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Jinpu Jia, Chunjuan Bi, Junfeng Zhang, Xiaopei Jin, Zhenlou Chen
Dietary consumption of contaminated vegetables may contribute to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in humans; however, this exposure pathway has not been examined thoroughly. This study aims to characterize the concentrations of PAHs in six types of vegetables grown near industrial facilities in Shanghai, China. We analyzed 16 individual PAHs on the US EPA priority list, and the total concentration in vegetables ranged from 65.7 to 458.0 ng g-1 in the following order: leafy vegetables (romaine lettuce, Chinese cabbage and Shanghai green cabbage) > stem vegetables (lettuce) > seed and pod vegetables (broad bean) > rhizome vegetables (daikon)...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shanshan Wang, Fen Jin, Xiaolin Cao, Yong Shao, Jian Wang, Yongxin She, Yan Qi, Chao Zhang, Hui Li, Maojun Jin, Jing Wang, Hua Shao, Lufei Zheng
Flonicamid, a novel selective systemic pesticide, can effectively control a broad range of insect pests. However, the dissipation behaviors and the terminal residues of flonicamid and its metabolites in some crops and soils remain unclear. Herein, an easy, sensitive and reliable method using a modified QuEChERS extraction coupled with LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous analysis of flonicamid and its metabolites in cabbage and soil was developed. Based on this method, the dissipation behaviors of flonicamid and its metabolites as well as their persistence in cabbage and soil during harvest were investigated...
June 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ella Katz, Sophia Nisani, Daniel A Chamovitz
A diet rich in cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, and cabbage has long been considered healthy, and various epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of cruciferous vegetables contributes to a cancer-protecting diet. While these vegetables contain a vast array of phytochemicals, the mechanism by which these vegetables counteract cancer is still largely unresolved. Numerous in situ studies have implicated indole-3-carbinol, a breakdown product of the glucosinolate indole-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, as one of the phytochemicals with anti-cancer properties...
2018: F1000Research
Rieta Gols, Nicole M van Dam, Michael Reichelt, Jonathan Gershenzon, Ciska E Raaijmakers, James M Bullock, Jeffrey A Harvey
Levels of plant secondary metabolites are not static and often change in relation to plant ontogeny. They also respond to abiotic and biotic changes in the environment, e.g., they often increase in response to biotic stress, such as herbivory. In contrast with short-lived annual plant species, especially those with growing periods of less than 2-3 months, investment in defensive compounds of vegetative tissues in biennial and perennial species may also vary over the course of an entire growing season. In garden experiments, we investigated the dynamics of secondary metabolites, i...
2018: Chemoecology
Yuefei Li, Yong Fan, Yang Jiao, Jie Wu, Zhen Zhang, Xiaolei Yu, Ying Ma
The yellow leafy head of Brassica rapa is known to be tasty and nutritional. Therefore, the heading stage of leaf development is critical to realize high yield and economic benefits. A widely planted commercial cultivar of Brassica rapa ("Qiubao", deep yellow leafy head) was used to conduct transcriptome analysis. The results showed that the yellowing of the inner leaf was likely induced by the predominant β-carotene biosynthesis pathway due to the upregulated gene GGPP and PSY, and the downregulated gene CrtL-e, NCED4 and DWARF-27...
June 14, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Zhi-Wei Kang, Fang-Hua Liu, Zhan-Feng Zhang, Hong-Gang Tian, Tong-Xian Liu
In nature, plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms against the attack of pathogens and insect herbivores. Plant volatile-mediated plant-to-plant communication has been assessed in multitrophic systems in different plant species and different pest species. β-ocimene is recognized as an herbivore-induced plant volatile that play an important role in the chemical communication between plants and pests. However, it is still unclear whether β-ocimene can active the defense mechanism of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis against the peach aphid Myzus persicae ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Huan-Yun Yu, Chunying Chang, Fangbai Li, Qi Wang, Manjia Chen, Jie Zhang
Thallium (Tl), a rare metal, is universally present in the environment with high toxicity and accumulation. Thallium's behavior and fate require further study, especially in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), where severe Tl pollution incidents have occurred. One hundred two pairs of soil and flowering cabbage samples and 91 pairs of soil and lettuce samples were collected from typical farmland protection areas and vegetable bases across the PRD, South China. The contamination levels and spatial distributions of soil and vegetable (flowering cabbages and lettuces) Tl across the PRD were investigated...
June 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Qingyi Lin, Lin Zhang, Muhammad Riaz, Mengyang Zhang, Hao Xia, Bo Lv, Cuncang Jiang
Biochar has a significant effect on alleviating acid soil aluminum (Al) toxicity and promoting plant growth. The potential effects of aged biochar (long-term applied biochar in soil) on soil amendment have attracted increasing attention. Here, the effects of biochar and aged biochar were evaluated through a pot experiment. The seedlings of cabbage were grown in red soil for 45 days with the following four biochar treatments: CK (0% biochar), PB (2% primary biochar), WB (2% water washed biochar) and AB (2% acidulated biochar) to investigate the potential effect of biochar and aged biochar on mitigating red soil aluminum toxicity and improving cabbage growth...
June 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yang Farina, Nusrat Munawar, Md Pauzi Abdullah, Mohammad Yaqoob, Abdul Nabi
Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), and pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) residues in the leafy vegetables were analyzed together with the soil samples using gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Edible tissues of vegetables showed detectable residues of these compounds indicating the influence of the conventional farms and nearby organic farms. In the vegetables, the OCPs concentrations were recorded as nd-133.3 ng/g, OPPs as nd-200 ng/g, and PYRs as nd-33...
June 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yaping Liu, Aixia Xu, Fenghao Liang, Xueqin Yao, Yang Wang, Xia Liu, Yan Zhang, Jazira Dalelhan, Bingbing Zhang, Mengfan Qin, Zhen Huang, Lei Shaolin
Clubroot is an economically important disease affecting plants in the family Cruciferae worldwide. In this study, a collection of 50 Cruciferae accessions was screened using Plasmodiophora brassicae pathotype 4 in China. Eight of these demonstrated resistance, including three Chinese cabbages, two cabbages, one radish, one kale, and one Brassica juncea . The three clubroot-resistant Chinese cabbages (1003, 1007 and 1008) were then used to transfer the clubroot resistance genes to B. napus by distant hybridization combined with embryo rescue...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Tami Coursey, Milica Milutinovic, Elizabeth Regedanz, Jelena Brkljacic, David M Bisaro
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) impart information that regulates chromatin structure and activity. Their effects are mediated by histone reader proteins that bind specific PTMs to modify chromatin and/or recruit appropriate effectors to alter the chromatin landscape. Despite their crucial juxtaposition between information and functional outcome, relatively few plant histone readers have been identified, and nothing is known about their impact on viral chromatin and pathogenesis. We used the geminivirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) as a model to functionally characterize two recently identified reader proteins, EMSY-LIKE 1 and 3 (EML1 and EML3), which contain Tudor-like Agenet domains predictive of histone PTM binding function...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
Seon-Hee Kim, Myong-Suk Cho, Pan Li, Seung-Chul Kim
Alternating glacial and interglacial periods during the Quaternary have dramatically affected the distribution and population genetic structure of plant and animal species throughout the northern hemisphere. Surprisingly, little is known about the post-glacial recolonization history of wetland herbaceous perennials that are widely distributed in the understory of deciduous or mixed deciduous-evergreen forests in eastern North America. In this study, we investigated infraspecific variation among 32 populations of skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus , to test the hypothesis that the extant species diversity of skunk cabbage is the result of a post-glacial range expansion from southern refugia during the Quaternary Ice Age...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wenxing Pang, Pengyu Fu, Xiaonan Li, Zongxiang Zhan, Sha Yu, Zhongyun Piao
The rapid spread of clubroot disease, which is caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae , threatens Brassicaceae crop production worldwide. Breeding plants that have broad-spectrum disease resistance is one of the best ways to prevent clubroot. In the present study, eight Chinese cabbage germplasms were screened using published clubroot-resistant (CR) loci-/gene-linked markers. A CR gene Crr3 potential carrier "85-74" was detected which linked to marker BRSTS61; however, "85-74" shows different responses to local pathogens "LAB-19," "LNND-2," and "LAB-10" from "CR-73" which harbors Crr3...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Brett M Saremba, Susan J Murch, Fiona J M Tymm, Mark R Rheault
Cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) larvae are generalist herbivores that feed on numerous cultivated plants and weeds including crucifers, other vegetables, flowers, and field crops. Consuming plant material from a wide range of plant species exposes these larvae to a considerable variety of plant secondary metabolites involved in chemical defense against herbivory. The ability of the cabbage looper larvae to detoxify plant secondary metabolites, such as nicotine, has been attributed to the rapid induction of excretion via the Malpighian tubules...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Khalid Abdallah Hussein, Jin Ho Joo
Salinity stress is one of an important environmental problem that adversely affects crop production by reducing the plant growth. The impacts of rhizobacterial strains to alleviate the salinity stress on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Raphanus sativus seeds were assessed using different concentrations of NaCl. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains were also examined to improve the early germination of Chinese cabbage seeds under normal conditions. Lactobacillus sp. and P. putida inoculation showed higher radicle length compared to non-inoculated radish ( Raphanus sativus ) seeds...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Abdul Qayyum, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Ayesha Iftikhar, Faisal Hafeez, Remzi Atlihan
Demographic parameters of the turnip aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach (Hemiptera: Aphididae), which is a serious pest of Brassica crops worldwide, were evaluated on five major Brassica vegetables (three varieties of Brassica oleraceae; kohlrabi, cabbage and ornamental cabbage, and two subspecies of Brassica rapa; Chinese cabbage and bak choi). The study was carried out under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 5% RH and 16:8 (L:D) h. Preadult developmental time, survival rate, female longevity, reproduction, and life table parameters were evaluated according to the age-stage specific life table method...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Maria Maleva, Elena Garmash, Nadezhda Chukina, Przemysław Malec, Andrzej Waloszek, Kazimierz Strzałka
Present study deals with the effect of 24 h pre-incubation with exogenous anthocyanins (ANTH), extracted from red cabbage leaves, on key metabolic processes (photosynthesis and respiration) and pro-/antioxidant balance in the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa (Planch.) Casp., Hydrocharitaceae family, treated with Cd and Mn (in sulfate form) at a concentration of 100 μmol. After five days of metal treatments, Cd was accumulated and the damage caused to metabolic processes was stronger than Mn. In Cd-treated leaves, the protein level, chlorophyll concentration and maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II decreased twofold, and net-photosynthesis was significantly inhibited, whereas lipid peroxidation and H2 O2 production increased...
May 24, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Wei Lin, Jun Jun Ding, Yu Zhong Li, Chun Ying Xu, Qiao Zhen Li, Qian Zheng, Shan Zhuang
To clarify the microbial pathway of the N2 O production and consumption under different fertilizers and provide theoretical basis for the reduction of N2 O emission and rational management of fertilization in vegetable soils, we examined dynamics of N2 O flux and isotope signatures under different fertilizer treatments in the vegetable soils of Beijing, by setting up four treatments (organic-acetylene, organic-nonacetylene, inorganic-acetylene, inorganic-nonacetylene) and using the stable isotope technique of natural N2 O abundance...
May 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Penelope R Whitehorn, George Norville, Andre Gilburn, Dave Goulson
Populations of farmland butterflies have been suffering from substantial population declines in recent decades. These declines have been correlated with neonicotinoid usage both in Europe and North America but experimental evidence linking these correlations is lacking. The potential for non-target butterflies to be exposed to trace levels of neonicotinoids is high, due to the widespread contamination of agricultural soils and wild plants in field margins. Here we provide experimental evidence that field realistic, sub-lethal exposure to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid negatively impacts the development of the common farmland butterfly Pieris brassicae ...
2018: PeerJ
Haiwei Ren, Cong Wang, Wenguang Fan, Bingyun Zhang, Zhizhong Li, Dong Li
A mixture of air-dried corn stover and cabbage waste was ensiled to preserve lignocellulosic biomass for use as biofuel. Furthermore, the effects of different fresh mass fractions (0.3 and 0.6%) of formic or acetic acid on the mixed silage quality were evaluated to guarantee its quality. The application of formic or acetic acid prior to mixing the silage led to higher water-soluble carbohydrate fractions than the negative control, indicating that both acids contributed to preservation of water-soluble carbohydrates during storage for 170 days...
March 2018: Food Technology and Biotechnology
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