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Costanza Jucker, Daniela Erba, Maria Giovanna Leonardi, Daniela Lupi, Sara Savoldelli
Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) is able to consume a wide range of organic matter and is of particular interest for waste management. The nutritional value of preimaginal stages, in particular the protein content, makes this species a valid candidate for use as feed for other organisms. Vegetables and fruits are promising rearing substrates for insects produced for this purpose according to the EU regulation. In order to examine the effects of diets on insect performance and chemical composition, larvae were reared on the following substrates: 1) fruit (apple, pear, and orange); 2) vegetable (lettuce, green beans, and cabbage); and 3) mixed fruits and vegetables...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Entomology
M Dastranj, E Borzoui, A R Bandani, O L Franco
The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and small white cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae) are the two main serious pests of cruciferous crops (Brassicaceae) that have developed resistance to chemical control methods. In order to avoid such resistance and also the adverse effects of chemical pesticides on the environment, alternative methods have usually been suggested, including the use of plant enzyme inhibitors. Here, the inhibitory effects of proteinaceous inhibitors extracted from wheat, canola, sesame, bean and triticale were evaluated against the digestive α-amylases, larval growth, development and nutritional indecs of the diamondback moth and small white cabbage butterfly...
October 17, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Eun Ji Jeong, Dae Won Moon, Joon Suk Oh, Jin Seok Moon, Hyunbin Seong, Kwang Yup Kim, Nam Soo Han
Leuconostoc mesenteroides is used as a starter to produce high quality kimchi product. In this study, an efficient and economical cabbage juice medium (CJM) was developed by process optimization of cabbage extraction and pasteurization and by compositional supplementation of various lacking nutrients. The pasteurized cabbage juice was determined to be a good medium candidate to cultivate L. mesenteroides showing maximal cell numbers (9.85 × 10⁸ CFU/ml) after 24h. Addition of sucrose and yeast extract with soy peptone resulted in increment of bacterial cell counts in CJM showing supplementing effect of lacking nutrients...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ajay Aurora, Anisha Seth, Neeraj Sanduja
Large macular holes have poor surgical outcomes with conventional vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling surgery, but improved anatomical closure rates have been seen with an inverted ILM flap technique. Many studies have been reported with modifications in the original inverted ILM technique that help in better retention of the flap over the macular hole. The authors describe a new technique of inverted ILM flap in a case of chronic, large, full-thickness macular holes, in which multiple ILM flaps were inverted over each other and the hole-like cabbage leaves...
October 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Hee Min Lee, Ji-Hyun Lee, Sung Hyun Kim, So-Ra Yoon, Jae Yong Lee, Ji-Hyoung Ha
Recently, cabbage Kimchi have occasionally been associated with the food-borne diseases of enteric viruses such as human norovirus (HuNoV). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between microbial/physicochemical properties and persistence of human norovirus in experimentally contaminated cabbage Kimchi fermented and stored at 4 °C or 10 °C for 28 days. Changes in organic acid content, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acidity, pH, and salinity were analyzed. The recovery of structurally intact HuNoV was examined for up to 28 days post-inoculation, using a NoV GII...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Adedayo O Mofikoya, Tae Ho Kim, Ahmed M Abd El-Raheem, James D Blande, Minna Kivimäenpää, Jarmo K Holopainen
Plant volatiles mediate a range of interactions across and within trophic levels, including plant-to-plant interactions. Volatiles emitted by a plant may trigger physiological responses in neighbouring plants or adhere to their surfaces, which may in turn affect the neighbouring plant's responses to herbivory. These volatiles are subject to chemical reactions during transport in air currents, especially in a polluted atmosphere. We conducted a field experiment to test for the adsorption of dispenser-released myrcene on the surfaces of cabbage plants, and the effects of distance from the dispenser and elevated ozone levels (1...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rongting Ji, Ju Min, Yuan Wang, Hu Cheng, Hailin Zhang, Weiming Shi
Efficient and precise yield prediction is critical to optimize cabbage yields and guide fertilizer application. A two-year field experiment was conducted to establish a yield prediction model for cabbage by using the Greenseeker hand-held optical sensor. Two cabbage cultivars (Jianbao and Pingbao) were used and Jianbao cultivar was grown for 2 consecutive seasons but Pingbao was only grown in the second season. Four chemical nitrogen application rates were implemented: 0, 80, 140, and 200 kg·N·ha(-1). Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected 20, 50, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, and 140 days after transplanting (DAT)...
October 8, 2017: Sensors
Shi-Kai Fan, Jun Zhu, Wen-Hao Tian, Mei-Yan Guan, Xian-Zhi Fang, Chong-Wei Jin
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in soil is an increasingly serious problem. Management of plant nutrients has been proposed as a potentially promising strategy for minimizing Cd accumulation in crops grown in contaminated soil. This study investigated the effects of split applications of nitrogen (N) fertilizers on the Cd concentration in Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil. Compared with single applications, split applications of ammonium or urea resulted in significantly lower Cd concentrations, and higher biomass production and antioxidant-associated nutritional quality in the edible plant parts...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Kjersti Selstad Utaaker, Anil Kumar, Himanshu Joshi, Suman Chaudhary, Lucy J Robertson
Fresh produce has been recognized as a vehicle of infection for protozoan parasites, particularly Cryptosporidium, and, to a lesser extent, Giardia. For both parasites, outbreaks associated with fresh produce have been documented. Although documented outbreaks tend to be from industrialized countries, contamination of fresh produce with these parasites is a global issue. In developing countries, infections with these parasites are often endemic in the community, and basic infrastructure and hygiene measures may be inadequate, thus the likelihood of contamination of fresh produce with these parasites may be higher...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Shimat V Joseph, Larry D Godfrey, Christopher Bettiga
Larval stages of cabbage maggot, Delia radicum (L.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), attack the roots of Brassica crops and cause severe economic damage. In the Salinas Valley of California, Brassica crops are often planted after successive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crops. The interval between postharvest soil incorporation of lettuce residue and the subsequent Brassica crop can be as short as 7 d, which could influence D. radicum infestation on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck). In 2014 and 2015, the effect of intervals between crops (IBC) on D...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yoon-Mi Lee, Young Yoon, Haelim Yoon, Hyun-Min Park, Sooji Song, Kyung-Jin Yeum
Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obesity, due to its associated chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. Thus, targeting inflammation is an attractive strategy to counter the burden of obesity-induced health problems. Recently, food-derived bioactive compounds have been spotlighted as a regulator against various chronic diseases due to their low toxicity, as opposed to drugs that induce severe side effects. Here we describe the beneficial effects of dietary anthocyanins on obesity-induced metabolic disorders and inflammation...
October 1, 2017: Nutrients
Roger Figueroa, Diana Caicedo, Ghisliane Echeverry, Miguel Peña, Fabián Méndez
INTRODUCTION: Global increase in food and water pollution is associated with health risk, which depends on the concentration, the dose, and the exposure time. This has raised concerns about the possible long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium and mercury. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship among socioeconomic status, eating patterns, and exposure to heavy metals among a population of women in Cali, Colombia...
September 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Mengmeng Duan, Jinglei Wang, Xiaohui Zhang, Haohui Yang, Haiping Wang, Yang Qiu, Jiangping Song, Yangdong Guo, Xixiang Li
Radish (Raphanus sativus) is an important cruciferous root crop with a close relationship to Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa). RT-qPCR is used extensively to evaluate the expression levels of target genes, and accurate measurement of target gene expression with this method is determined by the valid reference genes used for data nomalization in different experimental conditions. Screening for appropriate reference genes with stable expression based on RT-qPCR data is important for gene expression and functional analysis research in radish and its relatives...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jie Ren, Fenghua Wang, Yunbo Zhai, Yun Zhu, Chuan Peng, Tengfei Wang, Caiting Li, Guangming Zeng
To investigate hydrochar as a soil amendment for the immobilization of Cd, the characteristics of hydrochars (HCs) under three temperatures and residence times, were studied, with a particular interest in soil properties, as well as the speciation, availability and plant uptake of Cd. HCs were obtained by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) reaction of sewage sludge (SS). Based on the study of HC properties, we found that HCs present weak acidity with relatively high ash content and low electrical conductivity (EC) values...
September 22, 2017: Chemosphere
Johann M R Antoine, Leslie A Hoo Fung, Charles N Grant
Thirteen Jamaican-grown food crops - ackee (Blighia sapida), banana (Musa acuminate), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), cassava (Manihot esculenta), coco (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and turnip (Brassica rapa) - were analysed for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis...
2017: Toxicology Reports
Lewis A Mtashobya
Assessment of levels of pesticide residues in vegetables was carried out in some villages in the Western Usambara and Uluguru Mountains of Tanzania where varieties of vegetables are grown. Tomatoes and cabbages were the most popular enterprise grown all year round and therefore were selected as the model crops for this study. Analysis of the cleaned sample extracts on a gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and confirmation on the Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed dominance of organochlorine pesticides...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yirong Guo, Rui Liu, Ying Liu, Dandan Xiang, Yihua Liu, Wenjun Gui, Mingyu Li, Guonian Zhu
The wide application of an organophosphate pesticide triazophos raises concern on the environmental pollution and the potential risk to human health. Thus, it is crucial to regularly monitor triazophos residue in the environment and agro-products. Herein we described a non-competitive immunoassay for trace detection of triazophos using a direct surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. Two anti-triazophos monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were immobilized on the sensor chip and characterized by SPR-based kinetic analysis...
September 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Müge Isleten Hosoglu
In this study, aroma compounds produced by three marine microalgae species (Crypthecodinium cohnii, Schizochytrium limacinum and Tetraselmis chuii) and two fresh water microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella protothecoides) important for nutritional applications were identified by means of solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GCO) and a sensory panel. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the instrumental and sensory analysis data to visualize differences between the samples in terms of descriptive attributes and volatile compounds...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Padma Priya Ravi, Jonas Lindner, Hans Oechsner, Andreas Lemmer
Vegetable waste is one of the major organic residues available for sustainable bioenergy production. The aim of this work is to study the influence of pH-value on process stability, hydrolysis, degradation degree and methane production in two-stage anaerobic system. A mixture of vegetable wastes with carrot mousse, carrots, celery, cabbage and potatoes was treated in two-stage system at target pH-values 5.5 and 6 in acidification reactor (AR). At pH 6, high concentrations of organic acids were recorded whereas high amount of hydrolysate was produced at pH 5...
September 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Boh Boi Wong, Yiong Huak Chan, Mabel Qi He Leow, Yi Lu, Yap Seng Chong, Serena Siew Lin Koh, Hong-Gu He
BACKGROUND: The effects of cold cabbage leaves and cold gel packs on breast engorgement management have been inconclusive. No studies have compared the effects of these methods on breast engorgement using a rigorous design. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of cold cabbage leaves and cold gel packs application on pain, hardness, and temperature due to breast engorgement, the duration of breastfeeding and satisfaction. DESIGN: A randomised controlled three-group pre-test and repeated post-test study...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
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