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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197133/metatranscriptomics-reveals-the-active-bacterial-and-eukaryotic-fibrolytic-communities-in-the-rumen-of-dairy-cow-fed-a-mixed-diet
#1
Sophie Comtet-Marre, Nicolas Parisot, Pascale Lepercq, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Pascale Mosoni, Eric Peyretaillade, Ali R Bayat, Kevin J Shingfield, Pierre Peyret, Evelyne Forano
Ruminants have a unique ability to derive energy from the degradation of plant polysaccharides through the activity of the rumen microbiota. Although this process is well studied in vitro, knowledge gaps remain regarding the relative contribution of the microbiota members and enzymes in vivo. The present study used RNA-sequencing to reveal both the expression of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) by the rumen microbiota of a lactating dairy cow and the microorganisms forming the fiber-degrading community...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193788/erratum-metabolomic-profile-of-low-copy-number-carriers-at-the-salivary-%C3%AE-amylase-gene-suggests-a-metabolic-shift-toward-lipid-based-energy-production-diabetes-2016-65-3362-3368
#2
Abdelilah Arredouani, Matteo Stocchero, Nicola Culeddu, Julia El-Sayed Moustafa, Jean Tichet, Beverley Balkau, Thierry Brousseau, Marco Manca, Mario Falchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187329/genetic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-an-oligo-%C3%AE-1-6-glucosidase-from-lactobacillus-plantarum
#3
Susana Delgado, Ana Belén Flórez, Lucía Guadamuro, Baltasar Mayo
Although encoded in the genome of many Lactobacillus spp. strains, α-glucosidases have received little attention compared to other glycosyl hydrolases. In this study, a putative oligosaccharide(oligo)-α-1,6-glucosidase-encoding gene (malL) was identified in the genome of Lactobacillus plantarum LL441. malL coded for 572 amino acid residues with a calculated total molecular mass of 66.31kDa. No predicted signal peptide was observed, suggesting this enzyme to be localized within the cytoplasm of the cell. Homology studies of the deduced amino acid sequence in the area of its active sites classified the enzyme as a member of the α-amylase (AmyAC) superfamily of glycosyl hydrolases (GH), family 13 (GH13), subfamily 31 (GH13_31)...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143661/novel-therapy-for-pancreatic-fistula-using-adipose-derived-stem-cell-sheets-treated-with-mannose
#4
Hirokazu Kaneko, Toshio Kokuryo, Yukihiro Yokoyama, Junpei Yamaguchi, Tokunori Yamamoto, Rei Shibata, Momokazu Gotoh, Toyoaki Murohara, Akira Ito, Masato Nagino
BACKGROUND: Given that no studies have reported the use of adipose-derived stem cell sheets for the prevention of pancreatic fistulas, it is unclear whether adipose-derived stem cell sheets are effective at preventing this complication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapy for the prevention of pancreatic fistulas using adipose-derived stem cell sheets treated with mannose. METHODS: The rat pancreatic duct (splenic duct) and surrounding pancreatic parenchyma were transected to induce a pancreatic fistula...
January 28, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125683/differences-in-amy1-gene-copy-numbers-derived-from-blood-buccal-cells-and-saliva-using-quantitative-and-droplet-digital-pcr-methods-flagging-the-pitfall
#5
Delicia Shu Qin Ooi, Verena Ming Hui Tan, Siong Gim Ong, Yiong Huak Chan, Chew Kiat Heng, Yung Seng Lee
INTRODUCTION: The human salivary (AMY1) gene, encoding salivary α-amylase, has variable copy number variants (CNVs) in the human genome. We aimed to determine if real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and the more recently available Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) can provide a precise quantification of the AMY1 gene copy number in blood, buccal cells and saliva samples derived from the same individual. METHODS: Seven participants were recruited and DNA was extracted from the blood, buccal cells and saliva samples provided by each participant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109854/histone-methyltransferase-aflrmta-gene-is-involved-in-the-morphogenesis-mycotoxin-biosynthesis-and-pathogenicity-of-aspergillus-flavus
#6
Yu Li, Yizi He, Xing Li, Opemipo Esther Fasoyin, Yule Hu, Yaju Liu, Jun Yuan, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
Arginine methyltransferases catalyze the posttranslational methylation of arginine, which is involved in a range of important biological processes. aflrmtA gene, an arginine methyltransferase was deleted from Aspergillus flavus in this study by homologous recombination. In morphogenesis assay, aflrmtA was found to down-regulate conidiation by regulating the activity of brlA and abaA genes. It was also found to increase sclerotia formation by up-regulating the expression of nsdC and nsdD genes. In mycotoxin biosynthesis, aflrmtA gene was found to significantly up-regulate the biosynthesis of AFB1 in PDA and PDB media by improving the expression of aflR, aflC and aflK, but it was of no effect in YES medium...
January 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101908/recurrent-rearrangements-of-human-amylase-genes-create-multiple-independent-cnv-series
#7
Nzar A A Shwan, Sandra Louzada, Fengtang Yang, John A L Armour
The human amylase gene cluster includes the human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B), and is a highly variable and dynamic region of the genome. Copy number variation of AMY1 has been implicated in human dietary adaptation, and in population association with obesity, but neither of these findings has been independently replicated. Despite these functional implications, the structural genomic basis of copy number variation (CNV) has only been defined in detail very recently. In this work we use high-resolution analysis of copy number, and analysis of segregation in trios, to define new, independent allelic series of amylase CNVs in sub-Saharan Africans, including a series of higher-order expansions of a unit consisting of one copy each of AMY1, AMY2A and AMY2B...
January 19, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095353/liver-alpha-amylase-gene-expression-as-an-early-obesity-biomarker
#8
Marzieh Mojbafan, Zohreh Afsartala, Mahsa M Amoli, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Bagher Larijani, Azadeh Ebrahim-Habibi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem worldwide, for which preventive and therapeutic means are still needed. Alpha-amylase is a digestive enzyme whose inhibition has been targeted as a potential anti-obesity strategy. However, alpha-amylase gene expression has not been particularly attended to, and in contrast with pancreatic and salivary amylases, fewer studies have focused on liver alpha-amylase. The present study aimed at investigating the expression of alpha-amylase gene in obese and normal mice at RNA and protein level as well as acarbose effect on this gene expression in hepatocyte cell culture...
November 5, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086804/comparative-analysis-of-the-root-transcriptomes-of-cultivated-sweetpotato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam-and-its-wild-ancestor-ipomoea-trifida-kunth-g-don
#9
Sathish K Ponniah, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Ketaki Bhide, Venu Kal Kalavacharla, Muthusamy Manoharan
BACKGROUND: The complex process of formation of storage roots (SRs) from adventitious roots affects sweetpotato yield. Identifying the genes that are uniquely expressed in the SR forming cultivated species, Ipomoea batatas (Ib), and its immediate ancestral species, Ipomoea trifida (It), which does not form SRs, may provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying SR formation in sweetpotato. RESULTS: Illumina paired-end sequencing generated ~208 and ~200 million reads for Ib and It, respectively...
January 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064367/cellular-responses-to-the-expression-of-unstable-secretory-proteins-in-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-oryzae
#10
Jun-Ichi Yokota, Daisuke Shiro, Mizuki Tanaka, Yasumichi Onozaki, Osamu Mizutani, Dararat Kakizono, Sakurako Ichinose, Tomoko Shintani, Katsuya Gomi, Takahiro Shintani
Filamentous fungi are often used as cell factories for recombinant protein production because of their ability to secrete large quantities of hydrolytic enzymes. However, even using strong transcriptional promoters, yields of nonfungal proteins are generally much lower than those of fungal proteins. Recent analyses revealed that expression of certain nonfungal secretory proteins induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting that they are recognized as proteins with folding defects in filamentous fungi...
January 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062835/the-osmyb30-transcription-factor-suppresses-cold-tolerance-by-interacting-with-a-jaz-protein-and-suppressing-%C3%AE-amylase-expression
#11
Yan Lv, Mei Yang, Dan Hu, Zeyu Yang, Siqi Ma, Xianghua Li, Lizhong Xiong
Cold stress is one of the major limiting factors for rice productivity. Several MYB transcriptional factors have been reported as important regulators in cold response, but the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we characterized a cold-responsive R2R3-type MYB gene OsMYB30 for its regulatory function in cold tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa). Functional analysis revealed that overexpression of OsMYB30 in rice resulted in increased cold sensitivity, while the osmyb30 knockout mutant showed increased cold tolerance...
January 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060696/acute-pancreatitis-and-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-case-report
#12
Vítor Magno Pereira, Luís Marote Correia, Tiago Rodrigues, Gorete Serrão Faria
The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a neurological syndrome characterized by headache, confusion, visual disturbances and seizures associated with identifiable areas of cerebral edema on imaging studies. The authors report the case of a man, 33 years-old, leukodermic with a history of chronic alcohol and tobacco consumption, who is admitted to the emergency department for epigastric pain radiating to the back and vomiting with about six hours of evolution and an intense holocranial headache for two hours...
September 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056770/genetic-architecture-of-kernel-composition-in-global-sorghum-germplasm
#13
Davina H Rhodes, Leo Hoffmann, William L Rooney, Thomas J Herald, Scott Bean, Richard Boyles, Zachary W Brenton, Stephen Kresovich
BACKGROUND: Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are still unresolved. The goals of this study were to quantify natural variation of sorghum grain composition and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with variation in grain composition concentrations...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053590/in-vitro-biocontrol-activity-of-halotolerant-streptomyces-aureofaciens-k20-a-potent-antagonist-against-macrophomina-phaseolina-tassi-goid
#14
P Shrivastava, R Kumar, M S Yandigeri
A halotolerant actinobacterial strain isolated from salinity affected soil of Eastern Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP), Uttar Pradesh, India, was characterised for its antagonistic potential against Macrophomina phaseolina by dual-culture assay. It was shown to effectively inhibit the growth of M. phaseolina with an inhibition zone of 27 ± 1.33 mm. Further the actinobacterial strain was evaluated for its plant growth promoting (PGP) properties and its ability to produce biocontrol related extracellular enzymes viz...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048945/organotypic-spheroid-culture-to-mimic-radiation-induced-salivary-hypofunction
#15
H S Shin, H Y An, J S Choi, H J Kim, J Y Lim
Radiation treatment often leads to irreversible damage to normal salivary glands (SGs) because of their proximity to head and neck cancers. Optimization of the in vitro model of irradiation (IR)-induced SG damage is warranted to investigate pathophysiology and monitor treatment outcome. Here, we present an organotypic spheroid culture model to investigate the impact of IR on SGs and the mechanisms underlying IR-induced structural and functional changes. Human parotid epithelial cells were obtained from human parotid glands and plated on either plastic plates or Matrigel...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018628/amy2b-copy-number-variation-reveals-starch-diet-adaptations-in-ancient-european-dogs
#16
Morgane Ollivier, Anne Tresset, Fabiola Bastian, Laetitia Lagoutte, Erik Axelsson, Maja-Louise Arendt, Adrian Bălăşescu, Marjan Marshour, Mikhail V Sablin, Laure Salanova, Jean-Denis Vigne, Christophe Hitte, Catherine Hänni
Extant dog and wolf DNA indicates that dog domestication was accompanied by the selection of a series of duplications on the Amy2B gene coding for pancreatic amylase. In this study, we used a palaeogenetic approach to investigate the timing and expansion of the Amy2B gene in the ancient dog populations of Western and Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to estimate the copy numbers of this gene for 13 ancient dog samples, dated to between 15 000 and 4000 years before present (cal...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000033/the-protein-phosphatase-2c-clade-a-protein-ospp2c51-positively-regulates-seed-germination-by-directly-inactivating-osbzip10
#17
Nikita Bhatnagar, Myung-Ki Min, Eun-Hye Choi, Namhyo Kim, Seok-Jun Moon, Insun Yoon, Taekryoun Kwon, Ki-Hong Jung, Beom-Gi Kim
Protein phosphatase 2C clade A members are major signaling components in the ABA-dependent signaling cascade that regulates seed germination. To elucidate the role of PP2CA genes in germination of rice seed, we selected OsPP2C51, which shows highly specific expression in the embryo compared with other protein phosphatases based on microarray data. GUS histochemical assay confirmed that OsPP2C51 is expressed in the seed embryo and that this expression pattern is unique compared with those of other OsPP2CA genes...
December 20, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994606/lineage-specific-evolutionary-histories-and-regulation-of-major-starch-metabolism-genes-during-banana-ripening
#18
Cyril Jourda, Céline Cardi, Olivier Gibert, Andrès Giraldo Toro, Julien Ricci, Didier Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Nabila Yahiaoui
Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants. It is also a major feature of cultivated bananas as it accumulates to large amounts during banana fruit development before almost complete conversion to soluble sugars during ripening. Little is known about the structure of major gene families involved in banana starch metabolism and their evolution compared to other species. To identify genes involved in banana starch metabolism and investigate their evolutionary history, we analyzed six gene families playing a crucial role in plant starch biosynthesis and degradation: the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPases), starch synthases (SS), starch branching enzymes (SBE), debranching enzymes (DBE), α-amylases (AMY) and β-amylases (BAM)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979226/fractionation-enzyme-inhibitory-and-cellular-antioxidant-activity-of-bioactives-from-purple-sweet-potato-ipomoea-batatas
#19
Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Miriam Rodríguez-Werner, Anke Schlösser, Peter Winterhalter, Gerald Rimbach
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is mainly cultivated in Asia. The deep purple color of purple sweet potato (PSP) is due to the high content of acylated anthocyanins. In the present study, PSP-derived polyphenols were identified using HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses. After concentration of the polyphenols from PSP, preparative separation into two fractions, designated anthocyanins (AF) and copigments (CF), was carried out using adsorptive membrane chromatography. In enzyme inhibitory assays, all PSP samples inhibited the enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966753/polymorphism-of-starch-pathway-genes-in-cassava
#20
L M Vasconcelos, A C Brito, C D Carmo, E J Oliveira
The distribution and frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can help to understand changes associated with characteristics of interest. We aimed to evaluate nucleotide diversity in six genes involved in starch biosynthesis in cassava using a panel of 96 unrelated accessions. The genes were sequenced, aligned, and used to obtain values for nucleotide diversity (π), segregating sites (θ), Tajima's D test, and neighbor-joining (NJ) clustering. On average, one SNP per 147 and 171 bp was identified in exon and intron regions, respectively...
December 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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