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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086804/comparative-analysis-of-the-root-transcriptomes-of-cultivated-sweetpotato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam-and-its-wild-ancestor-ipomoea-trifida-kunth-g-don
#1
Sathish K Ponniah, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Ketaki Bhide, Venu Kal Kalavacharla, Muthusamy Manoharan
BACKGROUND: The complex process of formation of storage roots (SRs) from adventitious roots affects sweetpotato yield. Identifying the genes that are uniquely expressed in the SR forming cultivated species, Ipomoea batatas (Ib), and its immediate ancestral species, Ipomoea trifida (It), which does not form SRs, may provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying SR formation in sweetpotato. RESULTS: Illumina paired-end sequencing generated ~208 and ~200 million reads for Ib and It, respectively...
January 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064367/cellular-responses-to-the-expression-of-unstable-secretory-proteins-in-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-oryzae
#2
Jun-Ichi Yokota, Daisuke Shiro, Mizuki Tanaka, Yasumichi Onozaki, Osamu Mizutani, Dararat Kakizono, Sakurako Ichinose, Tomoko Shintani, Katsuya Gomi, Takahiro Shintani
Filamentous fungi are often used as cell factories for recombinant protein production because of their ability to secrete large quantities of hydrolytic enzymes. However, even using strong transcriptional promoters, yields of nonfungal proteins are generally much lower than those of fungal proteins. Recent analyses revealed that expression of certain nonfungal secretory proteins induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting that they are recognized as proteins with folding defects in filamentous fungi...
January 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062835/the-osmyb30-transcription-factor-suppresses-cold-tolerance-by-interacting-with-a-jaz-protein-and-suppressing-%C3%AE-amylase-expression
#3
Yan Lv, Mei Yang, Dan Hu, Zeyu Yang, Siqi Ma, Xianghua Li, Lizhong Xiong
Cold stress is one of the major limiting factors for rice productivity. Several MYB transcriptional factors have been reported as important regulators in cold response, but the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we characterized a cold-responsive R2R3-type MYB gene OsMYB30 for its regulatory function in cold tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa). Functional analysis revealed that overexpression of OsMYB30 in rice resulted in increased cold sensitivity, while the osmyb30 knockout mutant showed increased cold tolerance...
January 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060696/acute-pancreatitis-and-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-case-report
#4
Vítor Magno Pereira, Luís Marote Correia, Tiago Rodrigues, Gorete Serrão Faria
The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a neurological syndrome characterized by headache, confusion, visual disturbances and seizures associated with identifiable areas of cerebral edema on imaging studies. The authors report the case of a man, 33 years-old, leukodermic with a history of chronic alcohol and tobacco consumption, who is admitted to the emergency department for epigastric pain radiating to the back and vomiting with about six hours of evolution and an intense holocranial headache for two hours...
September 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056770/genetic-architecture-of-kernel-composition-in-global-sorghum-germplasm
#5
Davina H Rhodes, Leo Hoffmann, William L Rooney, Thomas J Herald, Scott Bean, Richard Boyles, Zachary W Brenton, Stephen Kresovich
BACKGROUND: Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are still unresolved. The goals of this study were to quantify natural variation of sorghum grain composition and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with variation in grain composition concentrations...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053590/in-vitro-biocontrol-activity-of-halotolerant-streptomyces-aureofaciens-k20-a-potent-antagonist-against-macrophomina-phaseolina-tassi-goid
#6
P Shrivastava, R Kumar, M S Yandigeri
A halotolerant actinobacterial strain isolated from salinity affected soil of Eastern Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP), Uttar Pradesh, India, was characterised for its antagonistic potential against Macrophomina phaseolina by dual-culture assay. It was shown to effectively inhibit the growth of M. phaseolina with an inhibition zone of 27 ± 1.33 mm. Further the actinobacterial strain was evaluated for its plant growth promoting (PGP) properties and its ability to produce biocontrol related extracellular enzymes viz...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048945/organotypic-spheroid-culture-to-mimic-radiation-induced-salivary-hypofunction
#7
H S Shin, H Y An, J S Choi, H J Kim, J Y Lim
Radiation treatment often leads to irreversible damage to normal salivary glands (SGs) because of their proximity to head and neck cancers. Optimization of the in vitro model of irradiation (IR)-induced SG damage is warranted to investigate pathophysiology and monitor treatment outcome. Here, we present an organotypic spheroid culture model to investigate the impact of IR on SGs and the mechanisms underlying IR-induced structural and functional changes. Human parotid epithelial cells were obtained from human parotid glands and plated on either plastic plates or Matrigel...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018628/amy2b-copy-number-variation-reveals-starch-diet-adaptations-in-ancient-european-dogs
#8
Morgane Ollivier, Anne Tresset, Fabiola Bastian, Laetitia Lagoutte, Erik Axelsson, Maja-Louise Arendt, Adrian Bălăşescu, Marjan Marshour, Mikhail V Sablin, Laure Salanova, Jean-Denis Vigne, Christophe Hitte, Catherine Hänni
Extant dog and wolf DNA indicates that dog domestication was accompanied by the selection of a series of duplications on the Amy2B gene coding for pancreatic amylase. In this study, we used a palaeogenetic approach to investigate the timing and expansion of the Amy2B gene in the ancient dog populations of Western and Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to estimate the copy numbers of this gene for 13 ancient dog samples, dated to between 15 000 and 4000 years before present (cal...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000033/the-protein-phosphatase-2c-clade-a-protein-ospp2c51-positively-regulates-seed-germination-by-directly-inactivating-osbzip10
#9
Nikita Bhatnagar, Myung-Ki Min, Eun-Hye Choi, Namhyo Kim, Seok-Jun Moon, Insun Yoon, Taekryoun Kwon, Ki-Hong Jung, Beom-Gi Kim
Protein phosphatase 2C clade A members are major signaling components in the ABA-dependent signaling cascade that regulates seed germination. To elucidate the role of PP2CA genes in germination of rice seed, we selected OsPP2C51, which shows highly specific expression in the embryo compared with other protein phosphatases based on microarray data. GUS histochemical assay confirmed that OsPP2C51 is expressed in the seed embryo and that this expression pattern is unique compared with those of other OsPP2CA genes...
December 20, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994606/lineage-specific-evolutionary-histories-and-regulation-of-major-starch-metabolism-genes-during-banana-ripening
#10
Cyril Jourda, Céline Cardi, Olivier Gibert, Andrès Giraldo Toro, Julien Ricci, Didier Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Nabila Yahiaoui
Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants. It is also a major feature of cultivated bananas as it accumulates to large amounts during banana fruit development before almost complete conversion to soluble sugars during ripening. Little is known about the structure of major gene families involved in banana starch metabolism and their evolution compared to other species. To identify genes involved in banana starch metabolism and investigate their evolutionary history, we analyzed six gene families playing a crucial role in plant starch biosynthesis and degradation: the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPases), starch synthases (SS), starch branching enzymes (SBE), debranching enzymes (DBE), α-amylases (AMY) and β-amylases (BAM)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979226/fractionation-enzyme-inhibitory-and-cellular-antioxidant-activity-of-bioactives-from-purple-sweet-potato-ipomoea-batatas
#11
Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Miriam Rodríguez-Werner, Anke Schlösser, Peter Winterhalter, Gerald Rimbach
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is mainly cultivated in Asia. The deep purple color of purple sweet potato (PSP) is due to the high content of acylated anthocyanins. In the present study, PSP-derived polyphenols were identified using HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses. After concentration of the polyphenols from PSP, preparative separation into two fractions, designated anthocyanins (AF) and copigments (CF), was carried out using adsorptive membrane chromatography. In enzyme inhibitory assays, all PSP samples inhibited the enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966753/polymorphism-of-starch-pathway-genes-in-cassava
#12
L M Vasconcelos, A C Brito, C D Carmo, E J Oliveira
The distribution and frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can help to understand changes associated with characteristics of interest. We aimed to evaluate nucleotide diversity in six genes involved in starch biosynthesis in cassava using a panel of 96 unrelated accessions. The genes were sequenced, aligned, and used to obtain values for nucleotide diversity (π), segregating sites (θ), Tajima's D test, and neighbor-joining (NJ) clustering. On average, one SNP per 147 and 171 bp was identified in exon and intron regions, respectively...
December 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941194/-genetic-mutations-as-a-cause-of-acute-recurrent-pancreatitis-in-children-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Tatiana Jamer, Barbara Iwańczak
Acute recurrent pancreatitis is not common in children. The epidemiology, etiology and clinical presentation of pediatric acute recurrent pancreatitis are not well understood. The etiology is diverse and multifactorial, with many cases being idiopathic. The most common etiology of acute recurrent pancreatitis in children are genetic factors, biliary duct disorders, anatomic anomalies of the pancreatobiliary system and metabolic diseases. Mutations are most commonly found in the cationic trypsynogen gene (PRSS1), the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor gene (SPINK1) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR)...
2016: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924363/characteristics-and-applications-of-recombinant-thermostable-amylopullulanase-of-geobacillus-thermoleovorans-secreted-by-pichia-pastoris
#14
M Nisha, T Satyanarayana
The 3'-deleted amylopullulanase gene from the extreme thermophile Geobacillus thermoleovorans (Gt-apuΔC) was expressed extracellularly in Pichia pastoris under both methanol-inducible AOX1 and constitutive GAP promoters. The expression of the gene (Gt-apuΔC) was higher under GAP promoter (36.2 U ml(-1), α-amylase; 33.5 U ml(-1), pullulanase) than that under AOX1 promoter (32.5 and 28.6 U ml(-1)). The heavily glycosylated Gt-apuΔC from the recombinant P. pastoris displays higher substrate specificity, thermal stability and starch saccharification efficiency than that expressed in Escherichia coli...
December 6, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913887/transcriptomics-analysis-of-hulless-barley-during-grain-development-with-a-focus-on-starch-biosynthesis
#15
Yawei Tang, Xingquan Zeng, Yulin Wang, Lijun Bai, Qijun Xu, Zexiu Wei, Hongjun Yuan, Tashi Nyima
Hulless barley, with its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits, has increasingly attracted attentions in recent years. However, the transcription dynamics during hulless barley grain development is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome changes during barley grain development using Illumina paired-end RNA-sequencing. Two datasets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two barley landraces with the differential seed starch synthesis traits were generated, and comparative transcriptome approach in both genotypes was performed...
January 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880961/characterization-of-aspergillus-sojae-isolated-from-meju-korean-traditional-fermented-soybean-bricks
#16
Kyung Min Kim, Jaeho Lim, Jae Jung Lee, Byung-Serk Hurh, Inhyung Lee
Initially, we screened 18 A. sojae-like strains from Aspergillus spp. isolated from meju (Korean traditional fermented soybean bricks) according to their morphological characteristics. Because members of Aspergillus section Flavi are often incorrectly identified because of their phylogenetic similarity, we re-identified these strains at morphological and molecular genetic levels. Fourteen strains were finally identified as A. sojae. The isolates produced protease and α-amylase with ranges of 2.66-10.64 and 21...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866313/two-myb-related-transcription-factors-play-opposite-roles-in-sugar-signaling-in-arabidopsis
#17
Yi-Shih Chen, Yi-Chi Chao, Tzu-Wei Tseng, Chun-Kai Huang, Pei-Ching Lo, Chung-An Lu
Sugar regulation of gene expression has profound effects at all stages of the plant life cycle. Although regulation at the transcriptional level is one of the most prominent mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated, only a few transcription factors have been identified and demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of sugar-regulated gene expression. OsMYBS1, an R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase gene expression in rice...
November 19, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864852/h-pyrophosphatase-ibvp1-promotes-efficient-iron-use-in-sweet-potato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam
#18
Weijuan Fan, Hongxia Wang, Yinliang Wu, Nan Yang, Jun Yang, Peng Zhang
Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies limiting crop production globally, especially in arid regions because of decreased availability of iron in alkaline soils. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] grows well in arid regions and is tolerant to Fe deficiency. Here we report that the transcription of type I H(+) -pyrophosphatase (H(+) -PPase) gene IbVP1 in sweet potato plants was strongly induced by Fe deficiency and auxin in hydroponics, improving Fe acquisition via increased rhizosphere acidification and auxin regulation...
November 18, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864513/construction-of-a-male-sterility-system-for-hybrid-rice-breeding-and-seed-production-using-a-nuclear-male-sterility-gene
#19
Zhenyi Chang, Zhufeng Chen, Na Wang, Gang Xie, Jiawei Lu, Wei Yan, Junli Zhou, Xiaoyan Tang, Xing Wang Deng
The breeding and large-scale adoption of hybrid seeds is an important achievement in agriculture. Rice hybrid seed production uses cytoplasmic male sterile lines or photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) as female parent. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines are propagated via cross-pollination by corresponding maintainer lines, whereas PTGMS lines are propagated via self-pollination under environmental conditions restoring male fertility. Despite huge successes, both systems have their intrinsic drawbacks...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853181/selective-sweep-on-human-amylase-genes-postdates-the-split-with-neanderthals
#20
Charlotte E Inchley, Cynthia D A Larbey, Nzar A A Shwan, Luca Pagani, Lauri Saag, Tiago Antão, Guy Jacobs, Georgi Hudjashov, Ene Metspalu, Mario Mitt, Christina A Eichstaedt, Boris Malyarchuk, Miroslava Derenko, Joseph Wee, Syafiq Abdullah, François-Xavier Ricaut, Maru Mormina, Reedik Mägi, Richard Villems, Mait Metspalu, Martin K Jones, John A L Armour, Toomas Kivisild
Humans have more copies of amylase genes than other primates. It is still poorly understood, however, when the copy number expansion occurred and whether its spread was enhanced by selection. Here we assess amylase copy numbers in a global sample of 480 high coverage genomes and find that regions flanking the amylase locus show notable depression of genetic diversity both in African and non-African populations. Analysis of genetic variation in these regions supports the model of an early selective sweep in the human lineage after the split of humans from Neanderthals which led to the fixation of multiple copies of AMY1 in place of a single copy...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
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