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Kuo-Yi Huang, Jian-Feng Cheng
This paper presents a novel machine vision-based auto-sorting system for Chinese cabbage seeds. The system comprises an inlet-outlet mechanism, machine vision hardware and software, and control system for sorting seed quality. The proposed method can estimate the shape, color, and textural features of seeds that are provided as input neurons of neural networks in order to classify seeds as "good" and "not good" (NG). The results show the accuracies of classification to be 91.53% and 88.95% for good and NG seeds, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Sensors
Qiong Yi, Shuanghu Tang, Xiaolin Fan, Mu Zhang, Yuwan Pang, Xu Huang, Qiaoyi Huang
Globally, vegetable fields are the primary source of greenhouse gas emissions. A closed-chamber method together with gas chromatography was used to measure the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in typical vegetable fields planted with four vegetables sequentially over time in the same field: endive, lettuce, cabbage and sweet corn. Results showed that N2O fluxes occurred in pulses with the N2O emission peak varying greatly among the crops. In addition, N2O emissions were linearly associated with the nitrogen (N) application rate (r = 0...
2017: PloS One
Li Huang, Yafei Yang, Fang Zhang, Jiashu Cao
The aim of this work was to construct a high-resolution genetic map for the dissection of complex morphological and agronomic traits in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. syn. B. campestris). Chinese cabbage, an economically important vegetable, is a good model plant for studies on the evolution of morphologic variation. Herein, two high-generation inbred Chinese cabbage lines, 'Huangxiaoza' and 'Bqq094-11', were crossed. Then restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was performed on the parents and 120 F2 individuals...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yan Li, Dongliang Hua, Hui Mu, Haipeng Xu, Fuqiang Jin, Xiaodong Zhang
Vegetable wastes (VWs), which contained abundant solid content, were digested in a leaching bed reactor (LBR). The tested VWs for acidification in the LBR included cabbage, potato, and tomato vine. The digestion in the LBR was carried out at the same organic loading rate of 25 g volatile solid (VS) per liter. It was found that cabbage and potato produced much more volatile fatty acids (VFAs) than tomato vine, probably because readily degradable components were more abundant in cabbage and potato. The retention time to digest each feedstock was different...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hui Mao, Teng Zhang, Ronghua Li, Bingnian Zhai, Zhaohui Wang, Quan Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
In this study, the effects of apple pomace (AP) addition (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% on a dry weight basis, named as control, AP1, AP2, and AP3) and citric acid (CA) addition on nitrogen conservation were investigated during aerobic composting of pig manure. Gaseous emissions of NH3 and N2O were inhibited by AP and CA addition, with AP's effect greater. The inhibition improved with increasing AP addition. The AP3 treatment was the most effective on NH3 adsorption and transformation to [Formula: see text]-N, improved with subsequent transformation to [Formula: see text]-N, and inhibition of N2O and [Formula: see text] production...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yehua Li, Berhane T Weldegergis, Surachet Chamontri, Marcel Dicke, Rieta Gols
Attraction of parasitoids to plant volatiles induced by multiple herbivory depends on the specific combinations of attacking herbivore species, especially when their feeding modes activate different defense signalling pathways as has been reported for phloem feeding aphids and tissue feeding caterpillars. We studied the effects of pre-infestation with non-host aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) for two different time periods on the ability of two parasitoid species to discriminate between volatiles emitted by plants infested by host caterpillars alone and those emitted by plants infested with host caterpillars plus aphids...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jia-Lei Ji, Li-Mei Yang, Zhi-Yuan Fang, Mu Zhuang, Yang-Yong Zhang, Hong-Hao Lv, Yu-Mei Liu, Zhan-Sheng Li
The LTR-retrotransposon insertion in BoCYP704B1 is proved to be the primary cause of the male sterility in cabbage. Effective allele-specific markers were developed for marker-assisted selection of male sterile gene. 83121A is a spontaneous male sterile mutant identified from cabbage. Genetic analysis indicated that male sterility is controlled by a single recessive gene. Pollen wall formation in the 83121A mutant was severely defective, with a lack of sporopollenin or exine. To understand the mechanisms of male sterility in 83121A, transcription analysis using RNA-Seq was carried out in the buds of the male sterile line 83121A and the male fertile line 83121B, which are near-isogenic lines differing only in the fertility trait...
April 12, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Yasuhiro Sato, Hiroshi Kudoh
Geographic variation is commonly observed in plant resistance traits, where plant species might experience different selection pressure across a heterogeneous landscape. Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera is dimorphic for trichome production, generating two morphs, trichome-producing (hairy) and trichomeless (glabrous) plants. Trichomes of A. halleri are known to confer resistance against the white butterfly, cabbage sawfly, and brassica leaf beetle, but not against flea beetles. We combined leaf damage, microclimate, and microsatellite loci data of 26 A...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Ana González, Isidro Favián Bayas Morejón, María Antonia Ferrús
Some species of the Arcobacter genus are considered emerging foodborne and waterborne enteropathogens. However, the presence of Arcobacter spp. in vegetables very little is known, because most studies have focused on foods of animal origin. On the other hand, quinolones are considered as first-line drugs for the treatment of infection by campylobacteria in human patients, but few data are currently available about the resistance levels to these antibiotics among Arcobacter species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence and diversity of arcobacters isolated from fresh vegetables such as lettuces, spinaches, chards and cabbages...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
Xing Liu, Fengqing Han, Congcong Kong, Zhiyuan Fang, Limei Yang, Yangyong Zhang, Mu Zhuang, Yumei Liu, Zhansheng Li, Honghao Lv
Cabbage is an economically important vegetable worldwide. Cabbage Fusarium Wilt (CFW) is a destructive disease that results in considerable yield and quality losses in cole crops. The use of CFW-resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to mitigate the effects of CFW. 01-20 is an elite cabbage line with desirable traits and a high combining ability, but it is highly susceptible to CFW. To rapidly transfer a CFW resistance gene into 01-20 plants, we used microspore cultures to develop 230 doubled haploid (DH) lines from a cross between 01-20 (highly susceptible) and 96-100 (highly resistant)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sujeet Kumar Mritunjay, Vipin Kumar
The present work evaluates the microbiological quality of raw salad vegetables (RSV) consumed in Dhanbad city, India. A total of 480 samples of 8 different raw salad vegetables from local market were examined for overall microbial quality in terms of aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic counts, yeast, mould and total coliform levels. E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella sp. were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) subsequent to isolation. Results showed that all the samples were found positive for total coliform; however, E...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
Hui Mu, Chunhui Zhao, Yuxiao Zhao, Yan Li, Dongliang Hua, Xiaodong Zhang, Haipeng Xu
Anaerobic granular sludge was used as an inoculum for co-digestion of potato waste (PW) and cabbage waste (CW) in batch and semi-continuous modes at 37±1°C for enhanced methane generation. Batch test results indicated that an equal proportion (1:1) by volatile solid was the optimal mixing ratio for co-digestion of PW and CW. Semi-continuous co-digestion process results showed that the stepwise increasing of the organic loading rates from 1.0 to 5.0kgVS/m(3)·d improved the methane yield from 224 to 360mL/g-VS...
March 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Mary Alt, Tiffany Hogan, Samuel Green, Shelley Gray, Kathryn Cabbage, Nelson Cowan
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate word learning in children with dyslexia to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses during the configuration stage of word learning. Method: Children with typical development (N = 116) and dyslexia (N = 68) participated in computer-based word learning games that assessed word learning in 4 sets of games that manipulated phonological or visuospatial demands. All children were monolingual English-speaking 2nd graders without oral language impairment...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Jingjie Wang, Nan Yu, Guangmao Mu, Kamran I Shinwari, Zhenguo Shen, Luqing Zheng
With the rapid progress of industrialization, the effects of environmental contamination on plant toxicity, and subsequently on human health, is a growing concern. For example, the heavy metal pollution of soil such as that caused by cadmium (Cd) is a serious threat. Therefore, screening for pollution-safe edible plants is an essential approach for growing plants under heavy metal-contaminated soils. In the current study, 35 Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) cultivars were selected with the aim of screening for Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), analyzing their safety, and exploring the mechanism of Cd accumulation...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
TianTian Xiong, Camille Dumat, Vincent Dappe, Hervé Vezin, Eva Schreck, Muhammad Shahid, Antoine Pierart, Sophie Sobanska
Throughout the world, urban agriculture supplies fresh local vegetables to city populations. However, the increasing anthropogenic uses of metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs) such as CuO-NPs in urban areas may contaminate vegetables through foliar uptake. This study focused on the CuO-NP transfer processes in leafy edible vegetables (i.e., lettuce and cabbage) to assess their potential phytotoxicity. Vegetables were exposed via leaves for 5, 10, or 15 days to various concentrations of CuO-NPs (0, 10, or 250 mg per plant)...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Ramit Singla, Vikas Jaitak
BACKGROUND: Targeting of multiple sites is a pharmacologically, pharmacokinetic and dynamically more acceptable approach for complex diseases such as BC. It is recommended that the women who are at high risk of developing BC might be given foods enhanced by indole alkaloids from vegetables like cabbage and broccoli. Administration of indole-3-carbinol is associated with decreased incidence of hormone-responsive BC (HRBC) which is implicated due to the induction of cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase which metabolizes chemical mutagens and by altering estrogen metabolism...
April 6, 2017: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Xinshuai Qi, Hong An, Aaron Ragsdale, Tara E Hall, Ryan N Gutenkunst, J Chris Pires, Michael S Barker
Demographic modeling is often used with population genomic data to infer the relationships and ages among populations. However, relatively few analyses are able to validate these inferences with independent data. Here, we leverage written records that describe distinct Brassica rapa crops to corroborate demographic models of domestication. Brassica rapa crops are renowned for their outstanding morphological diversity, but the relationships and order of domestication remains unclear. We generated genome-wide SNPs from 126 accessions collected globally using high-throughput transcriptome data...
April 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology
H X Song, A M Ping, M X Sun, X H Qi, M Y Gao, X Y Xu, Z J Zhu, M L Li, L P Hou
Pak choi is a highly nutritious vegetable that is widely grown in China, Southeast Asia, and other parts of the world. Because it reproduces by seed, it is very important to understand the mechanism of floral organ development. Therefore, using the Chinese cabbage genome as a reference, this study analyzed the expression profiles of shoot apex genes at flower bud differentiation stages 1 and 5, in order to identify genes related to floral organ development. The results showed that the proportion of mapped genes was high, with 84...
March 30, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Patricia Sarai Giron-Calva, Tao Li, James D Blande
Plants constitutively release volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but qualitatively and quantitatively alter their emission of VOCs in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The blend of VOCs emitted reflects the physiological status of the plant. Plants may be exposed to the VOC blend emitted by their near neighbors and gain information that allows them to adjust their own defenses. These plant-plant interactions may potentially be exploited to protect crops from pests, but they can be disturbed by abiotic factors making the process sensitive to environmental perturbation...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
František Kocourek, Jitka Stará, Kamil Holý, Tereza Horská, Vladimír Kocourek, Jana Kováčová, Jana Kohoutková, Marie Suchanová, Jana Hajšlová
Pesticide residues from the time of application until harvest were analysed for 20, 17 and 18 active insecticidal and fungicidal substances in Chinese cabbage, head cabbage and cauliflower, respectively. In total, 40 mathematical models of residue degradation were developed using a first-order kinetic equation, and from these models, it was possible to forecast the action pre-harvest interval for a given action threshold for low-residue production in Brassica vegetables as a percentage of the maximum residue level...
March 28, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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