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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236119/estimation-of-the-bioaccessibility-and-bioavailability-of-fe-mn-cu-and-zn-in-chinese-vegetables-using-the-in-vitro-digestion-caco-2-cell-model-the-influence-of-gut-microbiota
#1
Xiaolin Cai, Xiaochen Chen, Naiyi Yin, Huili Du, Guoxin Sun, Lihong Wang, Yudong Xu, Yuqing Chen, Yanshan Cui
The influence of the human gut microbiota on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetables has barely been studied. An in vitro digestion model combining the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) was applied. Results showed that the gut microbiota increased the bioaccessibility of iron (Fe) in ten test vegetables by 1.3-1.8 times, but reduced the bioaccessibility of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables in the colon phase by 3...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232522/molecular-analysis-of-anthocyanin-related-genes-in-ornamental-cabbage
#2
Si-Won Jin, Md Abdur Rahim, Hoy-Taek Kim, Jong-In Park, Jong-Goo Kang, Ill-Sup Nou
Ornamental cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a winter-grown and important decorative plant of the Brassicaceae family, which displays an exceptional coloration in the central leaves of the rosette. Anthocyanins are the key determinant of the red, purple and blue colors of vegetative and reproductive parts of many plant species including ornamental cabbage. Total anthocyanin content was measured spectrophotometrically and the highest anthocyanin content detected in the red followed by light-red and white ornamental cabbage lines...
December 12, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223047/identification-and-analysis-of-a-mercapturic-acid-conjugate-of-indole-3-methyl-isothiocyanate-in-the-urine-of-humans-who-consumed-cruciferous-vegetables
#3
Pramod Upadhyaya, Adam T Zarth, Naomi Fujioka, Vincent A Fritz, Stephen S Hecht
Glucobrassicin, a quantitatively significant constituent of Brassica vegetables, gives rise to indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimer di-indolylmethane (DIM) when the vegetables are chewed. I3C and DIM have been extensively studied with respect to their anti-carcinogenic properties. However, the presumed intermediate isothiocyanate in their formation, indole-3-methyl isothiocyanate (IMITC), has to our knowledge never been observed, despite the fact that isothiocyanates derived from cruciferous vegetables are known to have anti-carcinogenic properties...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222941/characterization-of-the-spoilage-potential-of-pure-and-mixed-cultures-of-bacterial-species-isolated-from-tropical-yellowfin-tuna-thunnus-albacares
#4
Adèle Silbande, Josiane Cornet, Mireille Cardinal, Frédérique Chevalier, Katia Rochefort, Juliette Smith-Ravin, Sandra Adenet, Françoise Leroi
AIM: The spoilage potential of 28 bacterial strains isolated from spoiled raw yellowfin tuna was evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial species were inoculated in irradiated tuna matrix. Chemical changes, bacterial growth and sensory quality were monitored during aerobic storage at 8°C. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia hermanii had no spoiling effect. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Carnobacterium divergens/maltaromaticum developed moderate unpleasant odors...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214486/metabolism-mediated-induction-of-zinc-tolerance-in-brassica-rapa-by-burkholderia-cepacia-cs2-1
#5
Sang-Mo Kang, Raheem Shahzad, Saqib Bilal, Abdul Latif Khan, Young-Hyun You, Won-Hee Lee, Hee-La Ryu, Ko-Eun Lee, In-Jung Lee
Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) is an essential component of traditional Korean food. However, the crop is often subject to zinc (Zn+) toxicity from contaminated irrigation water, which, as a result, compromises plant growth and production, as well as the health of human consumers. The present study investigated the bioaccumulation of Zn+ by Burkholderia cepacia CS2-1 and its effect on the heavy metal tolerance of Chinese cabbage. Strain CS2-1 was identified and characterized on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences and phylogenetic analysis...
December 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209354/how-glucosinolates-affect-generalist-lepidopteran-larvae-growth-development-and-glucosinolate-metabolism
#6
Verena Jeschke, Emily E Kearney, Katharina Schramm, Grit Kunert, Anton Shekhov, Jonathan Gershenzon, Daniel G Vassão
Multiple lepidopteran larvae feed successfully on plants containing glucosinolates despite the diverse array of toxic and deterrent breakdown products, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), formed upon plant damage. While much is known about how specialist lepidopterans metabolize and tolerate glucosinolates, there is little information about the metabolic fate of these plant defense compounds in specialized herbivores. Employing 13C- and 14C-labeled 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), we identified and quantified the major detoxification products of glucosinolates and ITCs in selected specialized and generalist larvae...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196800/effects-of-mating-on-host-selection-by-female-small-white-butterflies-pieris-rapae-lepidoptera-pieridae
#7
Yuki Itoh, Yukiko Okumura, Takeshi Fujii, Yukio Ishikawa, Hisashi Ômura
Mating might significantly affect the host selection behaviors of phytophagous insects. Here, we investigated the post-mating changes in behavioral and antennal responses of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) females to host plant volatiles. In two-choice bioassays using artificial plant models, mated females visited the model scented with synthetic blends (15-, 9-, or 6-components) of cabbage plant volatiles more frequently than the unscented control, whereas virgin females did not exhibit this preference...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196646/early-mid-pleistocene-genetic-differentiation-and-range-expansions-as-exemplified-by-invasive-eurasian-bunias-orientalis-brassicaceae-indicates-the-caucasus-as-key-region
#8
Marcus A Koch, Florian Michling, Andrea Walther, Xiao-Chen Huang, Lisa Tewes, Caroline Müller
Turkish Warty cabbage, Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae) is a perennial herb known for its 250 years of invasion history into Europe and worldwide temperate regions. Putative centers of origin were debated to be located in Turkey, the Caucasus or Eastern Europe. Based on the genetic variation from the nuclear and plastid genomes, we identified two major gene pools in the Caucasian-Irano-Turanian region and close to the Northern Caucasus, respectively. These gene pools are old and started to diverge and expand approximately 930 kya in the Caucasus...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195004/optimized-fluorescent-proteins-for-the-rhizosphere-associated-bacterium-bacillus-mycoides-with-endophytic-and-biocontrol-agent-potential
#9
Yanglei Yi, Elrike Frenzel, Jan Spoelder, J Theo M Elzenga, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Oscar P Kuipers
Tracking of fluorescent protein (FP)-labeled rhizobacteria is a key prerequisite to gain insights into plant-bacteria interaction mechanisms. However, the performance of FPs mostly has to be optimized for the bacterial host and for the environment of intended application. We report on the construction of mutational libraries of the superfolder green fluorescent protein sfGFP and the red fluorescent protein mKate2 in the bacterium B. mycoides, which next to its potential as plant-biocontrol agent occasionally enters an endophytic lifestyle...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190278/can-narrow-bandwidth-light-from-uv-a-to-green-alter-secondary-plant-metabolism-and-increase-brassica-plant-defenses-against-aphids
#10
Ole Rechner, Susanne Neugart, Monika Schreiner, Sasa Wu, Hans-Michael Poehling
Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186799/whole-genome-re-alignment-facilitates-development-of-specific-molecular-markers-for-races-1-and-4-of-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris-the-cause-of-black-rot-disease-in-brassica-oleracea
#11
(no author information available yet)
Black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), is a seed borne disease of Brassicaceae. Eleven pathogenic races have been identified based on the phenotype interaction pattern of differential brassica cultivars inoculated with different strains. Race 1 and 4 are the two most frequent races found in Brassica oleracea crops. In this study, a PCR molecular diagnostic tool was developed for the identification of Xcc races 1 and 4 of this pathogen. Whole genomic sequences of races 1, 3, 4 and 9 and sequences of three other Xanthomonas pathovars/species (X...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183577/identification-and-characterisation-of-seventeen-glutathione-s-transferase-genes-from-the-cabbage-white-butterfly-pieris-rapae
#12
Su Liu, Yu-Xing Zhang, Wen-Long Wang, Bang-Xian Zhang, Shi-Guang Li
Insect glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play essential roles in the detoxification of insecticides and other xenobiotic compounds. The cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae, is an economically important agricultural pest. In this study, 17 cDNA sequences encoding putative GSTs were identified in P. rapae. All cDNAs include a complete open reading frame and were designated PrGSTd1-PrGSTz2. Based on phylogenetic analysis, PrGSTs were divided into six classes (delta, epsilon, omega, sigma, theta and zeta). The exon-intron organizations of these PrGSTs were also analysed...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179675/cgl2-plays-an-essential-role-in-cuticular-wax-biosynthesis-in-cabbage-brassica-oleracea-l-var-capitata
#13
Dongming Liu, Jun Tang, Zezhou Liu, Xin Dong, Mu Zhuang, Yangyong Zhang, Honghao Lv, Peitian Sun, Yumei Liu, Zhansheng Li, Zhibiao Ye, Zhiyuan Fang, Limei Yang
BACKGROUND: The aerial parts of most land plants are covered with cuticular wax which is important for plants to avoid harmful factors. There is still no cloning study about wax synthesis gene of the alcohol-forming pathway in Brassica species. RESULTS: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that, compared with wild type (WT), wax crystal are severely reduced in both the adaxial and abaxial sides of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) leaves from the LD10GL mutant...
November 28, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175783/total-antioxidant-capacity-of-commonly-used-fruits-vegetables-herbs-and-spices-of-pakistan
#14
Mobasher Ali Abid, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Junaid Hassan Sharif, Khalid Rauf, Wajahat Mahmood, Ikarmullah Khan, Ghulam Abbas
The current study was aimed at investigating the total antioxidant activity (TAC) of various fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices habitat in Pakistan. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to measure the TAC of various extracts (aqueous, ethanolic and aqueous-ethanolic). Following is the potency order for fruits (guava >strawberry >Pomegranate >apple >kinnow >melon >lemon >banana), vegetables (spinach >Cabbage (Purple) >Jalapeno >Radish >Brinjal >Bell Pepper >Lettuce >Carrot >Cabbage (White) >Onion >Potato >Tomato >Cucumber) and herbs/spices (clove >Rosemary >Thyme >Oregano >Cinnamon >Cumin >Kalonji >Paprika >Neem (Flower) >Fennel >Black Cardamom >Turmeric >Coriander >Ginger >Garlic)...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173619/predictive-modeling-of-bacterial-growth-in-ready-to-use-salted-napa-cabbage-brassica-pekinensis-at-different-storage-temperatures
#15
H W Kim, K Lee, S H Kim, M S Rhee
The objectives of the current study were to investigate the fate of microbial indicators [aerobic plate counts (APC), total coliforms (TC), and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)] in commercial salted napa cabbages during storage conditions at different temperatures (5, 22, and 30 °C, for up to 72 h) and to develop a predictive growth model using the modified Gompertz equation to determine shelf life. Microbial population sizes (initial log CFU g-1: APC, 5.1; TC, 3.0; LAB, 3.7) remained stable at 5 °C, but rapidly increased by 2-4 log CFU g-1 within 12 h at 22 and 30 °C; furthermore, the pH of salted napa cabbages decreased significantly (P < 0...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173618/association-between-bacterial-survival-and-free-chlorine-concentration-during-commercial-fresh-cut-produce-wash-operation
#16
Yaguang Luo, Bin Zhou, Sam Van Haute, Xiangwu Nou, Boce Zhang, Zi Teng, Ellen R Turner, Qin Wang, Patricia D Millner
Determining the minimal effective free chlorine (FC) concentration for preventing pathogen survival and cross-contamination during produce washing is critical for developing science- and risk-based food safety practices. The correlation between dynamic FC concentrations and bacterial survival was investigated during commercial washing of chopped Romaine lettuce, shredded Iceberg lettuce, and diced cabbage as pathogen inoculation study during commercial operation is not feasible. Wash water was sampled every 30 min and assayed for organic loading, FC, and total aerobic mesophilic bacteria after chlorine neutralization...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169222/metagenomic-approach-to-identifying-foodborne-pathogens-on-chinese-cabbage
#17
Daeho Kim, Sanghyun Hong, You-Tae Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Hyeun Bum Kim, Ju-Hoon Lee
Foodborne illness represents a major threat to public health frequently attributed to pathogenic microorganisms on fresh produce. Recurrent outbreaks often come from vegetables that are grown close to or within the ground. Therefore, the first step to understanding the public health risk of microorganisms on fresh vegetables is to identify and describe microbial communities. We investigated phyllospheres on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis, n=54). 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing targeting the V5-V6 region of 16S rRNA genes was conducted by employing the Illumina MiSeq system...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161816/rapid-and-efficient-desulfonation-method-for-the-analysis-of-glucosinolates-by-high-resolution-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#18
Jashbir Singh, Guddadarangavvanahally K Jayaprakasha, Bhimanagouda S Patil
The goal of our present research was to develop a simple and rapid method for the quantitation of desulfoglucosinolates (desulfoGLS) without using column chromatography. The proposed method involves extraction, concentration, incubation of glucosinolates with a sulfatase enzyme, and HPLC analysis. Identification of desulfoGLS in green kohlrabi was performed by LC-HR-ESI-QTOF-MS in positive-ionization mode. A total of 11 desulfoGLS were identified with neoglucobrassicin (3.32 ± 0.05 μmol/g DW) as the predominant indolyl, whereas progoitrin and sinigrin were the major aliphatic desulfoGLS...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145809/genome-wide-characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-pdi-family-gene-reveals-function-as-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-tolerance-in-chinese-cabbage-brassica-rapa-ssp-pekinensis
#19
Md Abdul Kayum, Jong-In Park, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Gopal Saha, Manosh Kumar Biswas, Hoy-Taek Kim, Ill-Sup Nou
BACKGROUND: Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-like proteins contain thioredoxin domains that catalyze protein disulfide bond, inhibit aggregation of misfolded proteins, and function in isomerization during protein folding in endoplasmic reticulum and responses during abiotic stresses.Chinese cabbage is widely recognized as an economically important, nutritious vegetable, but its yield is severely hampered by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Because of, it is prime need to identify those genes whose are responsible for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance...
November 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138618/diversity-phylogeny-and-host-specialization-of-hyaloperonospora-species-in-korea
#20
Jae Sung Lee, Hyang Burm Lee, Hyeon-Dong Shin, Young-Joon Choi
The genus Hyaloperonospora (Peronosporaceae; Oomycota) is an obligate biotrophic group that causes downy mildew disease on the Brassicaceae and allied families of Brassicales, including many economically relevant crops, such as broccoli, cabbage, radish, rape, and wasabi. To investigate the diversity of Hyaloperonospora species in northeast Asia, we performed a morphological analysis for the dried herbarium specimens collected in Korea, along with molecular phylogenetic inferences based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA and cox2 mtDNA sequences...
September 2017: Mycobiology
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