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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547657/compartmentalized-expression-patterns-of-pancreatic-and-gastric-related-genes-in-the-alimentary-canal-of-the-ascidian-ciona-intestinalis-evolutionary-insights-into-the-functional-regionality-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-olfactores
#1
Satoshi Nakayama, Michio Ogasawara
Many heterotrophic animals have a one-way alimentary canal that is essential for their nutrition and sequential steps of the digestive system, namely ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination, are widely shared among bilaterians. Morphological, functional and molecular knowledge of the alimentary canal has been obtained in particular from mammalian research but the shared features and evolution of these aspects of the highly diverged alimentary canal in the animal kingdom are still unclear. We therefore investigate spatial gene expression patterns of pancreatic- and gastric-related molecules of ascidians (a sister group of vertebrates) with special reference to the functional regionality of the gastrointestinal tract...
May 25, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539377/dietary-starch-intake-modifies-the-relation-between-copy-number-variation-in-the-salivary-amylase-gene-and-bmi
#2
Gull Rukh, Ulrika Ericson, Johanna Andersson-Assarsson, Marju Orho-Melander, Emily Sonestedt
Background: Studies have shown conflicting associations between the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) copy number and obesity. Salivary amylase initiates starch digestion in the oral cavity; starch is a major source of energy in the diet.Objective: We investigated the association between AMY1 copy number and obesity traits, and the effect of the interaction between AMY1 copy number and starch intake on these obesity traits.Design: We first assessed the association between AMY1 copy number (genotyped by digital droplet polymerase chain reaction) and obesity traits in 4800 individuals without diabetes (mean age: 57 y; 60% female) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536940/high-level-production-of-%C3%AE-amylase-by-manipulating-the-expression-of-alanine-racamase-in-bacillus-licheniformis
#3
Penghui He, Zeying Zhang, Dongbo Cai, Yaozhong Chen, Hao Wang, Xuetuan Wei, Shunyi Li, Shouwen Chen
OBJECTIVES: To improve target protein production by manipulating expression levels of alanine racemase in Bacillus licheniformis. RESULTS: The gene of dal was identified to be responsible for alanine racemase function. Based on the selection marker of dal, a food-grade expression system was constructed in B. licheniformis, and effects of different dal expression levels mediated by promoters on α-amylase production were investigated. The highest α-amylase activity (155 U/ml) was obtained in BL10D/pP43SAT-PtetDal, increased by 27% compared with that of the control strain BL10/pP43SAT in tetracycline-based system (123 U/ml)...
May 23, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529757/enzyme-activities-and-gene-expression-of-starch-metabolism-provide-insights-into-grape-berry-development
#4
Xudong Zhu, Chaobo Zhang, Weimin Wu, Xiaopeng Li, Chuan Zhang, Jinggui Fang
Grapes are categorized as a non-climacteric type of fruit which its ripening is not associated to important rises in respiration and ethylene synthesis. The starch metabolism shares a certain role in the carbohydrate metabolic pathways during grape berry development, and is regarded as an important transient pool in the pathway of sugar accumulation. However, the comprehensive role of starch and its contribution to the quality and flavor of grape berry have not been explored thoroughly. In this study, the expression levels of genes enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentrations related to starch metabolism, were analyzed to understand the molecular mechanism of starch accumulation during grape berry development...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514906/the-effects-of-gymnema-sylvestre-in-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-disorders
#5
Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Sanghwa Kim, Ah Young Lee, Yoonjeong Jang, Orkhonselenge Davaadamdin, Seong-Ho Hong, Jun Sung Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
This study used an integrated approach to investigate the effects of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extract as a functional dietary supplement with a high-fat diet. This approach examined insulin resistance, the dysfunction of adipose tissue, and liver steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for the acute and chronic study, in addition to GS in different doses (100, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg body weight). Their body composition changes, serum lipid and glucose parameters, adipose and liver tissue histology, and gene expression were measured...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499068/mutmapplus-identified-novel-mutant-alleles-of-a-rice-starch-branching-enzyme-iib-gene-for-fine-tuning-of-cooked-rice-texture
#6
Masaru Nakata, Tomomi Miyashita, Rieko Kimura, Yuriko Nakata, Hiroki Takagi, Masaharu Kuroda, Takeshi Yamaguchi, Takayuki Umemoto, Hiromoto Yamakawa
Physico-chemical properties of storage starch largely determine rice grain quality and food characteristics. Therefore, modification of starch property is effective to fine-tune cooked rice textures. To obtain new resources with modified starch property as breeding materials, we screened a mutant population of a japonica cultivar Nipponbare and found two independent mutant lines, altered gelatinization (age) 1 and age2, with moderate changes in starch gelatinization property. A combination of conventional genetic analyses and the latest mapping method, MutMapPlus, revealed that both of these lines harbor novel independent mutant alleles of starch branching enzyme IIb (BEIIb) gene...
May 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488059/comparative-analysis-of-genetic-architectures-for-nine-developmental-traits-of-rye
#7
Piotr Masojć, P Milczarski, P Kruszona
Genetic architectures of plant height, stem thickness, spike length, awn length, heading date, thousand-kernel weight, kernel length, leaf area and chlorophyll content were aligned on the DArT-based high-density map of the 541 × Ot1-3 RILs population of rye using the genes interaction assorting by divergent selection (GIABDS) method. Complex sets of QTL for particular traits contained 1-5 loci of the epistatic D class and 10-28 loci of the hypostatic, mostly R and E classes controlling traits variation through D-E or D-R types of two-loci interactions...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482938/rna-interference-mediated-knockdown-of-some-genes-involved-in-digestion-and-development-of-helicoverpa-armigera
#8
M Vatanparast, M Kazzazi, A Mirzaie-Asl, V Hosseininaveh
Helicoverpa armigera is a significant agricultural pest and particularly notorious for its resistance to many types of common insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing and trigged by double-strand RNA (dsRNA), has become a widely used reverse genetics and potent tool for insect pest control. In this study, the effect of ingestion and injection delivery methods of dsRNA related two important enzyme genes, α-amylase (HaAMY48, Ha-AMY49) and juvenile hormone esterase (Ha-JHE), were examined on growth and development of H...
May 9, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482332/a-gibberellin-stimulated-transcript-osgasr1-controls-seedling-growth-and-%C3%AE-amylase-expression-in-rice
#9
Sang-Choon Lee, Soo-Jin Kim, Soon-Ki Han, Gynheung An, Seong-Ryong Kim
From a T-DNA-tagging population in rice, we identified OsGASR1 (LOC_Os03g55290), a member of the GAST (gibberellin (GA)-Stimulated Transcript) family that is induced by salt stress and ABA treatment. This gene was highly expressed in the regions of cell proliferation and panicle development, as revealed by a GUS assay of the mutant line. In the osgasr1 mutants, the second leaf blades were much longer than those of the segregating wild type due to an increase in cell length. In addition, five α-amylase genes were up-regulated in the mutants, implying that OsGASR1 is a negative regulator of those genes...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465177/simultaneous-production-of-both-high-molecular-weight-pullulan-and-oligosaccharides-by-aureobasdium-melanogenum-p16-isolated-from-a-mangrove-ecosystem
#10
Nan-Nan Liu, Zhe Chi, Qin-Qing Wang, Jiang Hong, Guang-Lei Liu, Zhong Hu, Zhen-Ming Chi
After the compositional change of a pullulan production medium, a molecular weight (Mw) of the pullulan produced by Aureobasidium melanogenum P16 was 2.32×10(6) and a pullulan titer was 44.4g/L while a Mw of the pullulan produced by A. melanogenum P16 grown in the initial medium was only 3.47×10(5) and a pullulan titer was 65.3g/L. The increased Mw of the pullulan was due to the decreased activities of α-amylase, glucoamylase and pullulanase while the decreased pullulan titer was related to the decreased transcriptional levels of the genes encoding 6-P-glucose kinase, glucosyltransferase, α-phosphoglucose mutase, UDPG-pyrophosphorylase and pullulan synthetase...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464820/purification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-cold-adapted-fungal-glucoamylase
#11
Mario Carrasco, Jennifer Alcaíno, Víctor Cifuentes, Marcelo Baeza
BACKGROUND: Amylases are used in various industrial processes and a key requirement for the efficiency of these processes is the use of enzymes with high catalytic activity at ambient temperature. Unfortunately, most amylases isolated from bacteria and filamentous fungi have optimal activity above 45 °C and low pH. For example, the most commonly used industrial glucoamylases, a type of amylase that degrades starch to glucose, are produced by Aspergillus strains displaying optimal activities at 45-60 °C...
May 2, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455587/comprehensive-analysis-of-fungal-diversity-and-enzyme-activity-in-nuruk-a-korean-fermenting-starter-for-acquiring-useful-fungi
#12
Emily Carroll, Tran Ngoc Trinh, Hokyoung Son, Yin-Won Lee, Jeong-Ah Seo
Nuruk is a fermenting starter that is involved in the production of alcoholic beverages, and has been used in South Korea for a very long time. To analyze the fungal diversity, we collected a total of 59 nuruk samples from several companies and persons in 2013 to 2014, and obtained 364 isolates. All of the single isolated fungi were identified, both morphologically and molecularly, based on the sequences of ribosomal RNA gene [18S, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, and 26S (D1/D2 region)]. In 46 nuruk samples out of 59 (78%), Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, a dimorphic yeast, was most frequently isolated...
May 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455339/improved-%C3%AE-amylase-production-by-dephosphorylation-mutation-of-cred-an-arrestin-like-protein-required-for-glucose-induced-endocytosis-of-maltose-permease-and-carbon-catabolite-de-repression-in-aspergillus-oryzae
#13
Mizuki Tanaka, Tetsuya Hiramoto, Hinako Tada, Takahiro Shintani, Katsuya Gomi
Aspergillus oryzae produces copious amount of amylolytic enzymes, and MalP, a major maltose permease, is required for the expression of amylase-encoding genes. The expression of these genes is strongly repressed by carbon catabolite repression (CCR) in the presence of glucose. MalP is transported from the plasma membrane to the vacuole by endocytosis, which requires the HECT ubiquitin ligase HulA, an ortholog of yeast Rsp5. In yeast, arrestin-like proteins mediate endocytosis as adaptors of Rsp5 and transporters...
April 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443080/genome-sequencing-reveals-the-complex-polysaccharide-degrading-ability-of-novel-deep-sea-bacterium-flammeovirga-pacifica-wpaga1
#14
Boliang Gao, Min Jin, Li Li, Wu Qu, Runying Zeng
Flammeovirga pacifica strain WPAGA1 is a Gram-negative, polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from the marine sediment of the West Pacific Ocean. This strain is a cosmopolitan marine bacterium that uses complex polysaccharides as exclusive source of carbon and energy and plays a key role in the marine carbon cycle. Genome sequence analysis of strain WPAGA1 revealed that the assembled fine genome contains 6,610,326 bp with 32.89% G+C content, 5036 open reading frames (ORFs) and abundant genomic elements...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438200/a-novel-strategy-to-improve-protein-secretion-via-overexpression-of-the-sppa-signal-peptide-peptidase-in-bacillus-licheniformis
#15
Dongbo Cai, Hao Wang, Penghui He, Chengjun Zhu, Qin Wang, Xuetuan Wei, Christopher T Nomura, Shouwen Chen
BACKGROUND: Signal peptide peptidases play an important role in the removal of remnant signal peptides in the cell membrane, a critical step for extracellular protein production. Although these proteins are likely a central component for extracellular protein production, there has been a lack of research on whether protein secretion could be enhanced via overexpression of signal peptide peptidases. RESULTS: In this study, both nattokinase and α-amylase were employed as prototypical secreted target proteins to evaluate the function of putative signal peptide peptidases (SppA and TepA) in Bacillus licheniformis...
April 24, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435105/organ-specific-proteomics-of-soybean-seedlings-under-flooding-and-drought-stresses
#16
Xin Wang, Ehsaneh Khodadadi, Baratali Fakheri, Setsuko Komatsu
Organ-specific analyses enrich the understanding of plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. To elucidate the cellular responses in soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought stresses, organ-specific analysis was performed using a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Physiological analysis indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were markedly increased in leaf and root of plants treated with 6days of flooding and drought stresses, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428823/combining-manipulation-of-transcription-factors-and-overexpression-of-the-target-genes-to-enhance-lignocellulolytic-enzyme-production-in-penicillium-oxalicum
#17
Liwei Gao, Zhonghai Li, Chengqiang Xia, Yinbo Qu, Meng Liu, Piao Yang, Lele Yu, Xin Song
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulolytic enzymes are the main enzymes to saccharify lignocellulose from renewable plant biomass in the bio-based economy. The production of these enzymes is transcriptionally regulated by multiple transcription factors. We previously engineered Penicillium oxalicum for improved cellulase production via manipulation of three genes in the cellulase expression regulatory network. However, the potential of combinational engineering of multiple regulators and their targets at protein abundance and activity levels has not been fully explored...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427348/comparative-genomics-and-evolution-of-the-amylase-binding-proteins-of-oral-streptococci
#18
Elaine M Haase, Yurong Kou, Amarpreet Sabharwal, Yu-Chieh Liao, Tianying Lan, Charlotte Lindqvist, Frank A Scannapieco
BACKGROUND: Successful commensal bacteria have evolved to maintain colonization in challenging environments. The oral viridans streptococci are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque biofilm. Some of these bacteria have adapted to life in the oral cavity by binding salivary α-amylase, which hydrolyzes dietary starch, thus providing a source of nutrition. Oral streptococcal species bind α-amylase by expressing a variety of amylase-binding proteins (ABPs). Here we determine the genotypic basis of amylase binding where proteins of diverse size and function share a common phenotype...
April 20, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419821/expression-of-the-enzymatically-active-legumain-like-cysteine-proteinase-tvlegu-1-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-in-pichia-pastoris
#19
Gerardo Reséndiz-Cardiel, Rossana Arroyo, Jaime Ortega-López
The legumain-like cysteine proteinase TvLEGU-1 from Trichomonas vaginalis plays a major role in trichomonal cytoadherence. However, its structure-function characterization has been limited by the lack of a reliable recombinant expression platform to produce this protein in its native folded conformation. TvLEGU-1 has been expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies and all efforts to refold it have failed. Here, we describe the expression of the synthetic codon-optimized tvlegu-1 (tvlegu-1-opt) gene in Pichia pastoris strain X-33 (Mut+) under the inducible AOX1 promoter...
April 15, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405784/genomic-and-functional-characterization-of-coleopteran-insect-specific-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibitor-gene-from-amaranthus-species
#20
Amey J Bhide, Sonal M Channale, Yashpal Yadav, Kabita Bhattacharjee, Pankaj K Pawar, V L Maheshwari, Vidya S Gupta, Sureshkumar Ramasamy, Ashok P Giri
The smallest 32 amino acid α-amylase inhibitor from Amaranthus hypochondriacus (AAI) is reported. The complete gene of pre-protein (AhAI) encoding a 26 amino acid (aa) signal peptide followed by the 43 aa region and the previously identified 32 aa peptide was cloned successfully. Three cysteine residues and one disulfide bond conserved within known α-amylase inhibitors were present in AhAI. Identical genomic and open reading frame was found to be present in close relatives of A. hypochondriacus namely Amaranthus paniculatus, Achyranthes aspera and Celosia argentea...
April 12, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
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