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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231170/fermentation-assisted-extraction-of-isothiocyanates-from-brassica-vegetable-using-box-behnken-experimental-design
#1
Amit K Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam
Recent studies showed that Brassica vegetables are rich in numerous health-promoting compounds such as carotenoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and glucosinolates (GLS), as well as isothiocyanates (ITCs) and are involved in health promotion upon consumption. ITCs are breakdown products of GLS, and typically used in the food industry as a food preservative and colouring agent. They are also used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their several pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, and chemoprotective effects, etc...
November 4, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221925/genetic-diversity-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-different-leafy-green-production-systems
#2
Mosimanegape Jongman, Lise Korsten
Foodborne disease outbreaks linked to contaminated irrigation water and fresh produce are a public health concern. The presence of Escherichia coli isolates from irrigation water and leafy green vegetables in different food production systems (large commercial farms, small-scale farms, and homestead gardens) was investigated. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and virulence in these isolates was further assessed, and links between water source and irrigated crops were identified using antimicrobial and genotypic analyses...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221891/microbial-quality-safety-and-pathogen-detection-by-using-quantitative-pcr-of-raw-salad-vegetables-sold-in-dhanbad-city-india
#3
Sujeet K Mritunjay, Vipin Kumar
Consumption of ready-to-eat fresh vegetables has increased worldwide, with a consequent increase in outbreaks caused by foodborne pathogens. In the Indian subcontinent, raw fresh vegetables are usually consumed without washing or other decontamination procedures, thereby leading to new food safety threats. In this study, the microbiological quality and pathogenic profile of raw salad vegetables was evaluated through standard protocols. In total, 480 samples (60 each of eight different salad vegetables) of cucumber, tomato, carrot, coriander, cabbage, beetroot, radish, and spinach were collected from different locations in Dhanbad, a city famous for its coal fields and often called the "Coal Capital of India...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197590/rats-urinary-metabolomes-reveal-the-potential-roles-of-functional-foods-and-exercise-in-obesity-management
#4
Mohamed A Farag, N M Ammar, T E Kholeif, N S Metwally, N M El-Sheikh, Ludger A Wessjohann, A Z Abdel-Hamid
The complexity of the metabolic changes in obese individuals still presents a challenge for the understanding of obesity-related metabolic disruptions and for obesity management. In this study, a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics approach targeting urine metabolism has been applied to assess the potential roles of functional foods and exercise for obesity management in rats. Male albino rats diagnosed as obese via histopathology and biochemical assays were administered functional foods in common use for obesity management including pomegranate, grapefruit, and red cabbage juice extracts in parallel with swimming exercise...
February 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181580/penetration-enhancement-underlies-synergy-of-plant-essential-oil-terpenoids-as-insecticides-in-the-cabbage-looper-trichoplusia-ni
#5
Jun-Hyung Tak, Murray B Isman
Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176652/mechanisms-for-inhibition-of-colon-cancer-cells-by-sulforaphane-through-epigenetic-modulation-of-microrna-21-and-human-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-htert-down-regulation
#6
Samantha L Martin, Rishabh Kala, Trygve O Tollefsbol
Epigenetic modulations such as histone modifications are becoming increasingly valued for their ability to modify genes without altering the DNA sequence. Many bioactive compounds have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles in various forms of 6 cancers. Of the many dietary phytochemicals, sulforaphane (SFN), found in cruciferous vegetables such as kale, cabbage and broccoli sprouts, has been present as one of the most potent (histone deacetylase) HDAC inhibitors to date. Recently, it has been 9 identified that HDAC inhibitors may play a vital role in regulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in many human cancers...
February 5, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169368/genome-wide-analysis-of-auxin-transport-genes-identifies-the-hormone-responsive-patterns-associated-with-leafy-head-formation-in-chinese-cabbage
#7
Li-Wei Gao, Shan-Wu Lyu, Jun Tang, Dao-Yun Zhou, Guusje Bonnema, Dong Xiao, Xi-Lin Hou, Chang-Wei Zhang
Auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), pin-formed (PIN) and ATP binding cassette subfamily B (ABCB/MDR/PGP) are three families of auxin transport genes. The development-related functions of the influx and efflux carriers have been well studied and characterized in model plants. However, there is scant information regarding the functions of auxin genes in Chinese cabbage and the responses of exogenous polar auxin transport inhibitors (PATIs). We conducted a whole-genome annotation and a bioinformatics analysis of BrAUX/LAX, BrPIN, and BrPGP genes in Chinese cabbage...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164997/genome-wide-indel-ssr-scanning-reveals-significant-loci-associated-with-excellent-agronomic-traits-of-a-cabbage-brassica-oleracea-elite-parental-line-01-20
#8
Honghao Lv, Qingbiao Wang, Fengqing Han, Xing Liu, Zhiyuan Fang, Limei Yang, Mu Zhuang, Yumei Liu, Zhansheng Li, Yangyong Zhang
Elite parental lines are of great significance to crop breeding. To discover unique genomic loci associated with excellent economic traits in the elite cabbage inbred-line '01-20', we performed comparisons of phenotypes as well as whole-genome insertion-deletion/simple sequence repeat loci between '01-20' and each of its five sister lines. '01-20' has a range of excellent agronomic traits, including early-maturing, and improvements in plant type and leaf colour. Eight unique loci were discovered for '01-20' and '01-07-258', another elite line similar to '01-20' at the whole-genome level...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159293/determination-of-pesticide-residues-in-leafy-vegetables-at-parts-per-billion-levels-by-a-chemometric-study-using-gc-ecd-in-cameron-highlands-malaysia
#9
Yang Farina, Md Pauzi Abdullah, Nusrat Bibi, Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Mohd Khalik
A simple and sensitive analytical method has been developed employing gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and validated for screening and quantification of 15 pesticide residues at trace levels in cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, lettuce, celery, spinach, and mustard. The method consists of two steps, first, to determine the significance of each factor by Pareto chart followed by optimization of these significant factors using central composite design (CCD). Minitab statistical software was used for these multivariate experiments for the generation of 2(4-1) design and CCD matrices...
June 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154515/metabolic-pathways-associated-with-kimchi-a-traditional-korean-food-based-on-in-silico-modeling-of-published-data
#10
Ga Hee Shin, Byeong-Chul Kang, Dai Ja Jang
Kimchi is a traditional Korean food prepared by fermenting vegetables, such as Chinese cabbage and radishes, which are seasoned with various ingredients, including red pepper powder, garlic, ginger, green onion, fermented seafood (Jeotgal), and salt. The various unique microorganisms and bioactive components in kimchi show antioxidant activity and have been associated with an enhanced immune response, as well as anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. Red pepper inhibits decay due to microorganisms and prevents food from spoiling...
December 2016: Genomics & Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154137/biosynthesis-of-cabbage-phytoalexins-from-indole-glucosinolate
#11
Andrew P Klein, Elizabeth S Sattely
Brassica crop species are prolific producers of indole-sulfur phytoalexins that are thought to have an important role in plant disease resistance. These molecules are conspicuously absent in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and little is known about the enzymatic steps that assemble the key precursor brassinin. Here, we report the minimum set of biosynthetic genes required to generate cruciferous phytoalexins starting from the well-studied glucosinolate pathway. In vitro biochemical characterization revealed an additional role for the previously described carbon-sulfur lyase SUR1 in processing cysteine-isothiocyanate conjugates, as well as the S-methyltransferase DTCMT that methylates the resulting dithiocarbamate, together completing a pathway to brassinin...
February 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139750/myosuppressin-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-pupal-diapause-in-the-cabbage-army-moth-mamestra-brassicae
#12
Nobuto Yamada, Hiroshi Kataoka, Akira Mizoguchi
Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest, is common in insects, enabling them to survive adverse seasons. It is well established that pupal diapause is regulated by ecdysteroids secreted by the prothoracic glands (PGs), with cessation of ecdysteroid secretion after pupal ecdysis leading to pupal diapause. A major factor regulating the gland activity is prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) secreted from the brain. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the cessation of PTTH release after pupal ecdysis resulted in the inactivation of the PGs, leading to pupal diapause in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134439/evaluation-of-vegetable-faba-bean-vicia-faba-l-intercropping-under-latvian-agro-ecological-conditions
#13
Līga Lepse, Sandra Dane, Solvita Zeipiņa, Raul Domínguez-Perles, Eduardo A S Rosa
BACKGROUND: Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12-month. In organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129468/translocation-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-phaseolus-vulgaris-tissues-and-vertical-transmission-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Rosalina García-Suárez, Luis A Verduzco-Rosas, Ma Cristina Del Rincón-Castro, John Délano-Frier, Jorge E Ibarra
AIMS: To demonstrate the ability of Bacillus thuringiensis to penetrate as spore-crystal complex to the internal tissues of bean plants, and keep its insecticidal activity. To test the vertical transmission of the spore-crystal complex in Arabidopsis thaliana. METHODS AND RESULTS: The experimental strain was transformed with the pMUTIN-gfp plasmid which labeled the spores of B. thuringiensis HD-73 with the GFP protein. Once the rhizosphere of the bean plants was inoculated with the labeled strain, the bacterium was recovered from leaves, stems, and petioles...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121379/identification-of-ecdysteroidogenic-enzyme-genes-and-their-expression-during-pupal-diapause-in-the-cabbage-armyworm-mamestra-brassicae
#15
M H Ogihara, H Ikeda, N Yamada, J Hikiba, T Nakaoka, Y Fujimoto, Y Suzuki, K Saito, A Mizoguchi, H Kataoka
In this study, we identified ecdysteroidogenic enzymes in the cabbage armyworm, Mamestra brassicae, and demonstrated reduced expression of these genes during diapause. Some insects employ a temporary developmental arrest, diapause, to survive in severe environments. The titres of the moulting hormone ecdysteroid were reduced in diapause pupae of M. brassicae; therefore, ecdysteroidogenesis might be suppressed by a diapause-specific mechanism. To clarify expression changes of ecdysteroidogenic enzyme genes during diapause in M...
January 25, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117157/direct-competitive-fluoroimmunoassays-for-detection-of-imidaclothiz-in-environmental-and-agricultural-samples-using-quantum-dots-and-europium-as-labels
#16
Xiude Hua, Yuan Ding, Jiachuan Yang, Ming Ma, Haiyan Shi, Minghua Wang
A direct quantum dots-based fluoroimmunoassay (QDFIA) and a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) for imidaclothiz (IMI) were developed by using the quantum dots (QDs)-labeled antibody and the europium (Eu(3+))-labeled antibody, respectively. After optimization, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) and the limit of detection (LOD, IC10) are 20.41 and 0.52μgL(-1) for the QDFIA, while 6.91 and 0.018μgL(-1) for the TRFIA, respectively. The cross-reactivities (CRs) with the analogues are negligible except for imidacloprid with CRs of 29...
January 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114905/appropriate-nh4-no3-ratio-improves-low-light-tolerance-of-mini-chinese-cabbage-seedlings
#17
Linli Hu, Weibiao Liao, Mohammed Mujitaba Dawuda, Jihua Yu, Jian Lv
BACKGROUND: In northwest of China, mini Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is highly valued by consumers, and is widely cultivated during winter in solar-greenhouses where low light (LL) fluence (between 85 and 150 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in day) is a major abiotic stress factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity. The mechanisms with which various NH4(+): NO3(-) ratios affected growth and photosynthesis of mini Chinese cabbage under normal (200 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) and low (100 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) light conditions was investigated...
January 23, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107986/dispersive-solid-phase-extraction-using-polyaniline-modified-zeolite-nay-as-a-new-sorbent-for-multiresidue-analysis-of-pesticides-in-food-and-environmental-samples
#18
Prapha Arnnok, Nopbhasinthu Patdhanagul, Rodjana Burakham
The applicability of polyaniline (PANI)-modified zeolite NaY as a sorbent for multi-class pesticides extraction was investigated. The sorbent had a sorption capacity of 833mgkg(-1) sorbent and preconcentration factor of 42 in the mixture of twenty pesticides. The PANI-coated zeolite NaY was successfully created via oxidative polymerization of aniline onto the surface of the zeolite. The sorbent was applied for dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE) of commonly used pesticides belonging to five different chemical groups, involving carbamate, organophosphate, sulfonylurea, pyrethroid and neonicotinoid...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105786/development-of-a-reference-database-for-assessing-dietary-nitrate-in-vegetables
#19
Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Richard L Prince, Natalie C Ward, Kevin D Croft, Joshua R Lewis, Amanda Devine, Sujata Shinde, Richard J Woodman, Jonathan M Hodgson, Catherine P Bondonno
SCOPE: Nitrate from vegetables improves vascular health with short term intake. Whether this translates into improved long term health outcomes has yet to be investigated. To enable reliable analysis of nitrate intake from food records there is a strong need for a comprehensive nitrate content of vegetables database. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic literature search (1980-2016) was performed using Medline, Agricola and CAB abstracts databases. The nitrate content of vegetables database contains 4237 records from 255 publications with data on 178 vegetables and 22 herbs and spices...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100450/a-2-oxoglutarate-dependent-dioxygenase-mediates-the-biosynthesis-of-glucoraphasatin-in-radish
#20
Tomohiro Kakizaki, Hiroyasu Kitashiba, Zhongwei Zou, Feng Li, Nobuko Fukino, Takayoshi Ohara, Takeshi Nishio, Masahiko Ishida
Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites whose degradation products confer intrinsic flavors and aromas to Brassicaceae vegetables. Several structures of GSLs are known in the Brassicaceae, and the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory networks have been elucidated in Arabidopsis thaliana. GSLs are precursors of chemical defense substances against herbivorous pests. Specific GSLs can act as feeding blockers or stimulants, depending on the pest species. Natural selection has led to diversity in the GSL compositions even within individual species...
January 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
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