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Johanna Freese, Mihaela Pricop-Jeckstadt, Thorsten Heuer, Matthias Clemens, Heiner Boeing, Sven Knüppel, Ute Nöthlings
Next to the information on frequency of food consumption, information on consumption-day amounts is important to estimate usual dietary intake in epidemiological studies. Our objective was to identify determinants of consumption-day amounts to derive person-specific standard consumption-day amounts applicable for the estimation of usual dietary intake using separate sources to assesss information on consumption probability and amount consumed. 24-h Dietary recall data from the German National Nutrition Survey II (n = 8522; aged 20-80 years) conducted between 2005 and 2007 were analysed for determinants of consumption-day amounts of thirty-eight food and beverage groups using LASSO variable selection for linear mixed-effects models...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Jun-Hyung Tak, Murray B Isman
Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Md Abu Sayed, Yui Umekawa, Kikukatsu Ito
Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) blooms in early spring and its inflorescence, referred to as the spadix, can produce enough heat to melt snow. Here, we investigated glycolytic carbon flow at the PEP branch-point in thermogenic spadices. Our analyses revealed that petals and pistils in thermogenic florets exhibited higher expression of SrPEPC and SrAOX transcripts than those of SrPK, SrPEPCK, and SrPEPtase. Moreover, enzymatic analyses showed high activities of PEPC in the extracts from thermogenic florets...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jianteng Sun, Lili Pan, Daniel C W Tsang, Zhiheng Li, Lizhong Zhu, Xiangdong Li
The present study investigated phthalate esters (PAEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soils and vegetables from eastern China. The concentrations of PAEs ranged from 109 to 5560 ng/g in soils and 60.1 to 2390 ng/g in cabbages, with average concentrations of 946 and 601 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of OCPs ranged from <0.1 to 662 ng/g in soils and <0.1 to 42.8 ng/g in cabbages, with average concentrations of 134 and 11.6 ng/g, respectively. OCPs were mainly in the 0-30 cm surface soil layers, while PAEs could infiltrate in deep soil profiles to 70-80 cm layer...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jayanta Kumar Patra, Gitishree Das, Spiros Paramithiotis, Han-Seung Shin
Different types of fermented foods such as chongkukjang, doenjang, ganjang, gochujang, and kimchi are plentifully available and widely consumed in north eastern Asian countries including Korea. Among them, kimchi is one of the most popular Korean traditional food. It is prepared by fermenting the baechu cabbage together with other vegetables and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with functional potential. Many types of ingredients are added to kimchi to enhance its taste, flavor, nutritional value, texture etc. A number of bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB are the dominant species in the fermentation process...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hailong Kong, Yang Zeng, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Xiaoguo Jiao, Baoyun Xu, Youjun Zhang
The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest with an extensive host range. Previous research has shown that B. tabaci is a species complex with many cryptic species or biotypes and that the two most important species are MEAM1 (Middle East-Minor Asia 1) and MED (Mediterranean genetic group). MEAM1 and MED are known to differ in their preference for cabbage, Brassica oleracea, as a host plant, however, the mechanism underlying this preference is unknown. In the current study, a host choice experiment showed that MED prefers to settle and oviposit on undamaged cabbage plants rather than MED-damaged cabbage plants...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hun Kim, Eun Ju Jo, Yong Ho Choi, Kyoung Soo Jang, Gyung Ja Choi
Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most serious diseases in Brassica crops worldwide. In this study, the pathotypes of 12 Korean P. brassicae field isolates were determined using various Chinese cabbage including 22 commercial cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan, and 15 inbred lines. All P. brassicae isolates exhibited the typical clubroot disease on non-clubroot resistant cultivar, indicating that the isolates were highly pathogenic. According to the reactions on the Williams' hosts, the 12 field isolates were initially classified into five races...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Maria Neve Ombra, Autilia Cozzolino, Filomena Nazzaro, Antonio d'Acierno, Patrizio Tremonte, Raffaele Coppola, Florinda Fratianni
Two Brassicaceae (Eruca sativa, Brassica oleracea var. sabauda) were stored in air and under a modified atmosphere for several days after their expiry date and then analyzed. The polyphenol content and composition, as well as the antioxidant activity of the extracts, were assessed, compared to the fresh products. Antimicrobial properties on tester strains (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and in vitro anti-proliferative activity were evaluated. The cabbage extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity mainly on the ninth day after the expiry date and retained significant inhibitory effects against colon carcinoma (CaCo-2) cells...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Xi-Hui Xu Qin He, Fan Zhang, Yu-Kai Tai, Yan-Fei Luo, Jian He, Qing Hong, Jian-Dong Jiang, Xin Yan
BACKGROUND: To reduce the fermentation cost for industrialization of chlorothalonil hydrolytic dehalogenase (Chd), agro-industrial wastewater including molasses, corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermentation wastewater were used to substitute the expensive carbon and nitrogen sources and fresh water for lab preparation. RESULTS: The results showed that molasses and CSL could replace 5% carbon source and 100% organic nitrogen source to maintain the same fermentation level...
October 8, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Henrik H De Fine Licht, Annette B Jensen, Jørgen Eilenberg
Obligate parasites are under strong selection to increase exploitation of their host to survive while evading detection by host immune defences. This has often led to elaborate pathogen adaptations and extreme host specificity. Specialization on one host, however, often incurs a trade-off influencing the capacity to infect alternate hosts. Here, we investigate host adaptation in two morphologically indistinguishable and closely related obligate specialist insect-pathogenic fungi from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, Entomophthora muscae sensu stricto and E...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Anouk Kaulmann, Sébastien Planchon, Jenny Renaut, Yves-Jacques Schneider, Lucien Hoffmann, Torsten Bohn
Due to their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, polyphenol and carotenoid-rich plant foods have been suggested as promising phytochemicals in the prevention of or as adjuvants regarding inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In the present study, we investigated whether plum (Italian Plum, Prunus cocomilla), or cabbage (Kale, Brassica oleracea var. sabellica), selected for their high phytochemical content, are able to reduce inflammation in cellular models of the intestinal epithelium, employing proteomic methods...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Tomoko Imura, Tomohiro Masuda, Yuji Wada, Masaki Tomonaga, Katsunori Okajima
Colour vision in primates is believed to be an adaptation for finding ripe fruit and young leaves. The contribution of the luminance distribution, which influences how humans evaluate the freshness of food, has not been explored with respect to the detection of subtle distinctions in food quality in non-human primates. We examined how chimpanzees, which are closely related to humans, perceive the freshness of foods. The findings suggest that chimpanzees were able to choose fresher cabbage based on both colour and grey-scale images...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
P W Zhang, S Y Wang, C L Huang, J T Fu, R L Huang, Z H Li, Z X Zhang
The single application of 0.5 % clothianidin granules, a novel formulation, was used to control pests in vegetables under a high dose. In this article, residues of clothianidin in cabbage and soil samples under field conditions from Guangzhou, Nanning, and Qianjiang were determined by HPLC. The terminal residues of clothianidin in cabbage were less than the limit of detection (<LOD) at pre-harvest intervals of 30 days, and these values were lower than the maximum residue limit of 0.2 mg kg(-1) in cabbage set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Swayamjit Ray, Saumik Basu, Loren J Rivera-Vega, Flor E Acevedo, Joe Louis, Gary W Felton, Dawn S Luthe
Plant defenses to insect herbivores have been studied in response to several insect behaviors on plants such as feeding, crawling, and oviposition. However, we have only scratched the surface about how insect feces induce plant defenses. In this study, we measured frass-induced plant defenses in maize, rice, cabbage, and tomato by chewing herbivores such as European corn borer (ECB), fall armyworm (FAW), cabbage looper (CL), and tomato fruit worm (TFW). We observed that caterpillar frass induced plant defenses are specific to each host-herbivore system, and they may induce herbivore or pathogen defense responses in the host plant depending on the composition of the frass deposited on the plant, the plant organ where it is deposited, and the species of insect...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jianli Liang, Yuan Ma, Jian Wu, Feng Cheng, Bo Liu, Xiaowu Wang
Using map-based cloning, we delimited the Ms - cd1 gene responsible for the male sterile phenotype in B. oleracea to an approximately 39-kb fragment. Expression analysis suggests that a new predicted gene, a homolog of the Arabidopsis SIED1 gene, is a potential candidate gene. A dominant genic male sterile (DGMS) mutant 79-399-3 in Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea) is controlled by a single gene named Ms-cd1, which was genetically mapped on chromosome C09. The derived DGMS lines of 79-399-3 have been successfully applied in hybrid cabbage breeding and commercial hybrid seed production of several B...
October 4, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Chao Li, Yan Wang, Liang Xu, Shanshan Nie, Yinglong Chen, Dongyi Liang, Xiaochuan Sun, Benard K Karanja, Xiaobo Luo, Liwang Liu
The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF) family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Viraj G Damle, Rubin Linder, Xiaoda Sun, Nicholas Kemme, Lucas C Majure, Konrad Rykaczewski
Many varieties of the cabbage family have leaves covered with superhydrophobic epicuticular wax, which provides them with self-cleaning characteristics. Since the wax also lowers insect adhesion, rinsing of the leaves with water should be an effective way of removing the insects. Conversely, we report that superhydrophobicity of tuscan kale increases resistance of aphids to hydrodynamic removal. The exterior surface of the insects is also superhydrophobic and acts as an extension of the leaf's surface. As a result even at moderate impact velocities impinging water drops cannot penetrate under the pests...
October 3, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Eva Ortner, Michael Granvogl, Peter Schieberle
Heat-processing of Brassica seeds led to the formation of a characteristic pleasant popcorn-like and coffee-like aroma impression compared to the mainly pea-like aroma of the corresponding raw seeds. To analyze this phenomenon on a molecular basis, raw and roasted white mustard seeds and rapeseeds were analyzed using the Sensomics approach. Application of comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) and identification experiments to raw and roasted (140 °C, 30 min) mustard seeds revealed 36 odorants (all identified for the first time) and 47 odorants (41 newly identified), respectively...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Chunyang Li, Changwen Du, Yin Zeng, Fei Ma, Yazhen Shen, Zhe Xing, Jianmin Zhou
Understanding nitrogen (N) status in the leaves of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa Chinensis) is of significance to both vegetable growth and quality control. Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to perform rapid qualification of N distribution in leaf, a partial least squares algorithm was used to develop a model for prediction of N content, and N distribution in individual leaves was mapped based on interpolation analysis, which was found to be variable. A reasonable N input level (12 mmol L-1 N) showed the largest variance of N content, benefiting N redistribution and use efficiency, but variance decreased at old stage...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
William Deasy, Tom Shepherd, Colin J Alexander, A Nicholas E Birch, K Andrew Evans
INTRODUCTION: Collection of volatiles from plant roots poses technical challenges due to difficulties accessing the soil environment without damaging the roots. OBJECTIVES: To validate a new non-invasive method for passive sampling of root volatiles in situ, from plants grown under field conditions, using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME). METHODS: SPME fibres were inserted into perforated polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) tubes positioned in the soil next to broccoli plants for collection of root volatiles pre- and post-infestation with Delia radicum larvae...
September 30, 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
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