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Gastrointestinal motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346561/reduced-intestinal-motility-mucosal-barrier-function-and-inflammation-in-aged-monkeys
#1
E L Mitchell, A T Davis, K Brass, M Dendinger, R Barner, R Gharaibeh, A A Fodor, K Kavanagh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the general health and intestinal physiology of young and old non-human primates with comparable life histories and dietary environments. DESIGN: Vervet monkeys (Chlorcebus aethiops sabaeus) in stable and comparable social and nutritional environments were selected for evaluation. Health phenotype, circulating cytokines and biomarkers of microbial translocation (MT) were measured (n=26-44). Subsets of monkeys additionally had their intestinal motility, intestinal permeability, and fecal microbiomes characterized...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345807/low-fodmap-in-2017-lessons-learned-from-clinical-trials-and-mechanistic-studies
#2
REVIEW
S Eswaran
Given the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the suboptimal response to most therapeutic approaches, there has been increasing interest in and adoption of dietary treatment strategies, such as the low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, & Mono-Saccharides and Polyols (FODMAP) diet. FODMAPs are a diverse group of carbohydrates that exert effects in the gastrointestinal tract not only via fermentation but likely via alterations in the microbiota, metabolome, permeability, and intestinal immunity as well. Clinical evidence for efficacy of this diet is mounting, but there are significant questions regarding short- and long-term safety and effects on the microbiota and nutrition that remain unanswered...
April 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343226/the-effect-of-ineffective-esophageal-motility-on-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#3
Shingo Kasamatsu, Tomoaki Matsumura, Yuki Ohta, Shinsaku Hamanaka, Hideaki Ishigami, Takashi Taida, Kenichiro Okimoto, Keiko Saito, Daisuke Maruoka, Tomoo Nakagawa, Tatsuro Katsuno, Mai Fujie, Atsuko Kikuchi, Makoto Arai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder. Studies have reported that IEM is related to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the relationship between IEM and GERD remains uncertain. This study aims to clarify this relationship retrospectively. METHODS: We analyzed 195 subjects who underwent high-resolution manometry between January 2011 and September 2016. Of these subjects, 72 had normal esophageal motility (NEM) and 26 had IEM...
March 25, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326744/nutritional-parameters-and-carbohydrate-and-fat-metabolism-after-prolonged-salsolinol-administration-in-rats-fed-normal-or-high-fat-diets
#4
Magdalena Kurnik-Lucka, Krzysztof Gil, Andrzej Bugajski, Agata Furgała, Piotr Thor
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that exogenous salsolinol might contribute to myenteric cell death and altered gastrointestinal motility. Because the entire gut mucosal, entero-endocrine and motor functions are integrated by the enteric nervous system, the aim of the present study was to investigate if prolonged intraperitoneal salsolinol administration alters basic metabolism and nutritional parameters in adult Wistar rats fed normal or high-fat diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to continuous intraperitoneal low dosing of salsolinol with ALZET osmotic mini-pumps for 2 or 4 weeks and fed either a normal or high-fat diet...
December 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323941/the-diverse-metabolic-roles-of-peripheral-serotonin
#5
Alyce M Martin, Richard L Young, Lex Leong, Geraint B Rogers, Nick J Spencer, Claire F Jessup, Damien J Keating
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a multi-functional bioamine with important signaling roles in a range of physiological pathways. Almost all the 5-HT in our body is synthesized in specialized enteroendocrine cells within the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa called enterochromaffin (EC) cells. These cells provide all our circulating 5-HT. While we have long appreciated the important roles of 5-HT within the gut including the modulation of GI motility, there is recently emerging evidence of the physiological and clinical significance of gut-derived 5-HT outside of the gut...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321329/utility-of-the-wireless-motility-capsule-and-lactulose-breath-testing-in-the-evaluation-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-who-present-with-functional-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#6
Andrew Su, Rita Gandhy, Carrolee Barlow, George Triadafilopoulos
BACKGROUND: The aetiology and origin of gastrointestinal symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains poorly understood. Gastroparesis, small bowel transit delay and bacterial overgrowth may, individually or collectively, play a role. AIMS: In patients with PD and functional gastrointestinal symptoms, we aimed to determine the utility of the wireless motility capsule and lactulose breath tests in further defining their symptoms' aetiology. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, consecutive patients with PD and functional gastrointestinal symptoms underwent clinical assessment, as well as wireless motility capsule and lactulose breath testing using standard protocols...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320893/regional-differences-in-nutrient-induced-secretion-of-gut-serotonin
#7
Alyce M Martin, Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Claire F Jessup, Nick J Spencer, Damien J Keating
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide the vast majority of serotonin (5-HT) in the body and constitute half of all enteroendocrine cells. EC cells respond to an array of stimuli, including various ingested nutrients. Ensuing 5-HT release from these cells plays a diverse role in regulating gut motility as well as other important responses to nutrient ingestion such as glucose absorption and fluid balance. Recent data also highlight the role of peripheral 5-HT in various pathways related to metabolic control...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319561/pediatric-enteric-neuropathies-diagnosis-and-current-management
#8
Maggie L Westfal, Allan M Goldstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurointestinal diseases are increasingly recognized as causes of significant gastrointestinal morbidity in children. This review highlights the most common pediatric enteric neuropathies and their diagnosis and management, emphasizing insights and discoveries from the most recent literature available. RECENT FINDINGS: The embryologic and histopathologic causes of enteric neuropathies are varied. They range from congenital aganglionosis in Hirschsprung disease, to autoimmune-mediated loss of neuronal subtypes in esophageal achalasia and Chagas disease, to degenerative neuropathies in some cases of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and gastroparesis...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315973/stem-cell-factor-kit-signal-insufficiency-contributes-to-hypoxia-induced-intestinal-motility-dysfunctions-in-neonatal-mice
#9
Hong Ren, Juan Han, Zhifang Li, Zhiyong Xiong
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders represent a group of problems that more constantly encountered in preterm infants. However, whether hypoxia exposure contributes to the GI dysfunctions is still unclear. METHODS: Newborn mice were exposed to hypoxia (10%) from P1 to P7. Intestinal motilities were examined by a strain gauge transducer. The proliferation of ICCs was detected by using immunostaining for BrdU, Ki67, Kit, Ano1, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R+)...
March 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300821/impact-of-cftr-modulation-on-intestinal-ph-motility-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-the-g551d-mutation
#10
Daniel Gelfond, Sonya Heltshe, Changxing Ma, Steven M Rowe, Carla Frederick, Ahmet Uluer, Leonard Sicilian, Michael Konstan, Elizabeth Tullis, R N Christine Roach, Katherine Griffin, Elizabeth Joseloff, Drucy Borowitz
OBJECTIVES: A defect in bicarbonate secretion contributes to the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal complications in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We measured gastrointestinal pH, clinical outcomes, and intestinal transit profiles in patients with the G551D mutation before and after treatment with ivacaftor, a CF transmembrane regulator channel (CFTR) potentiator. METHODS: Observational studies of ivacaftor effectiveness were conducted in the United States and Canada...
March 16, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300332/computer-vision-based-diameter-maps-to-study-fluoroscopic-recordings-of-small-intestinal-motility-from-conscious-experimental-animals
#11
I Ramírez, J J Pantrigo, A S Montemayor, A E López-Pérez, M I Martín-Fontelles, S J H Brookes, R Abalo
BACKGROUND: When available, fluoroscopic recordings are a relatively cheap, non-invasive and technically straightforward way to study gastrointestinal motility. Spatiotemporal maps have been used to characterize motility of intestinal preparations in vitro, or in anesthetized animals in vivo. Here, a new automated computer-based method was used to construct spatiotemporal motility maps from fluoroscopic recordings obtained in conscious rats. METHODS: Conscious, non-fasted, adult, male Wistar rats (n=8) received intragastric administration of barium contrast, and 1-2 hours later, when several loops of the small intestine were well-defined, a 2 minutes-fluoroscopic recording was obtained...
March 16, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286043/anthelmintic-effect-of-psidium-guajava-and-tagetes-erecta-on-wild-type-and-levamisole-resistant-caenorhabditis-elegans-strains
#12
Denia M Piña-Vazquez, Zyanya Mayoral-Peña, Maricela Gómez-Sánchez, Luis A Salazar-Olivo, Fausto Arellano-Carbajal
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta have been used traditionally to treat gastrointestinal parasites, but their active metabolites and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the anthelmintic potential of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta extracts on Levamisole-sensitive and Levamisole-resistant strains of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extracts of Psidium guajava (PGE) and Tagetes erecta (TEE) were assayed on locomotion and egg-laying behaviors of the wild-type (N2) and Levamisole-resistant (CB193) strains of Caenorhabditis elegans...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283726/magnetic-resonance-enterography-has-good-inter-rater-agreement-and-diagnostic-accuracy-for-detecting-inflammation-in-pediatric-crohn-disease
#13
Peter C Church, Mary-Louise C Greer, Ruth Cytter-Kuint, Andrea S Doria, Anne M Griffiths, Dan Turner, Thomas D Walters, Brian M Feldman
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) is increasingly relied upon for noninvasive assessment of intestinal inflammation in Crohn disease. However very few studies have examined the diagnostic accuracy of individual MRE signs in children. OBJECTIVE: We have created an MR-based multi-item measure of intestinal inflammation in children with Crohn disease - the Pediatric Inflammatory Crohn's MRE Index (PICMI). To inform item selection for this instrument, we explored the inter-rater agreement and diagnostic accuracy of individual MRE signs of inflammation in pediatric Crohn disease and compared our findings with the reference standards of the weighted Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (wPCDAI) and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281647/analysis-of-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-in-the-gnotobiotic-piglet-and-genome-wide-identification-of-bacterial-factors-required-for-infection
#14
Stefan P W de Vries, Aileen Linn, Kareen Macleod, Amanda MacCallum, Simon P Hardy, Gill Douce, Eleanor Watson, Mark P Dagleish, Hal Thompson, Andy Stevenson, David Kennedy, Abiyad Baig, Chris Coward, Duncan J Maskell, David G E Smith, Andrew J Grant, Paul Everest
To investigate how Campylobacter jejuni causes the clinical symptoms of diarrhoeal disease in humans, use of a relevant animal model is essential. Such a model should mimic the human disease closely in terms of host physiology, incubation period before onset of disease, clinical signs and a comparable outcome of disease. In this study, we used a gnotobiotic piglet model to study determinants of pathogenicity of C. jejuni. In this model, C. jejuni successfully established infection and piglets developed an increased temperature with watery diarrhoea, which was caused by a leaky epithelium and reduced bile re-absorption in the intestines...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277890/analysis-of-spatiotemporal-pattern-and-quantification-of-gastrointestinal-slow-waves-caused-by-anticholinergic-drugs
#15
Kelvin K L Wong, Lauren C Y Tang, Jerry Zhou, Vincent Ho
Anticholinergic drugs are well-known to cause adverse effects, such as constipation, but their effects on baseline contractile activity in the gut driven by slow waves is not well established. In a video-based gastrointestinal motility monitoring (GIMM) system, a mouse's small intestine was placed in Krebs solution and recorded using a high definition camera. Untreated controls were recorded for each specimen, then treated with a therapeutic concentration of the drug, and finally, treated with a supratherapeutic dose of the drug...
February 23, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277883/prucalopride-for-the-treatment-of-ileus
#16
Christopher J Smart, Kamran I Malik
Postoperative ileus (POI) is an impairment of coordinated gastrointestinal (GI) motility that develops as a consequence of abdominal surgery and is a major factor contributing to patient morbidity and prolonged hospitalisation. Despite the availability of various options its treatment is still under debate. This review will focus on effect of Prucalopride (5-HT4 receptor agonist) on postoperative ileus based on the existing literature. Areas covered: A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE Library was performed concerning topics related to the treatment of ileus with prucalopride...
March 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277856/electrical-therapies-for-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders
#17
Jiande D Z Chen, Jieyun Yin, Wei Wei
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are common in clinical settings, including esophageal motility disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, post-operative ileus, irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea and constipation. While a number of drugs have been developed for treating GI motility disorders, few are currently available. Emerging electrical stimulation methods may provide new treatment options for these GI motility disorders...
March 21, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276828/the-nescience-and-nascence-of-gastrointestinal-motility-research-in-acute-pancreatitis
#18
Maxim S Petrov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261911/alterations-in-the-small-intestinal-wall-and-motor-function-after-repeated-cisplatin-in-rat
#19
J A Uranga, J M García-Martínez, C García-Jiménez, G Vera, M I Martín-Fontelles, R Abalo
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal adverse effects occurring during cancer chemotherapy are well known and feared; those persisting once treatment has finished are relatively unknown. We characterized the alterations occurring in the rat small intestine, after repeated treatment with cisplatin. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received saline or cisplatin (2 mg kg(-1)  week(-1) , for 5 weeks, ip). Gastric motor function was studied non-invasively throughout treatment (W1-W5) and 1 week after treatment finalization (W6)...
March 6, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260711/two-cases-of-acute-gastric-dilation-after-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-for-supraventricular-arrhythmia
#20
Masayuki Ueno, Yuichi Shimodate, Yousuke Mitani, Akira Doi, Naoyuki Nishimura, Hirokazu Mouri, Hiroyuki Takabatake, Kazuhiro Matsueda, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Motowo Mizuno
We describe our experience with two cases of acute gastric dilation after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for supraventricular arrhythmia. After the RFCA procedure, patients experienced epigastric pain, abdominal distension, and vomiting. Computed tomography showed marked dilation of their stomachs, but without apparent obstruction of the gastric antrum or the duodenum. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and upper gastrointestinal series revealed significant gastroparesis. We considered that gastric hypomotility had been induced by vagus nerve injury after RFCA...
2017: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
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