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Gastrointestinal motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031328/minimally-invasive-wireless-motility-capsule-to-study-canine-gastrointestinal-motility-and-ph
#1
K Warrit, P Boscan, L E Ferguson, A M Bradley, K L Dowers, S Rao, D C Twedt
The aim of this study was to describe the feasibility of using a gastrointestinal tract wireless motility capsule (WMC) that measured intraluminal pressure, pH and transit time through the gastrointestinal tract, in dogs in their home environment. Forty-four adult healthy dogs, eating a standard diet, were prospectively enrolled. The WMC was well tolerated by all dogs and provided data from the different sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Median gastric emptying time was 20h (range, 6.3-119h), demonstrating a large range...
September 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030884/how-does-dietary-particle-size-affect-carnivore-gastrointestinal-transit-a-dog-model
#2
A De Cuyper, M Hesta, S Tibosch, C Wanke, M Clauss, G P J Janssens
The effect of dietary particle size on gastrointestinal transit in carnivores has not been studied and might offer more insight into their digestive physiology. This study evaluated the effect of two dietary particle sizes (fine = 7.8 mm vs. coarse = 13 mm) of chunked day-old chicks on transit parameters in dogs. Six beagle dogs were fed both dietary treatments in a crossover design of 7 days with transit testing on the fifth day. Transit parameters were assessed using two markers, that is a wireless motility capsule (IntelliCap(®) ) and titanium oxide (TiO2 )...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029594/chemoreceptors-in-the-gut
#3
S Steensels, I Depoortere
The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest interface between the human body and the external environment. It must continuously monitor and discriminate between nutrients that need to be assimilated and harmful substances that need to be expelled. The different cells of the gut epithelium are therefore equipped with a subtle chemosensory system that communicates the sensory information to several effector systems involved in the regulation of appetite, immune responses, and gastrointestinal motility. Disturbances or adaptations in the communication of this sensory information may contribute to the development or maintenance of disease...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025730/apelin-13-inhibits-gastric-motility-through-vagal-cholinergic-pathway-in-rats
#4
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, Melahat Gök, R Alberto Travagli
The expression of apelin and its receptors (APJ) in central autonomic networks suggests that apelin may regulate gastrointestinal motor functions. In rodents, central administration of apelin-13 has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying, however, the mechanisms involved remain to be determined. Using male adult Sprague-Dawley rats, the aims of the present study were i) to determine the expression of APJ receptor in DVC, ii) to assess the effects central application of apelin-13 into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) on gastric tone and motility and iii) to investigate the neuronal pathways responsible for apelin-induced alterations...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020456/the-management-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-nutritional-viewpoint
#5
Marco Gallo, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Genoveffa Pizza, Rosaria Maddalena Ruggeri, Luigi Barrea, Antongiulio Faggiano, Annamaria Colao
Nutritional status in patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), especially of gastroenteropancreatic origin, can be deeply affected by excessive production of gastrointestinal hormones, peptides, and amines, which can lead to malabsorption, diarrhoea, steatorrhea, and altered gastrointestinal motility. Besides, the surgical and/or medical management of NETs can lead to alteration of gastrointestinal secretory, motor, and absorptive functions, with both dietary and nutritional consequences. Indeed, disease-related malnutrition is a frequently encountered yet both underrecognized and understudied clinical phenomenon in patients with NETs, with substantial prognostic and socioeconomic consequences...
October 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016552/the-efficacy-of-peripheral-opioid-antagonists-in-opioid-induced-constipation-and-postoperative-ileus-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
Eric S Schwenk, Alexander E Grant, Marc C Torjman, Stephen E McNulty, Jaime L Baratta, Eugene R Viscusi
Opioid-induced constipation has a negative impact on quality of life for patients with chronic pain and can affect more than a third of patients. A related but separate entity is postoperative ileus, which is an abnormal pattern of gastrointestinal motility after surgery. Nonselective μ-opioid receptor antagonists reverse constipation and opioid-induced ileus but cross the blood-brain barrier and may reverse analgesia. Peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists target the μ-opioid receptor without reversing analgesia...
October 6, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992677/nationwide-multicenter-study-for-overlaps-of-common-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-korean-patients-with-constipation
#7
Kyung Sik Park, Sam Ryong Jee, Bong Eun Lee, Kyoung Sup Hong, Jeong Eun Shin, Soo-Young Na, Joong Goo Kwon, Suck Chei Choi, Yong Sung Kim, Hyun Seok Lee, Tae Hee Lee, Kyeong Ok Kim, Jongkyoung Choi, Hee Seok Moon, Yeon Soo Kim, Moo In Park, Soo Jung Park, Seon-Young Park, Sung Noh Hong
Background/Aims: In spite of increased concerns about the overlaps among the various functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), studies for the overlap between constipation and other common FGIDs are rare. Therefore, we investigated the patterns of overlaps between constipation and other common FGIDs. Methods: This study was designed as a prospective nationwide multi-center questionnaire study using Rome III questionnaires for functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and functional constipation (FC), as well as various questionnaires about patients' information, degree of symptoms, and quality of life...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992676/intravenous-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-administration-increases-esophageal-electrical-sensitivity-in-healthy-individuals
#8
Takahisa Yamasaki, Toshihiko Tomita, Mayu Takimoto, Takashi Kondo, Katsuyuki Tozawa, Yoshio Ohda, Tadayuki Oshima, Hirokazu Fukui, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Background/Aims: When a person is experiencing stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) can modulate gut physiologies, such as visceral sensation or gastrointestinal motility, and its intravenous administration mimics stress-induced physiological changes. However, the influence of CRH on the esophagus is yet unknown. Accordingly, we investigated whether intravenous CRH administration increases esophageal sensitivity to electrical stimulation in healthy Japanese subjects. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects were recruited...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992583/autonomic-dysfunction-of-gastric-motility-in-major-depression
#9
S Haj Kheder, J Heller, J K Bär, A Wutzler, B A Menge, G Juckel
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) often complain about somatic symptoms. Cardiac complaints have been examined predominantly. However, gastrointestinal complaints are also reported frequently and are associated with worse outcomes. The research concerning changes in gastric motility of these patients is rather sparse. The aim of our study was to determine dysfunction of gastric motility and gastrointestinal symptoms in MDD. The duration and severity of MDD were examined regarding its influence over gastric emptying...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992166/points-to-consider-for-clinical-trials-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-systemic-sclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Daniel E Furst, Yolanda Braun-Moscovic, Dinesh Khanna
The pathogenesis of gastrointestinal tract involvement in SSc is not fully understood. However, gastrointestinal signs and symptoms are very common. Trials to test therapies, with rare exceptions, should be double-blind, randomized trials with either active therapy or placebo as comparators. Trial duration will vary dependent on the anticipated therapy and should usually be 6-24 weeks long, although some motility trials may need to be 52 weeks. As in any well-controlled trial, inclusion and exclusion criteria should encourage relatively uniform patients with sufficiently active disease to discern response, importantly considering disease duration...
September 1, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990365/endocannabinoid-related-compounds-in-gastrointestinal-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Marcella Pesce, Alessandra D'Alessandro, Osvaldo Borrelli, Stefano Gigli, Luisa Seguella, Rosario Cuomo, Giuseppe Esposito, Giovanni Sarnelli
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an endogenous signalling pathway involved in the control of several gastrointestinal (GI) functions at both peripheral and central levels. In recent years, it has become apparent that the ECS is pivotal in the regulation of GI motility, secretion and sensitivity, but endocannabinoids (ECs) are also involved in the regulation of intestinal inflammation and mucosal barrier permeability, suggesting their role in the pathophysiology of both functional and organic GI disorders...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987508/acylated-and-unacylated-ghrelin-confer-neuroprotection-to-mesencephalic-neurons
#12
Johanna Wagner, Franca Vulinović, Anne Grünewald, Marcus M Unger, Jens C Möller, Christine Klein, Patrick P Michel, Vincent Ries, Wolfgang H Oertel, Daniel Alvarez-Fischer
The polypeptide ghrelin is an endogenous ligand at the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a. To ghrelin multiple functions have been ascribed including promotion of gastrointestinal motility. Postprandial ghrelin levels have been reported to be reduced in patients suffering from Parkinson disease (PD). Experimental studies revealed neuroprotective effects of ghrelin in different PD models. The purpose of the present study was (i) to further elucidate the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective action of ghrelin and (ii) to determine whether these effects occur with both the acylated and the unacylated form...
October 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985842/increased-population-of-immature-enteric-glial-cells-in-the-resected-proximal-ganglionic-bowel-of-hirschsprung-s-disease-patients
#13
Gakuto Tani, Christian Tomuschat, Anne Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND: Enteric glial cells are essential for normal gastrointestinal function. Abnormalities in glial structure, development, or function lead to disturbances in gastrointestinal physiology. Fatty acid-binding protein 7 (FABP7) is a marker of immature enteric glial cells, whereas S100 is expressed only by mature glial cells. Patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) often suffer from dysmotility and enterocolitis despite proper surgery. We designed this study to determine the distribution and expression of glial cells in patients with HSCR compared to normal controls...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984906/lateral-hypothalamic-orexin-a-ergic-projections-to-the-arcuate-nucleus-modulate-gastric-function-in-vivo
#14
Xiao Luan, Xiangrong Sun, Feifei Guo, Di Zhang, Cheng Wang, Li Ma, Luo Xu
It has been well-known that hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides, orexin-A and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), play important roles in regulation of gastric function. However, what neural pathway mediated by the two neuropeptides affects the gastric function remains unknown. In this study, by way of nucleic stimulation and extracellular recording of single unit electrophysiological properties, we found that electrically stimulating the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) or microinjection of orexin-A into the arcuate nucleus (ARC) excited most gastric distension-responsive neurons in the nuclei and enhanced the gastric function including motility, emptying and acid secretion of conscious rats...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983734/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-enhanced-recovery-programs-on-early-stage-colorectal-cancer-surgery
#15
Aurélien Venara, Emilie Duchalais, Anne Dariel, Philippe Aubert, Tony Durand, Guillaume Meurette, Malvyne Rolli-Derkinderen, Antoine Hamy, Michel Neunlist
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) is observed in 20-30% of patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery, despite enhanced recovery programs (ERPs). Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is identified as a key enzyme in POI, but other arachidonic acid pathway enzymes have received little attention despite their potential as selective targets to prevent POI. The objectives were to compare the expression of arachidonic acid metabolism (AAM) enzymes (1) between patients who underwent colorectal cancer surgery and followed an ERP or not (NERP), (2) and between ERP patients who experimented POI or not and (3) to determine the ability of antagonists of these pathways to modulate contractile activity of colonic muscle...
October 5, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977246/anthelmintic-effect-of-thymol-and-thymol-acetate-on-sheep-gastrointestinal-nematodes-and-their-toxicity-in-mice
#16
Weibson Paz Pinheiro André, Géssica Soares Cavalcante, Wesley Lyeverton Correia Ribeiro, Jessica Maria Leite Dos Santos, Iara Tersia Freitas Macedo, Haroldo César Beserra de Paula, Selene Maia de Morais, Janaina Viana de Melo, Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua
Thymol is a monoterpene and acetylation form of this compound can reduce the toxicity and enhance its biological effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thymol and thymol acetate (TA) on egg, larva and adult Haemonchus contortus and the cuticular changes, acute toxicity in mice and the efficacy on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. In vitro tests results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by comparison with Tukey test or Bonferroni. The efficacy of in vivo test was calculated by the BootStreet program...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974085/gastrointestinal-tract-disorders-in-the-elderly
#17
Marilena Durazzo, Daniela Campion, Sharmila Fagoonee, Rinaldo Pellicano
The number and the proportion of older people in the world have both increased substantially in recent years in most countries, and the growth is projected to accelerate in the coming decades. It is thus important to gain a better understanding of the most frequent diseases in people living to advanced old age. Although the aging process has clinically significant effects on oropharyngeal and upper esophageal motility, colonic function and gastrointestinal (GI) immunity, no specific GI disease of the aged population is known...
September 22, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971603/inhibition-of-rhoa-rho-kinase-pathway-and-smooth-muscle-contraction-by-hydrogen-sulfide
#18
Ancy D Nalli, Hongxia Wang, Sayak Bhattacharya, Bryan A Blakeney, Karnam S Murthy
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) plays an important role in smooth muscle relaxation. Here, we investigated the expression of enzymes in H2 S synthesis and the mechanism regulating colonic smooth muscle function by H2 S. Expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), but not cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), was identified in the colonic smooth muscle of rabbit, mouse, and human. Carbachol (CCh)-induced contraction in rabbit muscle strips and isolated muscle cells was inhibited by l-cysteine (substrate of CSE) and NaHS (an exogenous H2 S donor) in a concentration-dependent fashion...
October 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969837/in-vitro-anthelmintic-and-cytotoxicity-activities-the-digitaria-insularis-poaceae
#19
Francianne Oliveira Santos, Hélimar Gonçalves de Lima, Nathália Silva de Souza Santos, Taiane Menezes Serra, Rosângela Soares Uzeda, Isabella Mary Alves Reis, Mariana Borges Botura, Alexsandro Branco, Maria José Moreira Batatinha
This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro activity of D. insularis extracts and fractions against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The egg hatch (EHT) and larval motility (LMT) tests were conducted to investigate the anthelmintic effects of the crude hydroethanolic (CH), ethyl acetate (EA), butanolic (BT) and residual hydroethanolic (RH) extracts. The elution of the active extract (EA) on column chromatography (SiO2) using organic solvents furnished six fractions (FR1 to FR6), which were also tested...
October 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963545/altered-brain-and-gut-responses-to-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
Michiko Kano, Tomohiko Muratsubaki, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Joe Morishita, Makoto Yoshizawa, Keiji Kohno, Mao Yagihashi, Yukari Tanaka, Shunji Mugikura, Patrick Dupont, Huynh Giao Ly, Kei Takase, Motoyori Kanazawa, Shin Fukudo
Stress is a known trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and exacerbates its gastrointestinal symptoms. However, underlying the physiological mechanism remains unknown. Here, we investigated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, colonic motility, and autonomic responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) administration as well as brain activity alterations in IBS. The study included 28 IBS patients and 34 age and sex-matched healthy control subjects. IBS patients demonstrated greater adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) responses to CRH than control subjects...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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