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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241263/bridging-knowledge-gaps-to-understand-how-zika-virus-exposure-and-infection-affect-child-development
#1
Bill G Kapogiannis, Nahida Chakhtoura, Rohan Hazra, Catherine Y Spong
Importance: The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has profoundly affected the lives of children and families across the Americas. As the number of children born with ZIKV-related complications continues to grow, the long-term developmental trajectory for these children and the effect on their families remains largely unknown. In September 2016, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and partner National Institutes of Health institutes convened a workshop to develop a research agenda to improve the evaluation, monitoring, and management of neonates, infants, or children affected by ZIKV and its complications...
February 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240194/brain-and-gut-crf-signaling-biological-actions-and-role-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#2
Million Mulugeta, Yvette Taché, Muriel Larauche, Pu-Qing Yuan
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling pathways coordinate the behavioral, endocrine, autonomic and visceral responses to stress. Convergent anatomical, molecular, pharmacological and functional experimental evidence supports an important role of brain CRF receptor signaling in stress-related alterations of gastrointestinal functions. These include the inhibition of gastric acid secretion and gastro-small intestinal transit, the stimulation of colonic enteric nervous system and secretory-motor function, enhanced intestinal permeability, and visceral hypersensitivity...
February 23, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238253/future-treatment-of-constipation-associated-disorders-role-of-relamorelin-and-other-ghrelin-receptor-agonists
#3
REVIEW
Paula Mosińska, Hubert Zatorski, Martin Storr, Jakub Fichna
There is an unmet need for effective pharmacological therapies for constipation, a symptom that significantly deteriorates patients' quality of life and impacts health care. Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and has been shown to exert prokinetic effects on gastrointestinal (GI) motility via the vagus and pelvic nerves. The pharmacological potential of ghrelin is hampered by its short half-life. Ghrelin receptor (GRLN-R) agonists with enhanced pharmacokinetics were thus developed...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228329/stringent-factor-and-proteolysis-control-of-sigma-factor-rpos-expression-in-vibrio-cholerae
#4
Philipp Wurm, Sarah Tutz, Beatrice Mutsam, Dina Vorkapic, Barbara Heyne, Claudia Grabner, Katharina Kleewein, Anja Halscheidt, Stefan Schild, Joachim Reidl
Vibrio cholerae can colonize the gastrointestinal track of humans and cause the disease cholera. During colonization, the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, controls a process known as "mucosal escape response," defining a specific spatial and temporal response and effecting chemotaxis and motility. In this report, the expression and proteolytic control of RpoS in V. cholerae was characterized. To date, aspects of proteolysis control, the involved components, and proteolysis regulation have not been addressed for RpoS in V...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228069/recent-advances-in-the-gastric-mucosal-protection-against-stress-induced-gastric-lesions-importance-of-renin-angiotensin-vasoactive-metabolites-gaseous-mediators-and-appetite-peptides
#5
Tomasz Brzozowski, Katarzyna Magierowska, Marcin Magierowski, Agata Ptak-Belowska, Robert Pajdo, Slawomir Kwiecien, Rafal Olszanecki, Ryszard Korbut
Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in gastric blood flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions...
February 20, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226352/-postoperative-complication-registration-in-gastric-cancer-surgery-from-2005-to-2016-a-learning-curve-in-our-institution
#6
Zhouqiao Wu, Jinyao Shi, Fei Shan, Ziyu Li, Jiafu Ji
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the change in postoperative complication rate after gastric cancer surgery registered in the Peking University Cancer Hospital in recent 11 years and the learning curve of complication registration, and to investigate how to improve the complication registration and evaluation in gastric cancer surgery. METHODS: Patients who underwent open or laparoscopic gastric cancer surgery between April 14, 2005 and February 15, 2016 in our institution were included in the study, and those without essential clinical and administrative data were excluded...
February 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222167/emergence-and-development-of-gut-motility-in-the-chicken-embryo
#7
N R Chevalier, V Fleury, S Dufour, V Proux-Gillardeaux, A Asnacios
The gastrointestinal tract transports the food bolus by peristalsis. Gut motility starts at an early age in the developing embryo, well before it is required for nutrition of the organism. We present a comprehensive kinematic study of the emergence and physiological development of gut motility in all regions of the lower digestive tract of the chicken embryo from embryonic days E5 through E9. We characterized motility emergence time, propagation patterns, speed, frequency and amplitude of peristalsis waves...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220074/involvement-of-cannabinoid-signaling-in-vincristine-induced-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-in-the-rat
#8
Gema Vera, Ana E López-Pérez, José A Uranga, Rocío Girón, Ma Isabel Martín-Fontelles, Raquel Abalo
Background: In different models of paralytic ileus, cannabinoid receptors are overexpressed and endogenous cannabinoids are massively released, contributing to gastrointestinal dysmotility. The antitumoral drug vincristine depresses gastrointestinal motility and a similar mechanism could participate in this effect. Therefore, our aim was to determine, using CB1 and CB2 antagonists, whether an increased endocannabinoid tone is involved in vincristine-induced gastrointestinal ileus. Methods: First, we confirmed the effects of vincristine on the gut mucosa, by conventional histological techniques, and characterized its effects on motility, by radiographic means...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216898/depolarizing-effects-of-daikenchuto-on-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-from-mouse-small-intestine
#9
Hyungwoo Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Dongki Yang, Myeong Ho Jung, Byung Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Daikenchuto (DKT; TJ-100, TU-100), a traditional herbal medicineis used in modern medicine to treat gastrointestinal (GI) functional disorders. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are the pacemaker cells of the GI tract and play important roles in the regulation of GI motility. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of DKT on the pacemaker potentials (PPs) of cultured ICCs from murine small intestine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enzymatic digestions were used to dissociate ICCs from mouse small intestine tissues...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214685/role-of-laxative-and-antioxidant-properties-of-malva-sylvestris-leaves-in-constipation-treatment
#10
Mohamed-Amine Jabri, Dalanda Wannes, Najla Hajji, Mohsen Sakly, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai
INTRODUCTION: Mallaw (Malva sylvestris L.) is a medicinal plant who is traditionally being used as an antiulcer, laxative and anti-hemorrhoid, besides of its culinary use as a food in Tunisian cuisine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Malva sylvestris aqueous extract (MSAE) on constipation- induced by loperamide in male Wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each: Control, Loperamide (LOP), LOP+ yohimbine (2mg/kg b...
February 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214088/a-case-of-seropositive-autoimmune-autonomic-ganglionopathy-with-diffuse-esophageal-spasm
#11
Nobutoshi Morimoto, Sakuma Takahashi, Tomoki Inaba, Motonori Takamiya, Yasuhiko Kageyama, Mizuki Morimoto, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Hirotake Nishimura, Shunya Nakane, Koji Abe
Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an immune-mediated disorder that leads to various autonomic failures associated with anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies (anti-gAChR-Abs). Diffuse esophageal spasm (DES) is an uncommon esophageal motility disorder. We herein report the case of a 68-year-old woman with DES as a partial symptom of AAG. She presented with chronic esophageal transit failure, constipation, and numbness of the hands and feet, Adie's pupil, thermal hypoalgesia, and decreased deep tendon reflexes...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207290/fatty-acid-and-mineral-receptors-as-drug-targets-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#12
Pawin Pongkorpsakol, Aekkacha Moonwiriyakit, Chatchai Muanprasat
Nutrient-sensing receptors, including fatty acid receptors (FFA1-FFA4), Ca(2+)-sensing receptors and Zn(2+)-sensing receptors, are involved in several biological processes. These receptors are abundantly expressed in the GI tract, where they have been shown to play crucial roles in regulating GI function. This review provides an overview of the GI functions of fatty acid and mineral receptors, including the regulation of gastric and enteroendocrine functions, GI motility, ion transport and cell growth. Recently, several lines of evidence have implicated these receptors as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of GI disorders, for example, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, metabolic syndrome and diarrheal diseases...
February 16, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204957/insights-into-the-role-of-opioid-receptors-in-the-gi-tract-experimental-evidence-and-therapeutic-relevance
#13
James J Galligan, Catia Sternini
Opioid drugs are prescribed extensively for pain treatment but when used chronically they induce constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Opioid drugs interact with three classes of opioid receptors: mu opioid receptors (MORs), delta opioid receptors (DOR), and kappa opioid receptors (KORs), but opioid drugs mostly target the MORs. Upon stimulation, opioid receptors couple to inhibitory Gi/Go proteins that activate or inhibit downstream effector proteins. MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and to activation of K(+) channels resulting in reduced neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release...
February 16, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196832/gpr55-a-new-promising-target-for-metabolism
#14
Eva Tuduri, Monica Imbernon, Rene Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras
GPR55 is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been identified as a new cannabinoid receptor. Given the wide localization of GPR55 in brain and peripheral tissues, this receptor has emerged as a regulator of multiple biological actions. Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is generally accepted as the endogenous ligand of GPR55. In this review, we will focus on the role of GPR55 in energy balance and glucose metabolism. We will summarize its actions on feeding, nutrient partitioning, gastrointestinal motility and insulin secretion in preclinical models and the scarce data available in humans...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195732/in-vivo-predictive-dissolution-ipd-and-biopharmaceutical-modeling-and-simulation-future-use-of-modern-approaches-and-methodologies-in-a-regulatory-context
#15
H Lennernas, A Lindahl, A Van Peer, C Ollier, T Flanagan, R Lionberger, A Nordmark, S Yamashita, L Yu, G L Amidon, V Fischer, E Sjögren, P Zane, M McAllister, B Abrahamsson
The overall objective of OrBiTo, a project within Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI), is to streamline and optimize the development of orally administered drug products through the creation and efficient application of biopharmaceutics tools. This toolkit will include both experimental and computational models developed on improved understanding of the highly dynamic gastrointestinal (GI) physiology relevant to the GI absorption of drug products in both fasted and fed states. A part of the annual OrBiTo-meeting in 2015 was dedicated to the presentation of the most recent progress in the development of the regulatory use of PBPK in silico modeling, in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) tests and their application to biowaivers...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191707/mechanisms-underlying-reflux-symptoms-and-dysphagia-in-patients-with-joint-hypermobility-syndrome-with-and-without-postural-tachycardia-syndrome
#16
A Fikree, Q Aziz, D Sifrim
BACKGROUND: The joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is a common non-inflammatory connective tissue disorder which frequently co-exists with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), a form of orthostatic intolerance. Gastrointestinal symptoms and dysmotility have been reported in PoTS. Dysphagia and reflux are common symptoms in JHS, yet no studies have examined the physiological mechanism for these, subdivided by PoTS status. METHODS: Thirty patients (28 female, ages: 18-62) with JHS and symptoms of reflux (n=28) ± dysphagia (n=25), underwent high-resolution manometry and 24 hour pH-impedance monitoring after questionnaire-based symptom assessment...
February 12, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191706/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-and-estrogen-receptor-ligands-regulate-colonic-motility-and-visceral-pain
#17
M Zielińska, J Fichna, M Bashashati, S Habibi, A Sibaev, J-P Timmermans, M Storr
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, which occurs more frequently in women than men. The aim of our study was to determine the role of activation of classical estrogen receptors (ER) and novel membrane receptor, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in human and mouse tissue and to assess the possible cross talk between these receptors in the GI tract. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of GPER in human and mouse intestines...
February 12, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188197/teaching-a-changing-paradigm-in-physiology-a-historical-perspective-on-gut-interstitial-cells
#18
REVIEW
Bernard T Drumm, Salah A Baker
The study and teaching of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology necessitates an understanding of the cellular basis of contractile and electrical coupling behaviors in the muscle layers that comprise the gut wall. Our knowledge of the cellular origin of GI motility has drastically changed over the last 100 yr. While the pacing and coordination of GI contraction was once thought to be solely attributable to smooth muscle cells, it is now widely accepted that the motility patterns observed in the GI tract exist as a result of a multicellular system, consisting of not only smooth muscle cells but also enteric neurons and distinct populations of specialized interstitial cells that all work in concert to ensure proper GI functions...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187396/methyl-orvinol-dual-activity-opioid-receptor-ligand-inhibits-gastrointestinal-transit-and-alleviates-abdominal-pain-in-the-mouse-models-mimicking-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#19
Marta Zielińska, Agata Jarmuż, Andrzej Wasilewski, Gerta Cami-Kobeci, Stephen Husbands, Jakub Fichna
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The major IBS-D symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain and discomfort. High density of opioid receptors (ORs) in the GI tract and their participation in the maintenance of GI homeostasis make ORs ligands an attractive option for developing new anti-IBS-D treatments. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of methyl-orvinol on the GI motility and secretion and in mouse models mimicking symptoms of IBS-D...
December 5, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186368/gastrointestinal-involvement-in-the-ehlers-danlos-syndromes
#20
Asma Fikree, Gisela Chelimsky, Heidi Collins, Katcha Kovacic, Qasim Aziz
Current evidence suggests that an association exists between non-inflammatory hereditary disorders of connective tissue such as the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Patients with EDS can present with both structural problems such as hiatus hernias, visceroptosis, rectoceles, and rectal prolapse as well as functional problems such as disordered gut motility. It has recently been demonstrated that patients with hypermobile EDS (hEDS) present with GI symptoms related to the fore and hind-gut and these patients frequently meet the criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders such as functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
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