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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919652/sequencing-of-individual-chromosomes-of-plant-pathogenic-fusarium-oxysporum
#1
Takeshi Kashiwa, Toshinori Kozaki, Kazuo Ishii, B Gillian Turgeon, Tohru Teraoka, Ken Komatsu, Tsutomu Arie
A small chromosome in reference isolate 4287 of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) has been designated as a 'pathogenicity chromosome' because it carries several pathogenicity related genes such as the Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes. Sequence assembly of small chromosomes in other isolates, based on a reference genome template, is difficult because of karyotype variation among isolates and a high number of sequences associated with transposable elements. These factors often result in misassembly of sequences, making it unclear whether other isolates possess the same pathogenicity chromosome harboring SIX genes as in the reference isolate...
December 2, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909970/over-expression-of-mir158-causes-pollen-abortion-in-brassica-campestris-ssp-chinensis
#2
Zhiming Ma, Jianxia Jiang, Ziwei Hu, Tianqi Lyu, Yang Yang, Jingjing Jiang, Jiashu Cao
We identified and cloned the two precursors of miR158 and its target gene in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, which both had high relative expression in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility, which was caused by the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage. These results first suggest the role of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in many important growth and development processes both in plants and animals by regulating the expression of their target genes via mRNA cleavage or translational repression...
December 1, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904397/antibacterial-activity-of-indian-borage-plectranthus-amboinicus-benth-leaf-extracts-in-food-systems-and%C3%A2-against-natural-microflora-in-chicken-meat
#3
Sandeep Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Singh Negi
The ability of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) to prevent spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya) and natural microflora of chicken meat was evaluated. These extracts were able to reduce the bacterial counts in all food systems; however, the effective concentration varied with the complexity of the system (cabbage<papaya<chicken). A probable mode of action of extracts was investigated by analyzing the changes they cause in bacterial cell wall and leakage of nucleic acid from bacterial cells...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901190/feeding-preference-of-plutella-xylostella-for-leaves-treated-with-plant-extracts
#4
Irys F S Couto, Mateus L Fuchs, Fabrício F Pereira, Munir Mauad, Silvana P Q Scalon, Daiane M Dresch, Rosilda M Mussury
Plutella xylostella L. is one of the main agents to cause damages to plants of Brassica genus, provoking negative impacts in cultures. The use of botanical extracts in plants protection has been related in literature, however, their use in the species analyzed in this study is not yet reported. We assessed the effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of the species: Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Pink Pepper), Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum), Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.-Hil.) Benth. & Hook. (Pindaúva do campo) and Trichilia silvatica C...
2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896366/allelism-analysis-of-brrfp-locus-in-different-restorer-lines-and-map-based-cloning-of-a-fertility-restorer-gene-brrfp1-for-pol-cms-in-chinese-cabbage-brassica-rapa-l
#5
Huamin Zhang, Junqing Wu, Zihui Dai, Meiling Qin, Lingyu Hao, Yanjing Ren, Qingfei Li, Lugang Zhang
In Chinese cabbage, there are two Rf loci for pol CMS and one of them was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing a potential candidate gene encoding PPR protein. In Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), polima cytoplasmic male sterility (pol CMS) is an important CMS type and is widely used for hybrid breeding. By extensive test crossing in Chinese cabbage, four restorer lines (92s105, 01s325, 00s109, and 88s148) for pol CMS were screened. By analyzing the allelism of the four restorer lines, it was found that 92s105, 01s325, and 00s109 had the same "restorers of fertility" (Rf) locus (designated as BrRfp1), but 88s148 had a different Rf locus (designated as BrRfp2)...
November 28, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889168/biofilm-formation-enhances-helicobacter-pylori-survivability-in-vegetables
#6
Chow Goon Ng, Mun Fai Loke, Khean Lee Goh, Jamuna Vadivelu, Bow Ho
To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU)...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864328/distribution-of-glycosylinositol-phosphoceramide-specific-phospholipase-d-activity-in-plants
#7
Takashi Kida, Aoi Itoh, Akari Kimura, Hisatsugu Matsuoka, Hiroyuki Imai, Kentaro Kogure, Akira Tokumura, Tamotsu Tanaka
Previously, we detected an unknown sphingophospholipid in cabbage leaves and identified it as phytoceramide-1-phosphate (PC1P). We also found an enzyme activity that produces PC1P by glycosylinositol phosphoceramide (GIPC)-specific hydrolysis in cabbage leaves. To characterize the GIPC-specific phospholipase D (GIPC-PLD) activity, we investigated distributions of GIPC-PLD activity in 25 tissues of 10 plants. In most plants, the GIPC-PLD activity was the highest in roots. Young leaves of cabbage and Welsh onion had higher activities than corresponding aged outer leaves...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842814/development-of-a-colorimetric-ph-indicator-based-on-bacterial-cellulose-nanofibers-and-red-cabbage-brassica-oleraceae-extract
#8
Simin Pourjavaher, Hadi Almasi, Saeed Meshkini, Sajad Pirsa, Ehsan Parandi
This work aimed to develop and characterize a smart label for pH monitoring based on bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers doped with anthocyanins extracted from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The relationship between the concentration of anthocyanins (32 and 193mgL(-1)) and the morphological properties and color response efficiency of pH indicator labels was investigated. The FT-IR results reflected that some new interactions have occurred between BC membrane and anthocyanins. The XRD analyses showed a decrease in diffraction intensities of BC by addition of concentrated form of anthocyanins...
January 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842727/minimization-of-diauxic-growth-lag-phase-for-high-efficiency-biogas-production
#9
Min Jee Kim, Sang Hun Kim
The objective of this study was to develop a minimization method of a diauxic growth lag-phase for the biogas production from agricultural by-products (ABPs). Specifically, the effects of proximate composition on the biogas production and degradation rates of the ABPs were investigated, and a new method based on proximate composition combinations was developed to minimize the diauxic growth lag-phase. Experiments were performed using biogas potential tests at a substrate loading of 2.5 g VS/L and feed to microorganism ratio (F/M) of 0...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836749/enhanced-chemoprevention-by-the-combined-treatment-of-pterostilbene-and-lupeol-in-b-a-p-induced-mouse-skin-tumorigenesis
#10
Payal Singh, Deepika Arora, Yogeshwer Shukla
The present study is aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the combination of two phytochemicals; pterostilbeneand lupeol (generally obtained from blue berries, grapes, white cabbage, green pepper, olive and mangoes) on mouse skin tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that the concomitant topical treatment of selected phytochemicals would lead to improved impediment of skin cancer. Swiss albino mice (n = 25) received a topical dose of Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, 5 μg/animal) with pre/post application of pterostilbene (16 μM/0...
November 8, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829691/simulating-the-transfer-of-strontium-90-from-soil-to-leafy-vegetables-by-using-strontium-88
#11
Ding Kuke, Liu Shujuan, He Yingxue, Yan Dong, Zhang Fengshou, Wang Shuifeng, Guo Jinghua, Zhang Wei, Wang Xin, Jiang Xiaoyan
The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 ((88)Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 ((90)Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water containing known quantities of strontium...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818863/agrobacterium-mediated-transient-expression-via-root-absorption-in-flowering-chinese-cabbage
#12
Lihua Zhong, Yuepeng Zhang, Houcheng Liu, Guangwen Sun, Riyuan Chen, Shiwei Song
BACKGROUND: Because most transient transformation techniques are inadequate for functional genomics research in roots, we aimed to develop a simple and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation system that utilized root absorption for research in flowering Chinese cabbage. RESULTS: Both semi-quantitative and fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that the target gene BcAMT1;3 was more highly expressed in plants that were infected with the transformed Agrobacterium strain (EHA105-p35S-BcAMT1;3) than in control plants that were infected with the control strain (EHA105-p35S)...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812443/environmental-surveillance-of-commonly-grown-vegetables-for-investigating-potential-lead-and-chromium-contamination-intensification-in-bangladesh
#13
A M M Maruf Hossain, M Shahidul Islam, M Mustafa Mamun, H M Al-Jonaed, M Imran, M Hasibur Rahman, M Azizul Islam Kazi, Syed Fazle Elahi
With regard to previously reported Lead (Pb) and Chromium (Cr) contamination in egg, a semi-quantitative assessment of the general environment of Bangladesh is carried out through nation-wide sampling of commonly grown and consumed vegetables. Five vegetables, namely, White Potato (Solanum tuberosum), Green Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata var. alba L.), Red Spinach (Amaranthus dubius), White Radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus), and Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were selected for sampling from all 64 Districts of the country as per their availability during the sampling season...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810537/eco-toxicological-risk-and-impact-of-pesticides-on-important-parasitoids-of-cabbage-butterflies-in-cruciferous-ecosystem
#14
D M Firake, D P Thubru, G T Behere
Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides was estimated on three important parasitoids of butterflies viz., Hyposoter ebeninus, Cotesia glomerata and Pteromalus puparum. Four commonly used pesticides were evaluated using standard protocol (of IOBC/WPRS-group). In laboratory tests, the survival of the female wasps decreased significantly on fresh contact and ingestion of deltamethrin, spinosad and azadirachtin; whereas Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki (Btk) was found harmless pesticide. Under semi-field conditions, parasitoid mortality decreased significantly on fresh contact with the pesticides...
October 27, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804972/turmeric-powder-and-its-derivatives-from-curcuma-longa-rhizomes-insecticidal-effects-on-cabbage-looper-and-the-role-of-synergists
#15
Wagner de Souza Tavares, Yasmin Akhtar, Gabriel Luiz Padoan Gonçalves, José Cola Zanuncio, Murray B Isman
Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800143/antimicrobial-activity-of-chitosan-films-with-essential-oils-against-listeria-monocytogenes-on-cabbage
#16
Gordana D Jovanovic, Anita S Klaus, Miomir P Niksic
BACKGROUND: The highest incidence of listeriosis, due to consumption of ready-to-eat foods and fresh, shredded, minimally processed vegetables, occurs among pregnant women and the elderly. In order to reduce the prevalence of listeriosis among consumers, better protective measures are recommended. Chitosan films, with or without added essential oils, represent a modern, safe method of preserving the quality of such vegetables and significantly reducing the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in these foods...
September 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796720/a-chinese-cabbage-brassica-campetris-subsp-chinensis-%C3%AF-type-glutathione-s-transferase-stimulates-arabidopsis-development-and-primes-against-abiotic-and-biotic-stress
#17
Chih-Wei Kao, Madhunita Bakshi, Irena Sherameti, Sheqin Dong, Michael Reichelt, Ralf Oelmüller, Kai-Wun Yeh
The beneficial root-colonizing fungus Piriformospora indica stimulates root development of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. Chinensis) and this is accompanied by the up-regulation of a τ-class glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase gene (BcGSTU) (Lee et al. 2011) in the roots. BcGSTU expression is further promoted by osmotic (salt and PEG) and heat stress. Ectopic expression of BcGSTU in Arabidopsis under the control of the 35S promoter results in the promotion of root and shoot growth as well as better performance of the plants under abiotic (150 mM NaCl, PEG, 42 °C) and biotic (Alternaria brassicae infection) stresses...
October 31, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795618/effects-of-population-related-variation-in-plant-primary-and-secondary-metabolites-on-aboveground-and-belowground-multitrophic-interactions
#18
Moniek van Geem, Rieta Gols, Ciska E Raaijmakers, Jeffrey A Harvey
Insects feeding on aboveground and belowground tissues can influence each other through their shared plant and this is often mediated by changes in plant chemistry. We examined the effects of belowground root fly (Delia radicum) herbivory on the performance of an aboveground herbivore (Plutella xylostella) and its endoparasitoid wasp (Cotesia vestalis). Insects were reared on three populations of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) plants, exhibiting qualitative and quantitative differences in root and shoot defense chemistry, that had or had not been exposed to root herbivory...
2016: Chemoecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783045/exogenous-methyl-jasmonate-and-salicylic-acid-induce-subspecies-specific-patterns-of-glucosinolate-accumulation-and-gene-expression-in-brassica-oleracea-l
#19
Go-Eun Yi, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Kiwoung Yang, Jong-In Park, Byung Ho Hwang, Ill-Sup Nou
Glucosinolates have anti-carcinogenic properties. In the recent decades, the genetics of glucosinolate biosynthesis has been widely studied, however, the expression of specific genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis under exogenous phytohormone treatment has not been explored at the subspecies level in Brassica oleracea. Such data are vital for strategies aimed at selective exploitation of glucosinolate profiles. This study quantified the expression of 38 glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes in three B...
October 24, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771564/human-exposure-to-environmental-pollutants-after-a-tire-landfill-fire-in-spain-health-risks
#20
Martí Nadal, Joaquim Rovira, Jordi Díaz-Ferrero, Marta Schuhmacher, José L Domingo
In May 2016, a fire occurred in one of the largest landfills in Europe (Seseña, Toledo, Spain), where 70,000-90,000tons of tires had been illegally accumulated for >15years. Because of the proximity of population nuclei and the duration of the episode (>20days), we conducted a preliminary human health risk assessment study just after the tire fire. Samples of air and soil were collected in 3 areas surrounding the landfill (El Quiñón, at only 500m, and Seseña Nuevo and Seseña Viejo, both at 4km), as well as in background sites...
October 20, 2016: Environment International
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