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depersonalization/derealization disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877178/white-matter-network-alterations-in-patients-with-depersonalization-derealization-disorder
#1
Anika Sierk, Judith K Daniels, Antje Manthey, Jelmer G Kok, Alexander Leemans, Michael Gaebler, Jan-Peter Lamke, Johann Kruschwitz, Henrik Walter
BACKGROUND: Depersonalization/derealization disorder (DPD) is a chronic and distressing condition characterized by detachment from oneself and/or the external world. Neuroimaging studies have associated DPD with structural and functional alterations in a variety of distinct brain regions. Such local neuronal changes might be mediated by altered interregional white matter connections. However, to our knowledge, no research on network characteristics in this patient population exists to date...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805778/dissociative-symptoms-mediate-the-relation-between-ptsd-symptoms-and-functional-impairment-in-a-sample-of-military-members-veterans-and-first-responders-with-ptsd
#2
Jenna E Boyd, Alina Protopopescu, Charlene O'Connor, Richard W J Neufeld, Rakesh Jetly, Heather K Hood, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
Background : Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant functional impairment in important areas, including interpersonal relationships and occupational or educational roles. Preliminary evidence suggests that the dissociative subtype of PTSD (PTSD+DS), characterized by marked symptoms of depersonalization and derealization, is associated with increased functional impairment and disease severity, including among military members and veterans diagnosed with PTSD. Similarly, first responders (e...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765311/altered-sense-of-body-ownership-and-agency-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype-a-rubber-hand-illusion-study
#3
Daniela Rabellino, Dalila Burin, Sherain Harricharan, Chantelle Lloyd, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
Traumatic experiences have been linked to the development of altered states of consciousness affecting bodily perception, including alterations in body ownership and in sense of agency, the conscious experience of the body as one's own and under voluntary control. Severe psychological trauma and prolonged distress may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Together, symptoms of derealization and, related specifically to the sense of body ownership and agency, of depersonalization (where parts of the body or the entire body itself is perceived as detached and out of control), constitute the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754115/delusional-misidentifications-in-a-procrustean-bed
#4
EDITORIAL
G N Christodoulou, M Margariti, N Christodoulou
The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally fused functions of perception and recognition. The classical sub-types are: the syndromes of Capgras, Fregoli,Intermetamorphosis (mentioned in 3) and Subjective doubles. These syndromes occur in a clear sensorium and shouldbe differentiated from the banal transient misidentifications occurring in confusional states and in mania and from thenon-delusional misidentifications (e...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739129/evaluation-of-relationship-between-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-dissociative-experiences
#5
Mustafa Tatlı, Ozlem Cetinkaya, Fulya Maner
Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and dissociative experiences and the effect of childhood traumatic experiences on this relationship in OCD patients. Methods: Fifty consecutive OCD patients and 50 healthy controls are enrolled for this study. Sociodemographic and Clinical Data Form, Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Padua Inventory (PI) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) are applied to participants...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576731/aggressiveness-violence-homicidality-homicide-and-lyme-disease
#6
Robert C Bransfield
Background: No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD). Materials and methods: Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Results: Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529266/varieties-of-self-disorder-a-bio-pheno-social-model-of-schizophrenia
#7
Louis Sass, Juan P Borda, Luis Madeira, Elizabeth Pienkos, Barnaby Nelson
The self-disorder model offers a unifying way of conceptualizing schizophrenia's highly diverse symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized), of capturing their distinctive bizarreness, and of conceiving their longitudinal development. These symptoms are viewed as differing manifestations of an underlying disorder of ipseity or core-self: hyper-reflexivity/diminished-self-presence with accompanying disturbances of "grip" or "hold" on reality. Recent revision to this phenomenological theory, in particular distinguishing primary-vs-secondary factors, offers a bio-pheno-social model that is consistent with recent empirical findings and offers several advantages: (1) It helps account for the temporal variations of the symptoms or syndrome, including longitudinal progression, but also the shorter-term, situationally reactive, and sometimes defensive or quasi-intentional variability of symptom-expression that can occur in schizophrenia (consistent with understanding some aspects of ipseity-disturbance as dynamic and mutable, involving shifting attitudes or experiential orientations)...
February 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501990/features-of-dissociation-differentially-predict-antidepressant-response-to-ketamine-in-treatment-resistant-depression
#8
Mark J Niciu, Bridget J Shovestul, Brittany A Jaso, Cristan Farmer, David A Luckenbaugh, Nancy E Brutsche, Lawrence T Park, Elizabeth D Ballard, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: Ketamine induces rapid and robust antidepressant effects, and many patients also describe dissociation, which is associated with antidepressant response. This follow-up study investigated whether antidepressant efficacy is uniquely related to dissociative symptom clusters. METHODS: Treatment-resistant patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD) (n = 126) drawn from three studies received a single subanesthetic (0.5 mg/kg) ketamine infusion...
May 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302772/development-and-preliminary-psychometric-properties-of-an-instrument-for-the-measurement-of-obsessional-dissociative-experiences-the-van-obsessional-dissociation-questionnaire-vod-q
#9
Murat Boysan, Abdullah Yıldırım, Lütfullah Beşiroğlu, Mehmet Celal Kefeli, Mücahit Kağan
A growing body of research evidence documents the substantial associations between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and dissociation. This article describes the development and preliminary psychometric properties of the Van Obsessional Dissociation Questionnaire (VOD-Q). Obsessional dissociation is defined as a tendency to dissociate in reaction to distressing, unwanted and intrusive thoughts, images and impulses. The screening tool is conceptualized to tap obsessional dissociation across three dimensions: obsessional absorption, obsessional depersonalization/ derealization and obsessional amnesia...
January 4, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296086/brain-functional-integration-an-epidemiologic-study-on-stress-producing-dissociative-phenomena
#10
Raffaele Sperandeo, Vincenzo Monda, Giovanni Messina, Marco Carotenuto, Nelson Mauro Maldonato, Enrico Moretto, Elena Leone, Vincenzo De Luca, Marcellino Monda, Antonietta Messina
Dissociative phenomena are common among psychiatric patients; the presence of these symptoms can worsen the prognosis, increasing the severity of their clinical conditions and exposing them to increased risk of suicidal behavior. Personality disorders as long duration stressful experiences may support the development of dissociative phenomena. In 933 psychiatric outpatients consecutively recruited, presence of dissociative phenomena was identified with the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES). Dissociative phenomena were significantly more severe in the group of people with mental disorders and/or personality disorders...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173740/the-dissociative-subtype-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-among-adolescents-co-occurring-ptsd-depersonalization-derealization-and-other-dissociation-symptoms
#11
Kristen R Choi, Julia S Seng, Ernestine C Briggs, Michelle L Munro-Kramer, Sandra A Graham-Bermann, Robert C Lee, Julian D Ford
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation in a clinical sample of trauma-exposed adolescents by evaluating evidence for the depersonalization/derealization dissociative subtype of PTSD as defined by the DSM-5 and then examining a broader set of dissociation symptoms. METHOD: A sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed adolescents 12 to 16 years old (N = 3,081) from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set was used to meet the study objectives...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151098/the-alice-in-wonderland-syndrome
#12
Douglas J Lanska, John R Lanska
In 1955, English psychiatrist John Todd defined the Alice-in-Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) as self-experienced paroxysmal body-image illusions involving distortions of the size, mass, or shape of the patient's own body or its position in space, often accompanied by depersonalization and/or derealization. AIWS had been described by American Neurologist Caro Lippman in 1952, but Todd's report was the most influential. Todd named the syndrome for the perceptual disorder of altered body image experienced by the protagonist in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson)...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080235/cortical-thickness-alterations-linked-to-somatoform-and-psychological-dissociation-in-functional-neurological-disorders
#13
David L Perez, Nassim Matin, Benjamin Williams, Kaloyan Tanev, Nikos Makris, W Curt LaFrance, Bradford C Dickerson
BACKGROUND: Links between dissociation and functional neurological disorder (FND)/conversion disorder are well-established, yet the pathophysiology of dissociation remains poorly understood. This MRI study investigated structural alterations associated with somatoform and psychological dissociation in FND. We hypothesized that multimodal, paralimbic cingulo-insular regions would relate to the severity of somatoform dissociation in patients with FND. METHODS: FreeSurfer cortical thickness and subcortical volumetric analyses were performed in 26 patients with motor FND and 27 matched healthy controls...
January 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063485/the-dissociative-subtype-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-research-update-on-clinical-and-neurobiological-features
#14
Jytte van Huijstee, Eric Vermetten
Recently, a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been included in the DSM-5. This review focuses on the clinical and neurobiological features that distinguish the dissociative subtype of PTSD from non-dissociative PTSD. Clinically, the dissociative subtype of PTSD is associated with high PTSD severity, predominance of derealization and depersonalization symptoms, a more significant history of early life trauma, and higher levels of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, PTSD patients with dissociative symptoms exhibit different psychophysiological and neural responses to the recall of traumatic memories...
October 21, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038094/transdiagnostic-psychodynamic-web-based-self-help-intervention-following-inpatient-psychotherapy-results-of-a-feasibility-study-and-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Rüdiger Zwerenz, Jan Becker, Robert Johansson, Ronald J Frederick, Gerhard Andersson, Manfred E Beutel
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders have become a major health issue, and a substantial number of afflicted individuals do not get appropriate treatment. Web-based interventions are promising supplementary tools for improving health care for patients with mental disorders, as they can be delivered at low costs and used independently of time and location. Although psychodynamic treatments are used frequently in the face-to-face setting, there has been a paucity of studies on psychodynamic Web-based self-help interventions...
October 16, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942536/the-ethics-of-virtual-reality-technology-social-hazards-and-public-policy-recommendations
#16
James S Spiegel
This article explores four major areas of moral concern regarding virtual reality (VR) technologies. First, VR poses potential mental health risks, including Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. Second, VR technology raises serious concerns related to personal neglect of users' own actual bodies and real physical environments. Third, VR technologies may be used to record personal data which could be deployed in ways that threaten personal privacy and present a danger related to manipulation of users' beliefs, emotions, and behaviors...
September 23, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911803/sensory-overload-and-imbalance-resting-state-vestibular-connectivity-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#17
Sherain Harricharan, Andrew A Nicholson, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Richard W J Neufeld, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: The vestibular system integrates multisensory information to monitor one's bodily orientation in space, and is influenced by interoceptive awareness. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves typically alterations in interoceptive and bodily self-awareness evidenced by symptoms of hyperarousal, as well as of emotional detachment, including emotional numbing, depersonalization, and derealization. These alterations may disrupt vestibular multisensory integration between the brainstem (vestibular nuclei) and key vestibular cortical regions (parieto-insular vestibular cortex, prefrontal cortex)...
September 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866722/changes-in-intensity-of-neurotic-symptoms-associated-with-reduction-of-suicidal-ideation-in-patients-who-underwent-psychotherapy-in-the-day-hospital-for-the-treatment-of-neurotic-and-behavioral-disorders
#18
Paweł Rodziński, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Agnieszka Murzyn, Jerzy A Sobański, Katarzyna Cyranka, Edyta Dembińska, Karolina Grządziel, Katarzyna Klasa, Michał Mielimąka, Łukasz Müldner-Nieckowski, Bogna Smiatek-Mazgaj
OBJECTIVES: Analysis of associations between changes in the intensity of neurotic symptoms and reduction of suicidal ideation (SI) or lack of SI reduction, in patients who underwent a course of intensive psychotherapy conducted in integrative approach with predominance of psychodynamic approach in a day hospital. METHODS: Symptom Checklist KO"O" and Life Inventory completed by 461 women and 219 men treated in the psychotherapeutic day hospital due to neurotic, behavioral or personality disorders between 2005-2013...
June 18, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813316/perspectives-on-the-conceptualization-of-the-dissociative-subtype-of-ptsd-and-implications-for-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Sunny J Dutra, Erika J Wolf
A dissociative subtype of PTSD was added to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to denote a distinct presentation of PTSD marked by symptoms of derealization and depersonalization. The subtype has brought renewed interest in the conceptualization of dissociation in PTSD, and raised questions about its treatment. We review the evidence for two models of PTSD-related dissociative symptoms and the treatment approaches that align with each. We find support for the contributions of biologically-based trait-level factors to dissociation, and suggest that empirically supported treatments for PTSD demonstrate efficacy for patients with the subtype...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697998/neural-and-behavioural-correlates-of-autobiographical-memory-retrieval-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-and-a-history-of-trauma-exposure
#20
Melissa Parlar, Maria Densmore, Geoffrey B C Hall, Ruth Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
Alterations in autobiographical memory (AM) performance have been identified in major depressive disorder (MDD) and in trauma-related disorders, however, the neural and behavioural correlates of AM retrieval in patients with MDD and a co-morbid history of trauma remain unexplored. Here, we used behavioural and neuroimaging techniques to investigate AM in this patient group and in matched healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Twenty patients with MDD and trauma exposure and 20 HCs underwent fMRI scanning while recalling positive, negative, and neutral events...
February 2018: Neuropsychologia
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