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depersonalization/derealization disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199426/-translating-hysteria-ptsd-dissociative-subtype
#1
Elena Levy Yeyati
To address the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization a specific dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder has been included in DSM-5. Depersonalization and derealization have been defined as acute and chronic symptoms of dissociative disorders since DSM-III. Dissociative disorders with chronic features are often diagnosed in North America, Canada and other European countries, but this is not the case in Argentina. Dissociative disorders have clinical and historical features that are strongly connected with hysteria...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192736/evidence-of-the-dissociative-ptsd-subtype-a-systematic-literature-review-of-latent-class-and-profile-analytic-studies-of-ptsd
#2
REVIEW
Maj Hansen, Jana Ross, Cherie Armour
BACKGROUND: The dissociative PTSD (D-PTSD) subtype was first introduced into the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013. Prior to this, studies using latent profile analysis (LPA) or latent class analysis (LCA), began to provide support for the D-PTSD construct and associated risk factors. This research is important, because dissociative symptoms in the context of PTSD may potentially interfere with treatment course or outcome. The aims of the present study were twofold: to systematically review the LCA and LPA studies investigating support for the D-PTSD construct; and to review the associated research on the risk factors or covariates of D-PTSD in the identified studies...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138924/dissociation-and-alterations-in-brain-function-and-structure-implications-for-borderline-personality-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Annegret Krause-Utz, Rachel Frost, Dorina Winter, Bernet M Elzinga
Dissociation involves disruptions of usually integrated functions of consciousness, perception, memory, identity, and affect (e.g., depersonalization, derealization, numbing, amnesia, and analgesia). While the precise neurobiological underpinnings of dissociation remain elusive, neuroimaging studies in disorders, characterized by high dissociation (e.g., depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD), dissociative identity disorder (DID), dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD)), have provided valuable insight into brain alterations possibly underlying dissociation...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032002/fmri-functional-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#4
Sherain Harricharan, Daniela Rabellino, Paul A Frewen, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Allan N Schore, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hyperarousal and active fight or flight defensive responses. By contrast, the dissociative subtype of PTSD, characterized by depersonalization and derealization symptoms, is frequently accompanied by additional passive or submissive defensive responses associated with autonomic blunting. Here, the periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a central role in defensive responses, where the dorsolateral (DL-PAG) and ventrolateral PAG (VL-PAG) are thought to mediate active and passive defensive responses, respectively...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876453/-i-can-t-tell-whether-it-s-my-hand-a-pilot-study-of-the-neurophenomenology-of-body-representation-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion-in-trauma-related-disorders
#5
Daniela Rabellino, Sherain Harricharan, Paul A Frewen, Dalila Burin, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: Early traumatic experiences are thought to be causal factors in the development of trauma-related dissociative experiences, including depersonalization and derealization. The rubber hand illusion (RHI), a well-known paradigm that measures multi-sensorial integration of a rubber hand into one's own body representation, has been used to investigate alterations in the experience of body ownership and of body representation. Critically, however, it has never been studied in individuals with trauma-related disorders...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681414/depersonalization-and-derealization-in-self-report-and-clinical-interview-the-spectrum-of-borderline-personality-disorder-dissociative-disorders-and-healthy-controls
#6
Vedat Sar, Firdevs Alioğlu, Gamze Akyuz
Depersonalization (DEP) and derealization (DER) were examined among college students with and without borderline personality disorder (BPD) and/or dissociative disorders (DDs) by self-report and clinician assessment. The Steinberg Depersonalization Questionnaire (SDEPQ), the Steinberg Derealization Questionnaire (SDERQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-BPD) were administered to 1,301 students. Those with BPD (n = 80) according to the SCID-BPD and 111 non-BPD controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders by a psychiatrist blind to the diagnosis...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582722/tracking-potentiating-states-of-dissociation-an-intensive-clinical-case-study-of-sleep-daydreaming-mood-and-depersonalization-derealization
#7
Giulia L Poerio, Stephen Kellett, Peter Totterdell
This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD). Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which "dream-like" mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477142/persistent-depersonalization-derealization-disorder-induced-by-synthetic-cannabinoids
#8
Ghita Dadi, Alain Dervaux, Marie-Odile Krebs, Raphaël Gaillard, Xavier Laqueille, Marion Plaze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349226/a-case-series-of-223-patients-with-depersonalization-derealization-syndrome
#9
Matthias Michal, Julia Adler, Jörg Wiltink, Iris Reiner, Regine Tschan, Klaus Wölfling, Sabine Weimert, Inka Tuin, Claudia Subic-Wrana, Manfred E Beutel, Rüdiger Zwerenz
BACKGROUND: Depersonalization-derealization syndrome (DDS) is an underdiagnosed and underresearched clinical phenomenon. In Germany, its administrative prevalence is far below the threshold for orphan diseases, although according to epidemiological surveys the diagnosis should be comparable frequent as anorexia nervosa for instance. Against this background, we carried out a large comprehensive survey of a DDS series in a tertiary mental health center with a specialized depersonalization-derealization clinic...
June 27, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293942/differential-diagnosis-of-an-elderly-manic-depressive-patient-with-depersonalization-and-other-symptoms
#10
Shigehiro Ogata, Yu Itohiya, Yuri Sakamoto, Yuki Sato, Yudai Suyama, Hidenori Atsuta, Ken Iwata
The case study of an elderly man having persecutory delusions and bizarre complaints at the first psychiatric interview is reported. The patient complained: "I have no sense of time" and "I have no sense of money." He refused nursing care. He had delusions centered on himself including that of his own death, which were difficult to diagnose but suggested the possibility of Cotard's syndrome. We assumed that the man was depressed and treated him for depression. However, as a result of this treatment he became temporarily manic but finally recovered completely...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213680/dissociative-features-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-latent-profile-analysis
#11
Jana Műllerová, Maj Hansen, Ateka A Contractor, Jon D Elhai, Cherie Armour
OBJECTIVE: The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) characterizes the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in terms of the individual meeting the criteria for PTSD and additionally reporting symptoms of depersonalization and/or derealization. The current study aimed to examine whether a dissociative PTSD profile may include alternative features of dissociation and whether it could be differentiated from a nondissociative PTSD profile on certain psychopathologies and demographics...
September 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178761/development-and-validation-of-the-dissociative-symptoms-scale
#12
Eve B Carlson, Lynn C Waelde, Patrick A Palmieri, Kathryn S Macia, Steven R Smith, Elizabeth McDade-Montez
The Dissociative Symptoms Scale (DSS) was developed to assess moderately severe levels of depersonalization, derealization, gaps in awareness or memory, and dissociative reexperiencing that would be relevant to a wide range of clinical populations. Structural analyses of data from four clinical and five nonclinical samples (N = 1,600) yielded four factors that reflected the domains of interest and showed good fit with the data. Sample scores were consistent with expectations and showed very good internal consistency and temporal stability...
May 13, 2016: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138588/the-phenomenology-of-major-depression-and-the-representativeness-and-nature-of-dsm-criteria
#13
Kenneth S Kendler
How should DSM criteria relate to the disorders they are designed to assess? To address this question empirically, the author examines how well DSM-5 symptomatic criteria for major depression capture the descriptions of clinical depression in the post-Kraepelin Western psychiatric tradition as described in textbooks published between 1900 and 1960. Eighteen symptoms and signs of depression were described, 10 of which are covered by the DSM criteria for major depression or melancholia. For two symptoms (mood and cognitive content), DSM criteria are considerably narrower than those described in the textbooks...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100173/validation-of-the-factor-structure-of-the-adolescent-dissociative-experiences-scale-in-a-sample-of-trauma-exposed-detained-youth
#14
Patricia K Kerig, Ruby Charak, Shannon D Chaplo, Diana C Bennett, Cherie Armour, Crosby A Modrowski, Andrew B McGee
OBJECTIVE: The inclusion of a dissociative subtype in the (5th ed.; ) criteria for the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has highlighted the need for valid and reliable measures of dissociative symptoms across developmental periods. The Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES) is 1 of the few measures validated for young persons, but previous studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding its factor structure. Further, research to date on the A-DES has been based upon nonclinical samples of youth or those without a known history of trauma...
September 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27086330/pain-and-tactile-dissociation-derealization-and-depersonalization-symptoms-in-women-and-recalled-traumatic-events-in-childhood-adolescence-and-early-adulthood
#15
Bogna Smiatek-Mazgaj, Jerzy A Sobański, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Katarzyna Klasa, Edyta Dembińska, Łukasz Müldner-Nieckowski, Katarzyna Cyranka, Michał Mielimąka
INTRODUCTION: The symptoms of dissociation, depersonalization and derealization are often associated with exposure of patients to mental and physical injuries, usually occurring in childhood. Most of these observations were carried out in populations of patients with various disorders (posttraumatic, conversion-dissociation, personality disorders - especially borderline), who reported their exposure to adverse life circumstances through questionnaire interviews. AIM: Assessment of the risk associated with various traumatic events in childhood and adolescence concerning the symptoms of pain and tactile dissociation, depersonalization and derealization...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27078753/cardiac-modulation-of-startle-is-altered-in-depersonalization-derealization-disorder-evidence-for-impaired-brainstem-representation-of-baro-afferent-neural-traffic
#16
André Schulz, Jan Hendrik Matthey, Claus Vögele, Violetta Schaan, Hartmut Schächinger, Julia Adler, Manfred E Beutel, Matthias Michal
Patients with depersonalization-/derealization disorder (DPD) show altered heartbeat-evoked brain potentials, which are considered psychophysiological indicators of cortical representation of visceral-afferent neural signals. The aim of the current investigation was to clarify whether the impaired CNS representation of visceral-afferent neural signals in DPD is restricted to the cortical level or is also present in sub-cortical structures. We used cardiac modulation of startle (CMS) to assess baro-afferent signal transmission at brainstem level in 22 DPD and 23 healthy control individuals...
June 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042977/unique-insula-subregion-resting-state-functional-connectivity-with-amygdala-complexes-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#17
Andrew A Nicholson, Iman Sapru, Maria Densmore, Paul A Frewen, Richard W J Neufeld, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
The insula and amygdala are implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where both have been shown to be hyper/hypoactive in non-dissociative (PTSD-DS) and dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS) PTSD patients, respectively, during symptom provocation. However, the functional connectivity between individual insula subregions and the amygdala has not been investigated in persons with PTSD, with or without the dissociative subtype. We examined insula subregion (anterior, mid, and posterior) functional connectivity with the bilateral amygdala using a region-of-interest seed-based approach via PickAtlas and SPM8...
April 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26927902/dissociative-symptoms-are-associated-with-reduced-neuropsychological-performance-in-patients-with-recurrent-depression-and-a-history-of-trauma-exposure
#18
Melissa Parlar, Paul A Frewen, Carolina Oremus, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
BACKGROUND: Although preliminary work suggests that dissociative symptoms may impact neuropsychological performance in trauma-exposed populations, the relation between dissociation and cognitive performance has not been explored in patients with depression. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined dissociative symptoms in relation to neuropsychological performance in participants with a primary diagnosis of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of trauma exposure...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26791018/cognitive-load-and-autonomic-response-patterns-under-negative-priming-demand-in-depersonalization-derealization-disorder
#19
Erwin Lemche, Mauricio Sierra-Siegert, Anthony S David, Mary L Phillips, David Gasston, Steven C R Williams, Vincent P Giampietro
Previous studies have yielded evidence for cognitive processing abnormalities and alterations of autonomic functioning in depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPRD). However, multimodal neuroimaging and psychophysiology studies have not yet been conducted to test for functional and effective connectivity under cognitive stress in patients with DPRD. DPRD and non-referred control subjects underwent a combined Stroop/negative priming task, and the neural correlates of Stroop interference effect, negative priming effect, error rates, cognitive load span and average amplitude of skin conductance responses were ascertained for both groups...
April 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26603115/the-dissociative-subtype-of-ptsd-scale-initial-evaluation-in-a-national-sample-of-trauma-exposed-veterans
#20
Erika J Wolf, Karen S Mitchell, Naomi Sadeh, Christina Hein, Isaac Fuhrman, Robert H Pietrzak, Mark W Miller
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual includes a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder, but no existing measures specifically assess it. This article describes the initial evaluation of a 15-item self-report measure of the subtype called the Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (DSPS) in an online survey of 697 trauma-exposed military veterans representative of the U.S. veteran population. Exploratory factor analyses of the lifetime DSPS items supported the intended structure of the measure consisting of three factors reflecting derealization/depersonalization, loss of awareness, and psychogenic amnesia...
November 23, 2015: Assessment
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