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Gastrointestinal motility

Ni-Na Song, Wen-Xie Xu
Gastrointestinal smooth muscle layer contains two kinds of interstitial cells with special differentiation, i.e., interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α-positive (PDGFRα(+)) cells. The ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells contact with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by gap junctions and regulate contractive function of the SMCs. Therefore, these three kinds of cells constitute a functional syncytium, i.e., the SMC, ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells syncytium (SIP syncytium). Various neurotransmitters, humoral factors, endogenous bioactive molecules, as well as drugs regulate gastrointestinal motility through the SIP syncytium...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Jon S Thompson, Sean J Langenfeld, Alexander Hewlett, Amareshewar Chiruvella, Christopher Crawford, Priscila Armijo, Dmitry Oleynikov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Problems in Surgery
Kok-Ann Gwee, Paul Bergmans, JinYong Kim, Bogdana Coudsy, Angelia Sim, Minhu Chen, Lin Lin, Xiaohua Hou, Huahong Wang, Khean-Lee Goh, John A Pangilinan, Nayoung Kim, Stanislas Bruley des Varannes
Background/Aims: There is a need for a simple and practical tool adapted for the diagnosis of chronic constipation (CC) in the Asian population. This study compared the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association (ANMA) CC tool and Rome III criteria for the diagnosis of CC in Asian subjects. Methods: This multicenter, cross-sectional study included subjects presenting at outpatient gastrointestinal clinics across Asia. Subjects with CC alert symptoms completed a combination Diagnosis Questionnaire to obtain a diagnosis based on 4 different diagnostic methods: self-defined, investigator's judgment, ANMA CC tool, and Rome III criteria...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Kenton M Sanders, Sean M Ward, Grant W Hennig
Motility patterns of the gastrointestinal tract are important for efficient processing of nutrients and waste. Peristalsis and segmentation are based on rhythmic electrical slow waves that generate the phasic contractions fundamental to gastrointestinal motility. Slow waves are generated and propagated actively by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and these events conduct to smooth muscle cells to elicit excitation-contraction coupling. Extracellular electrical recording has been utilized to characterize slow-wave generation and propagation and abnormalities that might be responsible for gastrointestinal motility disorders...
October 19, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Chao Liang, Kaiyue Wang, Bin Xu, Zhi Yu
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoint ST 37 (Shangjuxu) has been used to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms and improve gastrointestinal motility. However, the mechanisms by which EA affects the enteric nervous system (ENS) have scarcely been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether EA could improve ENS function. METHODS: A constipation model was established by gastric instillation of ice-cold saline daily for 14 days. The constipated mice were divided into two groups: the model group, which was not treated, and the EA group, which received EA at ST 37 at a frequency of 2-15 HZ and an amplitude of 1 mA for 15 min a day for 3 days...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Petrus R de Jong, José M González-Navajas, Nicolaas J G Jansen
Failure of gut homeostasis is an important factor in the pathogenesis and progression of systemic inflammation, which can culminate in multiple organ failure and fatality. Pathogenic events in critically ill patients include mesenteric hypoperfusion, dysregulation of gut motility, and failure of the gut barrier with resultant translocation of luminal substrates. This is followed by the exacerbation of local and systemic immune responses. All these events can contribute to pathogenic crosstalk between the gut, circulating cells, and other organs like the liver, pancreas, and lungs...
October 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Tareq Abu-Izneid, Aneela Maalik, Saud Bawazeer, Ajmal Khan, Abdur Rauf, Taibi Ben Hadda, Haroon Khan, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan, Imran Khan, Mohammad S Mubarak, Ghias Uddin, Alia Bahadar, Shujaat Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Pistacia integerrima has many medicinal uses in therapeutic as well as folk medicine. P. integerrima has been used for the treatment of different ailments such as blood purifier, anti-inflammatory, and as remedy for gastrointestinal disorders such as vomiting and diarrhea, expectorant, cough, asthma and fever. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this research work was to evaluate the effect of pistagremic acid (PA) isolated from the galls of Pistacia integerima in acute toxicity and gastrointestinal (GIT) motility tests...
October 7, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
Edith Lahner, Bruno Annibale
Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal condition. Clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to symptomatic uncomplicated or complicated DD. Symptoms related to uncomplicated DD are not specific and may be indistinguishable from those of irritable bowel syndrome. Low-grade inflammation, altered intestinal microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal colonic motility have been identified as factors potentially contributing to symptoms. Probiotics may modify the gut microbial balance leading to health benefits...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Serena Ammendola, Ylenia D'Amico, Barbara Chirullo, Rosanna Drumo, Domenico Civardelli, Paolo Pasquali, Andrea Battistoni
Zinc is known to play a central role in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis. Here, we report that the accumulation of FliC, the structural subunit of Salmonella phase 1 flagella, is sharply reduced in a znuABC Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium strain grown in zinc-poor media. Consequently, this mutant strain lacks motility, unless it grows in zinc-replete environments. This phenotype is the consequence of a general downregulation of all the genes involved in the biosynthesis of flagella, suggesting that zinc is the cofactor of proteins involved in the initiation of the transcriptional regulatory cascade leading to flagella assembly...
October 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Daniela Keilberg, Yana Zavros, Benjamin Shepherd, Nina R Salama, Karen M Ottemann
: Gland colonization may be one crucial route for bacteria to maintain chronic gastrointestinal infection. We developed a quantitative gland isolation method to allow robust bacterial population analysis and applied it to the gastric pathobiont Helicobacter pylori After infections in the murine model system, H. pylori populations multiply both inside and outside glands in a manner that requires the bacteria to be motile and chemotactic. H. pylori is able to achieve gland densities averaging 25 to 40 bacteria/gland after 2 to 4 weeks of infection...
October 11, 2016: MBio
Shiko Kuribayashi, Hiroko Hosaka, Motoyasu Kusano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Shinsuke Nakayama, Hidemi Teramoto
 The umami taste amino acid, glutamate acts as a signaling molecule in multiple cellular systems in the body, including the brain and gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, glutamate may affect appetite by modulating gastrointestinal motility as well as through taste perception. In this study, we examined the effect of glutamate on gastric emptying and duodenal motility, by using rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten healthy male volunteers participated in the measurements. Abdominal coronal MR images were successively acquired after ingestion of a liquid meal with and without monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
B M Belik
AIM: To substantiate pathogenetic expediency and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the drug use serotonin adipate (dinaton) in a complex correction enteral insufficiency syndrome (EIN) in patients with generalized peritonitis (GP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The comparative analysis of results of treatment of 182 patients with GP, which in principle approach to EIN correction in the postoperative period were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 92 patients who received standard intensive therapy using conventional methods of stimulation of intestinal peristalsis...
2016: Khirurgiia
Emel Ulusoy, Nur Arslan, Tuncay Kume, Ayfer Ulgenalp, Ceren Cirah, Ozlem Bozkaya, Derya Ercal
BACKGROUND: Functional constipation is an important clinical problem among chidden all over the world. Its main cause is not completely understood. Motilin is a gastrointestinal hormone that increases intestinal motility. In this study, we aimed to investigate the serum motilin levels and its relationship with stool consistency and motilin gene polymorphisms in constipated children. METHODS: In this study we investigated 91 constipated patients (mean age 6.84 ± 3...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Stefan Calder, Gregory O'Grady, Leo Cheng, Peng Du
Routine screening and accurate diagnosis of chronic gastrointestinal motility disorders represents a significant problem in current clinical practice. The electrogastrography (EGG) provides a non-invasive option for assessing gastric slow waves, as a means of diagnosing gastric dysrhythmias, but its uptake in motility practice has been limited partly due to an incomplete sensitivity and specificity. This paper presents the development of a human whole-organ gastric model to enable virtual (insilico) testing of gastric electrophysiological dispersion in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of EGG...
September 30, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Luiza Ohasi de Figueiredo, D P C Garcia, Luiz Ronaldo Alberti, R A Paiva, Andy Petroianu, Luiza Barbosa Paolucci, M R L G Costa
INTRODUCTION: Intussusception in adult is rarely caused by idiopathic conditions. Main causes are inflammatory diseases, benign or malignant tumors and motility disorders. As a benign cause, lipomas appear as a particularly rare gastrointestinal intraluminal tumor occurring with highest incidence in the colon, mostly in the caecum and ascending colon. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 57-year-old male patient was admitted at the surgical emergency in Belo Horizonte, with history of chronic and intermittent diffuse abdominal pain, associated with variations of his bowel habits and rare episodes of vomiting starting around 3days prior to admission...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Tsung-Shih Li, Tsung-Yang Lee, Kate Hsiurong Liao
More and more endoscopically gastrointestinal procedures require anesthesiologists to perform general anesthesia, such as "peroral endoscopic myotomy". Peroral endoscopic myotomy is a novel invasive treatment for the primary motility disorder of esophagus, called esophageal achalasia. Despite of its minimally invasive feature, there are still complications during the procedure which develop to critical conditions and threat patients' lives. Herein we describe a case about tension pneumothorax subsequent to esophageal rupture during peroral endoscopic myotomy...
September 27, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Luis E Ferreira, Bruno I Benincasa, Ana L Fachin, Suzelei C França, Silvia S H T Contini, Ana C S Chagas, Rene O Beleboni
Haemonchus contortus is an important gastrointestinal parasite on sheep farms in tropical regions. The resistance of the parasite against most anthelmintic drugs represents a great economic problem to sheep farming and is a major challenge that needs to be overcome. The searches for new anthelmintic agents that act on different stages of the parasite's life cycle are necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against H...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Dhouha Alimi, Soumaya Hajaji, Mourad Rekik, Amel Abidi, Mohamed Gharbi, Hafidh Akkari
Antipathogenic properties of camel milk have been investigated to substitute for drugs hence overcome drug resistance. The main objective of this present study was to investigate the anthelmintic activity of camel milk in relationship to its chemical composition. In vitro anthelmintic effects of camel milk against Haemonchus contortus from sheep were ascertained by egg hatching and worm motility inhibitions in comparison to milks from cow, ewe and goat as well as a reference drug albendazole. Chemical composition revealed that camel milk has higher contents of protective protein (lactoferrin) and vitamin C than other species' milk...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Chao Ding, Xiaolong Ge, Xueying Zhang, Hongliang Tian, Hongkan Wang, Lili Gu, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Ning Li
Synbiotic intake may efficiently restore the balance of gut microbiota and improve gastrointestinal functions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a synbiotic in patients with slow transit constipation. A total of 100 patients with slow transit constipation were randomized to receive either a synbiotic or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoints were the clinical remission and improvement rates at weeks 4 and 12. Stool frequency and consistency, colonic transit time (CTT), evacuation and abdominal symptoms, patient assessment of constipation symptoms, gastrointestinal quality-of-life index scores, satisfaction scores, and adverse events were also monitored...
2016: Nutrients
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