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Gastrointestinal motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652029/evaluation-of-a-modified-rat-model-for-functional-dyspepsia
#1
Qiankun Liang, Yuan Yan, Lanfang Mao, Xiaojuan Du, Jingjing Liang, Junhong Liu, Longde Wang, Hongfang Li
Background/Aim: The purpose of this study was to establish a modified rat model with functional dyspepsia (FD) and analyze the changes in gastrointestinal motility and brain-gut peptide levels in serum and brain-gut axis. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control group (Con) and FD model group. FD model was established by stimulating semi-starvation rats via tail damping, provocation, and forced exercise fatigue until gastrointestinal motility disorder appeared, and then levels of motilin, leptin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were detected in serum by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and in duodenum, antrum, and hypothalamus by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot...
April 13, 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651005/differential-effect-of-morphine-on-gastrointestinal-transit-colonic-contractions-and-nerve-evoked-relaxations-in-toll-like-receptor-deficient-mice
#2
Elizabeth A H Beckett, Vasiliki Staikopoulos, Mark R Hutchinson
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in enteric neurons, glia, gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle and mucosa, yet their functional roles in the GI tract are not fully understood. TLRs have been linked to many of the undesirable central effects of chronic opioid administration including hyperalgesia and dependence via activation of central microglia. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) remains a primary reason for the reduction or withdrawal of opioid analgesics. Morphine-induced inhibition of colonic motility was assessed in vivo by GI transit studies and in vitro using isolated colons from wildtype (WT) and TLR deficient mice...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644870/a-novel-polyphenolic-prebiotic-and-probiotic-formulation-have-synergistic-effects-on-the-gut-microbiota-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-physiology
#3
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is a vast community of synergistic bacterial species providing health benefits to the host. Imbalances in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) due to diet, antibiotic use, age and stress contribute to disease development including diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammaging and neurodegeneration. Fortunately, a probiotic regime with a diet rich in prebiotics may reverse dysbiosis promoting health and wellness in age. The current study designs, optimizes and tests a novel probiotic and synbiotic formulation consisting of three metabolically active probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacteria infantis together with a novel polyphenol-rich prebiotic, Triphala...
April 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644797/altered-gastrointestinal-motility-involving-autoantibodies-in-the-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#4
E T Spear, E A Holt, E J Joyce, M M Haag, S M Mawe, G W Hennig, B Lavoie, A M Applebee, C Teuscher, G M Mawe
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that, in addition to motor, sensory, and cognitive symptoms, also causes constipation, which is poorly understood. Here, we characterize gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS and evaluate whether autoantibodies target the enteric nervous system (ENS) and cause dysmotility. METHODS: EAE was induced in male SJL and B6 mice...
April 11, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626542/no-gc-in-cells-off-the-beaten-track
#5
REVIEW
Andreas Friebe, Barbara Voußen, Dieter Groneberg
Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) has been shown to regulate a plethora of different functions in the body. These include, among many others, the fine-tuning of vascular tone, platelet reactivity and gastrointestinal motility. Evidence for the participation of NO-GC in these functions has been obtained from various species including humans, rodents, as well as insects. Clearly, individual cell types that express NO-GC contribute differentially to organ-specific NO/cGMP signaling in the body. Hence, identification of NO-GC-expressing cells and their individual involvement in NO/cGMP signaling constituted the focus of many studies over the last 40 years...
April 4, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622813/advances-in-the-physiological-assessment-and-diagnosis-of-gerd
#6
Edoardo Savarino, Albert J Bredenoord, Mark Fox, John E Pandolfino, Sabine Roman, C Prakash Gyawali
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrgastro.2017.130.
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622812/advances-in-the-management-of-oesophageal-motility-disorders-in-the-era-of-high-resolution-manometry-a-focus-on-achalasia-syndromes
#7
Peter J Kahrilas, Albert J Bredenoord, Mark Fox, C Prakash Gyawali, Sabine Roman, André J P M Smout, John E Pandolfino
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrgastro.2017.132.
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622808/expert-consensus-document-advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-classification-of-gastric-and-intestinal-motility-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Jutta Keller, Gabrio Bassotti, John Clarke, Phil Dinning, Mark Fox, Madhusudan Grover, Per M Hellström, Meiyun Ke, Peter Layer, Carolina Malagelada, Henry P Parkman, S Mark Scott, Jan Tack, Magnus Simren, Hans Törnblom, Michael Camilleri
Disturbances of gastric, intestinal and colonic motor and sensory functions affect a large proportion of the population worldwide, impair quality of life and cause considerable health-care costs. Assessment of gastrointestinal motility in these patients can serve to establish diagnosis and to guide therapy. Major advances in diagnostic techniques during the past 5-10 years have led to this update about indications for and selection and performance of currently available tests. As symptoms have poor concordance with gastrointestinal motor dysfunction, clinical motility testing is indicated in patients in whom there is no evidence of causative mucosal or structural diseases such as inflammatory or malignant disease...
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620694/genetic-polymorphisms-associated-with-constipation-and-anticholinergic-symptoms-in-patients-receiving-clozapine
#9
Anssi Solismaa, Olli Kampman, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Niko Seppälä, Merja Viikki, Nina Mononen, Terho Lehtimäki, Esa Leinonen
BACKGROUND: Clozapine impairs gastrointestinal motility owing to its anticholinergic and antiserotonergic properties. This commonly leads to constipation and potentially to more severe complications such as bowel obstruction and ischemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic variations in the genes encoding muscarinic and serotonergic receptors (CHRM2, CHRM3, HTR2, HTR3, HTR4, and HTR7) explain the variations in incidence of constipation and anticholinergic symptoms during clozapine treatment...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616040/cholinergic-activation-enhances-resistance-to-oral-salmonella-infection-by-modulating-innate-immune-defense-mechanisms-at-the-intestinal-barrier
#10
Ray M Al-Barazie, Ghada Hassan Bashir, Mohammed M Qureshi, Yassir A Mohamed, Ashraf Al-Sbiei, Saeed Tariq, Wim J Lammers, Basel K Al-Ramadi, Maria J Fernandez-Cabezudo
Inflammation is a crucial defense mechanism that protects the body from the devastating effects of invading pathogens. However, an unrestrained inflammatory reaction may result in systemic manifestations with dire consequences to the host. The extent of activation of the inflammatory response is tightly regulated through immunological and neural pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that cholinergic stimulation confers enhanced protection in experimental animals orally infected with virulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615974/presence-and-effects-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions-in-the-stomach
#11
REVIEW
Dora Reglodi, Anita Illes, Balazs Opper, Eszter Schafer, Andrea Tamas, Gabriella Horvath
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide with widespread occurrence throughout the body including the gastrointestinal system. In the small and large intestine, effects of PACAP on cell proliferation, secretion, motility, gut immunology and blood flow, as well as its importance in bowel inflammatory reactions and cancer development have been shown and reviewed earlier. However, no current review is available on the actions of PACAP in the stomach in spite of numerous data published on the gastric presence and actions of the peptide...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610160/the-use-of-pyridostigmine-in-a-child-with-chronic-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction
#12
Ahamodur Choudhury, Abdul Rahyead, Jochen Kammermeier, Mohamed Mutalib
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a rare disorder that affects the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. It results in acute or subacute intestinal obstruction symptoms in the absence of mechanical lesion. It can lead to intestinal failure in children with significant strain on nutrition, growth, and development. There is no universally agreed protocol for management of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in children, and there is wide variation in clinical practice.
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604996/anthelmintic-efficacy-of-cranberry-vine-extracts-on-ovine-haemonchus-contortus
#13
Carly D Barone, Anne M Zajac, Laura A Manzi-Smith, Amy B Howell, Jess D Reed, Christian G Krueger, Katherine H Petersson
The discovery that plant secondary compounds, including proanthocyanidins (PAC), suppress gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection has provided promise for alternative methods of GIN control in small ruminants. This investigation is the first to examine the anthelmintic potential of cranberry vine (CV) against the GIN Haemonchus contortus. The purpose of this study was to explore the anti-parasitic activity of CV in the form of a specific organic proanthocyanidin extract (CV-PAC) and an aqueous extract (CV-AqE) containing PAC and other compounds...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597355/novel-transmitters-in-brainstem-vagal-neurocircuitry-new-players-on-the-pitch
#14
Mehmet Bülbül, R Alberto Travagli
The last few decades have seen a major increase in the number of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides recognized as playing a role in brainstem neurocircuits, including those involved in homeostatic functions such as stress responsiveness, gastrointestinal (GI) motility, feeding, and/or arousal/wakefulness. This mini-review will focus on the known physiological role of three of these novel neuropeptides, i.e. apelin, nesfatin-1 and neuropeptide-S (NPS) with a special emphasis on their hypothetical roles in vagal signaling related to GI motor functions...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580467/extracts-of-black-garlic-exhibits-gastrointestinal-motility-effect
#15
Yi-An Chen, Jen-Chieh Tsai, Kuan-Chen Cheng, Keng-Fan Liu, Chao-Kai Chang, Chang-Wei Hsieh
In this studied, extracts of black garlic on the improvement of gastrointestinal function, antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total flavonoids and total polysaccharides were evaluated. Results showed that the black garlic n-butanol fraction extract (BA) had significantly increased effect within small intestine in vitro, while the ethyl acetate fractions had no significant effect on small intestine in vitro. Increase of 5-HT4 content effectively stimulated the gastrointestinal peristalsis, which enhanced its gastrointestinal tract emptying, and promoted defecation...
May 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577508/curriculum-for-neurogastroenterology-and-motility-training-a-report-from-the-joint-anms-esnm-task-force
#16
REVIEW
C P Gyawali, E Savarino, A Lazarescu, S Bor, A Patel, R Dickman, A Pressman, A M Drewes, J Rosen, V Drug, M Saps, L Novais, M Vazquez-Roque, D Pohl, M A L van Tilburg, A Smout, S Yoon, J Pandolfino, G Farrugia, G Barbara, S Roman
Although neurogastroenterology and motility (NGM) disorders are some of the most frequent disorders encountered by practicing gastroenterologists, a structured competency-based training curriculum developed by NGM experts is lacking. The American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society (ANMS) and the European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (ESNM) jointly evaluated the components of NGM training in North America and Europe. Eleven training domains were identified within NGM, consisting of functional gastrointestinal disorders, visceral hypersensitivity and pain pathways, motor disorders within anatomic areas (esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon, anorectum), mucosal disorders (gastro-esophageal reflux disease, other mucosal disorders), consequences of systemic disease, consequences of therapy (surgery, endoscopic intervention, medications, other therapy), and transition of pediatric patients into adult practice...
March 25, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574743/-morphological-evidence-for-novel-enteric-neuronal-circuitry-in-guinea-pig-distal-colon
#17
D J Smolilo, M Costa, T J Hibberd, D A Wattchow, N J Spencer
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is unique compared to all other internal organs; it is the only organ with its own nervous system and its own population of intrinsic sensory neurons, known as intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs). How these IPANs form neuronal circuits with other functional classes of neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is incompletely understood. We used a combination of light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to examine the topographical distribution of specific classes of neurons in the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig colon, including putative IPAN's, with other classes of enteric neurons...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571061/ingested-razor-blades-within-the-appendix-a-rare-case-report
#18
Jason Cui, Trent Cross, David Lockwood
INTRODUCTION: Foreign body ingestion is a common clinical presentation with less than 1% of the cases requiring surgical intervention. In this report, we present a rare case of razor blades lodged in the appendix as a result of intentional ingestion. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 25 year old male prisoner presented to our hospital with persistent right iliac fossa pain after razor blade ingestion. After 5 days of conservative management, there was no sign of transition on serial X-Rays...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570391/deletion-of-choline-acetyltransferase-in-enteric-neurons-results-in-postnatal-intestinal-dysmotility-and-dysbiosis
#19
Carl D Johnson, Amanda J Barlow-Anacker, Joseph F Pierre, Ketrija Touw, Christopher S Erickson, John B Furness, Miles L Epstein, Ankush Gosain
Acetylcholine (ACh)-synthesizing neurons are major components of the enteric nervous system (ENS). They release ACh and peptidergic neurotransmitters onto enteric neurons and muscle. However, pharmacological interrogation has proven inadequate to demonstrate an essential role for ACh. Our objective was to determine whether elimination of ACh synthesis during embryogenesis alters prenatal viability, intestinal function, the neurotransmitter complement, and the microbiome. Conditional deletion of choline acetyltransferase ( ChAT), the ACh synthetic enzyme, in neural crest-derived neurons ( ChAT-Null) was performed...
March 23, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568206/low-fodmap-vs-regular-rye-bread-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-randomized-smartpill-%C3%A2-study
#20
Laura Pirkola, Reijo Laatikainen, Jussi Loponen, Sanna-Maria Hongisto, Markku Hillilä, Anu Nuora, Baoru Yang, Kaisa M Linderborg, Riitta Freese
AIM: To compare the effects of regular vs low-FODMAP rye bread on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and to study gastrointestinal conditions with SmartPill® . METHODS: Our aim was to evaluate if rye bread low in FODMAPs would cause reduced hydrogen excretion, lower intraluminal pressure, higher colonic pH, different transit times, and fewer IBS symptoms than regular rye bread. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled cross-over meal study. Female IBS patients ( n = 7) ate study breads at three consecutive meals during one day...
March 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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