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Rhiannon Stanton, Alba Hykollari, Barbara Eckmair, Daniel Malzl, Martin Dragosits, Dieter Palmberger, Ping Wang, Iain B H Wilson, Katharina Paschinger
BACKGROUND: Insects are significant to the environment, agriculture, health and biotechnology. Many of these aspects display some relationship to glycosylation, e.g., in case of pathogen binding or production of humanised antibodies; for a long time, it has been considered that insect N-glycosylation potentials are rather similar and simple, but as more species are glycomically analysed in depth, it is becoming obvious that there is indeed a large structural diversity and interspecies variability...
January 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Han Zhang, Tom Breeze, Alison Bailey, David Garthwaite, Richard Harrington, Simon G Potts
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015...
2017: PloS One
Ryo Horikoshi, Kimihiko Goto, Masaaki Mitomi, Kazuhiko Oyama, Toshiaki Sunazuka, Satoshi Omacr Mura
Approximately 300 microbial natural products in our library were screened for insecticidal activities against three species of agricultural pests, including aphids. Among the several compounds that showed insecticidal activities, pyripyropene A had high aphicidal activity in vivo. Furthermore, in advanced tests, pyripyropene A applications with foliar sprays and soil drenching controlled aphids on cabbage. On the basis of its unique and promising activities, we selected pyripyropene A as the active component of potential insecticides...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
Qian-Qian Tan, Wen Liu, Fen Zhu, Chao-Liang Lei, Xiao-Ping Wang
Diapause, also known as dormancy, is a state of arrested development that allows insects to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. Diapause-destined insects store large amounts of fat when preparing for diapause. However, the extent to which these accumulated fat reserves influence diapause remains unclear. To address this question, we investigated the function of fatty acid synthase (FAS), which plays a central role in lipid synthesis, in stress tolerance, the duration of diapause preparation, and whether insects enter diapause or not...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yanjing Ren, Junqing Wu, Jing Zhao, Lingyu Hao, Lugang Zhang
Research on the yellow-seeded variety of heading Chinese cabbage will aid in broadening its germplasm resources and lay a foundation for AA genome research in Brassica crops. Here, an F2 segregating population of 1,575 individuals was constructed from two inbred lines (brown-seeded '92S105' and yellow-seeded '91-125'). This population was used to identify the linkage molecular markers of the yellow seed coat trait using simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques combined with a bulk segregant analysis (BSA). Of the 144 SSR primer pairs on the A01- A10 chromosomes from the Brassica database (http://brassicadb...
January 9, 2017: Biology Open
Camilla Plambeck Hansen, Kim Overvad, Cecilie Kyrø, Anja Olsen, Anne Tjønneland, Søren Paaske Johnsen, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Christina Catherine Dahm
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Specific dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean diet, have been associated with stroke prevention. Our aim was to investigate whether adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, including fish, apples and pears, cabbages, root vegetables, rye bread, and oatmeal, was associated with risk of stroke. METHODS: Incident cases of stroke among 55 338 men and women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and verified by review of records...
January 3, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Andrew P Jacobson, Hua Wang, Vikas S Gill, Robert Duvall, Gabriela Arce, Stuart Chirtel, Thomas S Hammack
Four buffered preenrichment media (BAX(®) System MP Media (BAX)), Universal Preenrichment Broth (UPB), modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW), and Buffered Peptone Water (BPW)) were compared with lactose broth (LB) in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual's (BAM) Salmonella culture method for the analysis of 9 leafy green produce and herb types. Artificially contaminated test portions were pre-enriched in each medium and the results were analyzed statistically using Fisher's Exact 2-tailed F test (p < 0...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
Zvjezdana Stančić, Dinko Vujević, Ana Gomaz, Saša Bogdan, Dragutin Vincek
The present study was aimed at the estimation of heavy metal content in vegetables sold at the city market of one of the densely populated Croatian cities, Varaždin, and to establish the relationship between their levels and possible sources of contamination. Twenty-eight samples of the most common diet vegetables (red and white potato, onion, carrot, common bean, lettuce, and cabbage) were randomly bought at the market in September and October 2013. Using the atomic absorption spectrometry method, concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were measured in the selected samples...
December 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
W G van Herk, R S Vernon, D R Waterer, J H Tolman, P J Lafontaine, R P Prasad
At the time of this research, there were only two insecticides registered for control of cabbage maggot, Delia radicum L., in rutabaga in Canada, one of which (diazinon) will be deregistered by 2017, and resistance having been reported in some areas for the other (chlorpyrifos). To screen for chemistries to replace these organophosphates, and obtain efficacy data comparable between key vegetable brassica production areas in Canada, four small plot field studies were conducted concurrently in British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Quebec in 2009...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Catriona H Condon, Sabrina White, Robert L Meagher, Laura A Jeffers, Woodward D Bailey, Daniel A Hahn
Ionizing radiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment to mitigate risks from invasive species associated with trade of fresh fruits and vegetables. Commodity producers prefer to irradiate fresh product stored in modified atmosphere packaging that increases shelf life and delays ripening. However, irradiating insects in low oxygen may increase radiation tolerance, and regulatory agencies are concerned modified atmosphere packaging will decrease efficacy of radiation doses. Here, we examined how irradiation in a series of oxygen conditions (0...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Huipeng Pan, Evan L Preisser, Qi Su, Xiaoguo Jiao, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Youjun Zhang
Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore's natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and homogenous plant communities...
2016: PloS One
Tor J Johansen, Jørgen Ab Mølmann, Gunnar B Bengtsson, Monica Schreiner, Pablo Velasco, Anne L Hykkerud, Elena Cartea, Per Lea, Josefine Skaret, Randi Seljåsen
BACKGROUND: Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009-2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply at natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42-70 °N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture...
December 27, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Mitsutoshi Aoyagi, Masahiro Chiba, Youichiro Kakimoto, Satoru Nemoto
A method for the determination of diphenylamine in agricultural products was developed. Diphenylamine was extracted with acetonitrile from a sample under an acidic condition, passed through a C18 cartridge column, re-extracted with n-hexane, cleaned up on a PSA cartridge column, determined by HPLC with fluorescence detector and confirmed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Average recoveries (n=5) from brown rice, corn, soybeans, potato, cabbage, eggplant, spinach, orange, apple and green tea were in the range from 76...
2016: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
David M Lowenstein, Maryam Gharehaghaji, David H Wise
As Midwestern (United States) cities experience population decline, there is growing interest in converting underutilized vacant spaces to agricultural production. Urban agriculture varies in area and scope, yet most growers use similar cultivation practices such as avoiding chemical control of crop pests. For community gardens and farms that sell produce commercially, effective pest suppression by natural enemies is important for both societal, economic, and marketing reasons. To gauge the amount of prey suppression at 28 urban food-production sites, we measured removal of sentinel eggs and larvae of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), a caterpillar pest that defoliates Brassica We investigated how landscape and local factors, such as scale of production, influence cabbage looper mortality caused by predators...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Jia-Xiao Li, Peter Schieberle, Martin Steinhaus
Sixteen compounds, previously identified as potent odorants by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis and the gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of static headspace samples, were quantitated in the pulp of durians, variety Monthong, and odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated by dividing the concentrations obtained by the odor thresholds of the compounds in water. In combination with data recently reported for hydrogen sulfide and short-chain alkanethiols, OAVs > 1 were obtained for 19 compounds, among which ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 1700000), ethanethiol (rotten onion; OAV 480000), and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane-1-thiol (roasted onion; OAV 250000) were the most potent, followed by methanethiol (rotten, cabbage; OAV 45000), ethane-1,1-dithiol (sulfury, durian; OAV 23000), and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity; OAV 22000)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Alan M Dewar
This paper describes the consequences of the ban on neonicotinoid seed treatments on pest management in oilseed rape. Since the ban was implemented in December 2013, there have been serious crop losses in 2014, 2015 and 2016 due to cabbage stem flea beetles, Psylliodes chrysocephala, and aphids, Myzus persicae, which have developed resistance to the alternative pyrethroid sprays that were employed to control them. This has resulted in increased crop losses, decreased yields, and a substantial decrease in the area grown, leading to fewer flowering crops available in the spring, especially in the eastern region of the UK...
December 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
Yin Lu, Shuangyan Dai, Aixia Gu, Mengyang Liu, Yanhua Wang, Shuangxia Luo, Yujing Zhao, Shan Wang, Shuxin Xuan, Xueping Chen, Xiaofeng Li, Guusje Bonnema, Jianjun Zhao, Shuxing Shen
Chinese cabbage buds were soaked with Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) to induce mutagenesis. The influence of different EMS concentrations and treatment durations on microspore development, embryo production rate and seedling rate were evaluated in five Chinese cabbage genotypes. Mutations in four color-related genes were identified using high resolution melting (HRM) curves of their PCR products. The greatest embryo production and seedling rates were observed when buds were treated with 0.03 to 0.1% EMS for 5 to 10 min, while EMS concentrations greater than 0...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Katsunori Hatakeyama, Tomohisa Niwa, Takeyuki Kato, Takayoshi Ohara, Tomohiro Kakizaki, Satoru Matsumoto
To facilitate prevention of clubroot disease, a major threat to the successful cultivation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.), we bred clubroot-resistant (CR) cultivars by introducing resistance genes from CR turnips via conventional breeding. Among 11 CR loci found in B. rapa, we identified CRb in Chinese cabbage cultivar 'CR Shinki' as a single dominant gene for resistance against Plasmodiophora brassicae pathotype group 3, against which the stacking of Crr1 and Crr2 loci was not effective. However, the precise location and pathotype specificity of CRb have been controversial, because CRa and Rcr1 also map near this locus...
December 24, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Kai Yang, Ying Zhu, Ranran Shan, Yanqiu Shao, Chao Tian
Sanitary landfill persists as a predominant sludge disposal method in particular in China. In this study, successive subsurface sludge samples (0.3 m deep) were collected from a bioreactor landfill unit where an anaerobic process took place during a 500 d period. The sludge samples were analyzed for total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and their species distributions, together with selected sludge chemical properties. In addition, the sludge samples were subjected to phytotoxicity testing...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Minli Yang, Kun Lin
The ethanol extract from Inula salsoloides (Turcz.) Ostenf was found to cause high mortality against Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The active components were isolated and identified. Two compounds were obtained and identified to be inulasalsolin and taraxasterol. Both compounds showed anti-feedant effects against third instar larvae of P. xylostella with AFC50 of 0.030 and 0.053 mg/mL and insecticidal activities with LC50 of 0.19 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively. The two compounds also exhibited high toxicity to cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L...
December 22, 2016: Natural Product Research
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