyl)acetamide, compound 2: 2-[4,5-bis(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2H-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl]-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)acetamide, compound 3: N-benzyl-2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2H-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl]acetamide]), characterized in vitro as CB1 antagonists with high CB1 over CB2 selectivity, in the mouse GI tract...
February 5, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399568/effects-of-atp-on-pacemaker-activity-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-from-the-mouse-small-intestine
#18
Il Koo Park, Jin Ho Kim, Chan Guk Park, Man Yoo Kim, Shankar Prasad Parajuli, Chan Sik Hong, Seok Choi, Jae Yeoul Jun
Purinergic receptors play an important role in regulating gastrointestinal (GI) motility. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells that regulate GI smooth muscle activity. We studied the functional roles of external adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) on pacemaker activity in cultured ICCs from mouse small intestines by using the whole-cell patch clamp technique and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) imaging. External ATP dose-dependently depolarized the resting membrane and produced tonic inward pacemaker currents, and these effects were antagonized by suramin, a purinergic P2 receptor antagonist...
January 2018: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384906/a-rare-case-report-of-multiple-myeloma-presenting-with-paralytic-ileus-and-type-ii-respiratory-failure-due-to-hypercalcemic-crisis
#19
Yuchen Guo, Liang He, Yiming Liu, Xueyuan Cao
RATIONALE: Paralytic ileus is characterized by the signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction but without any mechanical lesions in the intestinal lumen. Several medical and surgical conditions can lead to this ailment, such as electrolyte disturbances that impair intestinal motility. However, hypercalcemia secondary to multiple myeloma as a major cause of paralytic ileus has rarely been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient got severe constipation with difficulty in the passage of both gas and feces for 7 days...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377328/nitrergic-signaling-via-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-and-smooth-muscle-cells-influences-circular-smooth-muscle-contractility-in-murine-colon
#20
K Beck, A Friebe, B Voussen
BACKGROUND: Regulation of gastrointestinal motility involves excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Nitric oxide (NO), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, acts via its receptor NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC). In the GI tract, NO-GC is expressed in several cell types such as smooth muscle cells (SMC) and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Using cell-specific knockout mice, we have previously shown that NO-GC modulates spontaneous contractions in colonic longitudinal smooth muscle...
January 29, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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