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Gastrointestinal motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922028/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-to-examine-the-effectiveness-of-lubiprostone-on-constipation-symptoms-and-colon-transit-time-in-diabetic-patients
#1
Jennifer Christie, Sagar Shroff, Nikrad Shahnavaz, Latoya A Carter, Melanie S Harrison, Karan A Dietz-Lindo, John Hanfelt, Shanthi Srinivasan
OBJECTIVES: Constipation is the most common GI symptom in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Importantly, patients with constipation have lower health-related quality of life than those without constipation. Effective therapies for constipation are limited and there is a paucity of data evaluating the treatment of constipation in diabetics. METHODS: Diabetic patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) as defined by Rome III criteria were recruited from outpatient clinics at a tertiary-care center and a Veterans Administration Hospital...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919824/melatonin-s-role-as-a-co-adjuvant-treatment-in-colonic-diseases-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Eduardo Esteban-Zubero, Laura López-Pingarrón, Moisés Alejandro Alatorre-Jiménez, Purificación Ochoa-Moneo, Celia Buisac-Ramón, Miguel Rivas-Jiménez, Silvia Castán-Ruiz, Ángel Antoñanzas-Lombarte, Dun-Xian Tan, José Joaquín García, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland as well as many other organs, including the enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that resists oxidative stress due to its capacity to directly scavenge reactive species, to modulate the antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and to stimulate the innate immune response through its direct and indirect actions. In addition, the dysregulation of the circadian system is observed to be related with alterations in colonic motility and cell disruptions due to the modifications of clock genes expression...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915009/exploring-gastrointestinal-variables-affecting-drug-and-formulation-behavior-methodologies-challenges-and-opportunities
#3
REVIEW
Bart Hens, Maura Corsetti, Robin Spiller, Luca Marciani, Tim Vanuytsel, Jan Tack, Arjang Talattof, Gordon L Amidon, Mirko Koziolek, Werner Weitschies, Clive G Wilson, Roelof J Bennink, Joachim Brouwers, Patrick Augustijns
Various gastrointestinal (GI) factors affect drug and formulation behavior after oral administration, including GI transfer, motility, pH and GI fluid volume and composition. An in-depth understanding of these physiological and anatomical variables is critical for a continued progress in oral drug development. In this review, different methodologies (invasive versus non-invasive) to explore the impact of physiological variables on formulation behavior in the human GI tract are presented, revealing their strengths and limitations...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911803/genomic-sequencing-based-mutational-enrichment-analysis-identifies-motility-genes-in-a-genetically-intractable-gut-microbe
#4
Sena Bae, Olaf Mueller, Sandi Wong, John F Rawls, Raphael H Valdivia
A major roadblock to understanding how microbes in the gastrointestinal tract colonize and influence the physiology of their hosts is our inability to genetically manipulate new bacterial species and experimentally assess the function of their genes. We describe the application of population-based genomic sequencing after chemical mutagenesis to map bacterial genes responsible for motility in Exiguobacterium acetylicum, a representative intestinal Firmicutes bacterium that is intractable to molecular genetic manipulation...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#5
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895421/carbon-monoxide-contributes-to-the-constipating-effects-of-granisetron-in-rat-colon
#6
Carmela Nacci, Margherita Fanelli, Maria Assunta Potenza, Valentina Leo, Monica Montagnani, Maria Antonietta De Salvia
AIM: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the potential contribution of the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide (HO/CO) pathway in the constipating effects of granisetron. METHODS: For in vivo studies, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated in male rats acutely treated with granisetron [25, 50, 75 μg/kg/subcutaneous (sc)], zinc protoporphyrin IX [ZnPPIX, 50 μg/kg/intraperitoneal (ip)] and hemin (50 μmol/L/kg/ip), alone or in combination. For in vitro studies, the contractile neurogenic response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 3, 5, 10 Hz, 14 V, 1 ms, pulse trains lasting 10 s), as well as the contractile myogenic response to acetylcholine (ACh, 0...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891756/motility-patterns-in-mouse-colon-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-induced-by-anticancer-chemotherapy
#7
REVIEW
N J Spencer
Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in humans. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a major chemotherapy treatment, has been used for decades to fight numerous types of cancers, including breast, colon, and head and neck carcinomas. Unfortunately, a large proportion of patients treated with 5-FU develop toxicities that include diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and vomiting. While the side effects of 5-FU are well known, the mechanisms underlying the induction of these unpleasant symptoms are poorly understood...
December 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891695/downregulation-of-neuronal-vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-chronic-constipation
#8
F Giancola, F Torresan, R Repossi, F Bianco, R Latorre, A Ioannou, M Guarino, U Volta, P Clavenzani, M Mazzoni, R Chiocchetti, F Bazzoli, R A Travagli, C Sternini, R De Giorgio
BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation (CC) is a common and severe gastrointestinal complaint in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. This study evaluated functionally distinct submucosal neurons in relation to colonic motility and anorectal function in PD patients with constipation (PD/CC) vs both CC and controls. METHODS: Twenty-nine PD/CC and 10 Rome III-defined CC patients were enrolled. Twenty asymptomatic age-sex matched subjects served as controls...
November 27, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890710/in-vivo-and-vitro-characterization-of-the-effects-of-kisspeptin-13-endogenous-ligands-for-gpr54-on-mouse-gastrointestinal-motility
#9
Jinhong Jiang, Weidong Jin, Yali Peng, Zhen He, Lijuan Wei, Shu Li, Xiaoli Wang, Min Chang, Rui Wang
Kisspeptin (KP), the endogenous ligand of GPR54, is a mammalian amidated neurohormone, which belongs to the RF-amide peptide family. However, in contrast with the related members of the RF-amide family, little information is available regarding its role in the gastrointestinal motility. With regard to the recent data suggesting KP play an important role in food intake, and while gastrointestinal motility are closely related to it. Thus, in the present work, effects of central administration of KP-13, one of the endogenous active isoforms, on gastrointestinal motility were investigated...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881679/the-shigella-virulence-factor-icsa-relieves-n-wasp-autoinhibition-by-displacing-the-vca-domain
#10
Rui P M Mauricio, Cy M Jeffries, Dmitri I Svergun, Janet E Deane
Shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen that invades cells of the gastrointestinal tract causing severe dysentery. Shigella mediate intracellular motility and spreading via actin comet tail formation. This process is dependent on the surface-exposed, membrane-embedded virulence factor IcsA, which recruits the host actin regulator N-WASP. Although it is clear that Shigella require N-WASP for this process, the molecular details of this interaction and the mechanism of N-WASP activation remain poorly understood...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881403/irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-gut-microbiota-related-disorder
#11
Yogesh Bhattarai, David A Muniz Pedrogo, Purna C Kashyap
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of IBS is not well understood though multiple peripheral and central factors are implicated. Recent studies suggest a role for alterations in gut microbiota in IBS. Significant advances in next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics, and the declining cost has now allowed us to better investigate the role of gut microbiota in IBS. In the following review, we propose gut microbiota as a unifying factor in the pathophysiology of IBS...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875789/comparison-of-the-chemical-consituents-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-ophiopogonis-radix-from-two-different-producing-areas
#12
Xiaoyan Lu, Wei Tong, Shufang Wang, Jinghui Li, Jie Zheng, Xiaohui Fan, Li Liu
Zhemaidong (ZMD) and Chuanmaidong (CMD) are the two genuine cultivation areas of Ophiopogonis Radix which has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine in China for treating cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Differences between ZMD and CMD in chemical constituents and pharmacological effects have been reported, however, the details remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to comprehensively characterize the chemical composition of Ophiopogonis Radix from the two producing areas and compare their immunomodulatory activities...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875260/the-presence-and-role-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-proximal-intestine-of-shorthorn-sculpin-myoxocephalus-scorpius
#13
Jeroen Brijs, Grant W Hennig, Anna-Maria Kellermann, Michael Axelsson, Catharina Olsson
Rhythmic contractions of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract can occur in the absence of neuronal or hormonal stimulation due to the generation of spontaneous electrical activity by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are electrically coupled to smooth muscle cells. The myogenically-driven component of gastrointestinal motility patterns in fish likely also involves ICC, however, little is known of their presence, distribution and function in any fish species. In the present study, we combined immunohistochemistry and in vivo recordings of intestinal motility to investigate the involvement of ICC in the motility of the proximal intestine in adult shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875017/gum-chewing-combined-with-oral-intake-of-a-semi-liquid-diet-in-the-postoperative-care-of-patients-after-gynecologic-laparoscopic-surgery
#14
Yuping Pan, Li Chen, Xiaorong Zhong, Suwen Feng
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of gum chewing combined with a semi-liquid diet on patients after gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that chewing gum before traditional postoperative care promotes the postoperative recovery of bowel motility and function after open and laparoscopic surgery. However, gum chewing combined with a semi-liquid diet has not been reported in postoperative care of patients following gynecologic laparoscopic surgery...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871266/antioxidant-antidiarrheal-hypoglycemic-and-thrombolytic-activities-of-organic-and-aqueous-extracts-of-hopea-odorata-leaves-and-in-silico-pass-prediction-of-its-isolated-compounds
#15
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mohammed Munawar Hossain, Md Imtiazul Kabir, Shabbir Ahmad, Nishan Chakrabarty, Md Atiar Rahman, Md Mominur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Hopea Odorata, locally known as Telsur (Bangladesh), has some traditional uses as folk medicine. This study aims to investigate the antioxidant, antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic and thrombolytic activities of H. odorata leaf extracts as new therapeutic prospects predicting the activity of some of the isolated compounds of this plant. METHODS: Leaves of Hopea odorata was extracted with pure methanol (MEHO), ethanol (EEHO) and water (AEHO). The extract was tested for antioxidant activity by using reducing power and H2O2 scavenging assay...
November 21, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869805/engineered-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestinal-tissues-with-a-functional-enteric-nervous-system
#16
Michael J Workman, Maxime M Mahe, Stephen Trisno, Holly M Poling, Carey L Watson, Nambirajan Sundaram, Ching-Fang Chang, Jacqueline Schiesser, Philippe Aubert, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Mohammad A Mandegar, Bruce R Conklin, Michel Neunlist, Samantha A Brugmann, Michael A Helmrath, James M Wells
The enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract controls many diverse functions, including motility and epithelial permeability. Perturbations in ENS development or function are common, yet there is no human model for studying ENS-intestinal biology and disease. We used a tissue-engineering approach with embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to generate human intestinal tissue containing a functional ENS. We recapitulated normal intestinal ENS development by combining human-PSC-derived neural crest cells (NCCs) and developing human intestinal organoids (HIOs)...
November 21, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865990/exploring-the-link-between-gastric-motility-and-intragastric-drug-distribution-in-man
#17
Jens Van Den Abeele, Joachim Brouwers, Jan Tack, Patrick Augustijns
In drug development, the stomach is often considered to be a simple, one-compartmental organ, a waiting room for transfer of an orally administered dosage form to the duodenum. However, factors such as gastric acidity and hydrodynamics in the gastric environment may influence drug disposition. Although a link between gastrointestinal drug behaviour and gastric motility has often been hypothesized, they have not been simultaneously investigated in humans yet. In this proof-of-concept study, the combination of a well-established intraluminal sampling technique with high-resolution manometric measurements in the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865545/anti-cgrp-antibodies-block-cgrp-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#18
Eric A Kaiser, Brandon J Rea, Adisa Kuburas, Brian R Kovacevich, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Ana Recober, Andrew F Russo
The multifunctional neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have shown that CGRP has roles in intestinal motility, water secretion, and inflammation. Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated CGRP involvement in diarrhea secondary to C. difficile and food allergies. Diarrhea thus provides a convenient bioassay of CGRP activity in the GI system. In this proof of principle study, we report that prophylactic administration of an anti-CGRP antibody is able to block CGRP-induced diarrhea in mice...
November 14, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864598/impact-of-fetal-counseling-on-outcome-of-antenatal-congenital-surgical-anomalies
#19
Shilpa Sharma, Ranjana Bhanot, Dipika Deka, Minu Bajpai, Devendra K Gupta
AIM: To analyze the impact of counseling on antenatal congenital surgical anomalies (ACSA). METHODS: Cases presenting with ACSA for fetal counseling and those presenting in post-natal period following diagnosis of ACSA (PACSA) for surgical opinion were analyzed for spectrum, presentation and outcome. RESULTS: 117 cases including ACSA(68);PACSA(49) were analyzed. Gestational age at diagnosis of ACSA;PACSA was 17-37;17-39 weeks (median 24;32 weeks)...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861762/gut-microbiome-in-children-with-enthesitis-related-arthritis-in-a-developing-country-and-the-effect-of-probiotic-administration
#20
Amita Aggarwal, Aditya N Sarangi, Priyanka Gaur, Anuj Shukla, Rakesh Aggarwal
In Asia, enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) is the most-frequent category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. ERA has a strong association with HLA-B27 and subclinical gut inflammation. In a HLA-B27 transgenic rat model, presence of Bacteroides bacteria in the gut appears to cause spondyloarthropathy (SpA). Thus, we studied gut microbiota in children with ERA. Stool specimens from 33 patients with ERA and 14 age-matched healthy controls were studied; none had any gastrointestinal symptom, or had received a drug known to affect gut motility or microbiota in the preceding 6 weeks...
November 9, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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