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gene amylase

Rosemary A Cripwell, Shaunita H Rose, Willem H van Zyl
The expression of codon optimised genes is a popular genetic engineering approach for the production of industrially relevant proteins. This study investigates and compares the expression of codon optimised and codon adapted amylase variants. The Aspergillus tubingensis raw starch hydrolysing α-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) encoding genes were redesigned using synonymous codons and expressed in S. cerevisiae Y294. Codon optimisation to favour S. cerevisiae codon bias resulted in a decrease in extracellular enzyme activity of 72% (30...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
María Dolores García-Molina, Vera Muccilli, Rosaria Saletti, Salvatore Foti, Stefania Masci, Francisco Barro
Gluten proteins are major determinants of the bread making quality of wheat, but also of important wheat-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), and allergies. We carried out a proteomic study using the total grain proteins from two low-gliadin wheat lines, obtained by RNAi, and the untransformed wild type as reference. The impact of silencing on both target and on non-target proteins was evaluated. Because of the great protein complexity, we performed separate analyses of four kernel protein fractions: gliadins and glutenin subunits, and metabolic and CM-like proteins, by using a classical 2D electrophoresis gel based approach followed by RP-HPLC/nESI-MS/MS...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Changwei Shen, Jie Wang, Xiaoqian Shi, Yalong Kang, Changyan Xie, Lirun Peng, Caixia Dong, Qirong Shen, Yangchun Xu
Potassium (K) deficiency is a common abiotic stress that can inhibit the growth of fruit and thus reduce crop yields. Little research has been conducted on pear transcriptional changes under low and high K conditions. Here, we performed an experiment with 7-year-old pot-grown "Huangguan" pear trees treated with low, Control or high K levels (0, 0.4, or 0.8 g·K2O/kg soil, respectively) during fruit enlargement and mature stages. We identified 36,444 transcripts from leaves and fruit using transcriptome sequencing technology...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Stephanie Brain-Isasi, Alejandro Álvarez-Lueje, Thomas Joseph V Higgins
BACKGROUND: Phaseolamin or α-amylase inhibitor 1 (αAI) is a glycoprotein from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that inhibits some insect and mammalian α-amylases. Several clinical studies support the beneficial use of bean αAI for control of diabetes and obesity. Commercial extracts of P. vulgaris are available but their efficacy is still under question, mainly because some of these extracts contain antinutritional impurities naturally present in bean seeds and also exhibit a lower specific activity αAI...
June 15, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Yeoung-Hwan Jang, Dharaneedharan Subramanian, Seung-Hwan Won, Moon-Soo Heo
This study evaluated the pathophysiological, biochemical, and immunological status of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with the myxosporean parasite Kudoa septempunctata. Flounder fish collected from Kudoa-infected and uninfected farms were confirmed by microscopic and TaqMan probe-based quantitative PCR screening. Morphological, biochemical, histological, and immune gene expression analyses were performed on uninfected and infected hosts to assess the effect of K. septempunctata. Histological studies confirmed the presence of Kudoa myxospores in the trunk muscles of infected flounder fish...
June 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Qi-Jun Ma, Mei-Hong Sun, Jing Lu, Ya-Jing Liu, Da-Gang Hu, Yu-Jin Hao
Sugars play important roles in plant growth and development, crop yield and quality as well as responses to abiotic stresses. ABA is a multi-functional hormone. However, the exact mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation is largely unknown in plants. Here, we tested the expression profile of several sugar transporter and amylase genes in response to ABA treatment. MdSUT2 and MdAREB2 were isolated and genetically transformed into apples to investigate their roles in ABA-induced sugar accumulation...
June 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
Jiaxing Zhou, Chaoying Ma, Shoumin Zhen, Min Cao, Friedich J Zeller, Sai L K Hsam, Yueming Yan
BACKGROUND: Wheat, one of the most important crops, has a detrimental effect on both yield and quality under drought stress. As our preliminary experiment showed that the Chinese Spring wheat-Aegilops longissima chromosome substitution line CS-1S(l) (1B) had a better drought tolerance than CS, the substitution line CS-1S(l)(1B) was used to identify drought stress related proteins by means of a comparative proteome approach in this work. Our present study aimed to explore the gene resources for drought resistance in 1S(l) genome...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Júlia Ronzella Ottoni, Lucélia Cabral, Sanderson Tarciso Pereira de Sousa, Gileno Vieira Lacerda Júnior, Daniela Ferreira Domingos, Fábio Lino Soares Junior, Mylenne Calciolari Pinheiro da Silva, Joelma Marcon, Armando Cavalcante Franco Dias, Itamar Soares de Melo, Anete Pereira de Souza, Fernando Dini Andreote, Valéria Maia de Oliveira
Mangroves are located in coastal wetlands and are susceptible to the consequences of oil spills, what may threaten the diversity of microorganisms responsible for the nutrient cycling and the consequent ecosystem functioning. Previous reports show that high concentration of oil favors the incidence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in mangroves. This finding has guided the goals of this study in an attempt to broaden the analysis to other hydrolases and thereby verify whether oil contamination interferes with the prevalence of particular hydrolases and their assigned microorganisms...
July 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Raza Ashraf, Majida Atta Muhammad, Naeem Rashid, Muhammad Akhtar
The chaperonin genes encoding GroELGt (ESU72018) and GroESGt (ESU72017), homologues of bacterial GroEL and GroES, from Geobacillus thermopakistaniensis were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified gene products possessed the ATPase activity similar to other bacterial and eukaryal counterparts. Recombinant GroELGt and GroESGt were able to refold the denatured insoluble aggregates of α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis into soluble and active form. Furthermore, GroELGt and GroESGt successfully enhanced the thermostability of porcine heart malate dehydrogenase...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Chetphilin Suriyasak, Keisuke Harano, Koichiro Tanamachi, Kazuhiro Matsuo, Aina Tamada, Mari Iwaya-Inoue, Yushi Ishibashi
Heat stress during grain filling increases rice grain chalkiness due to increased activity of α-amylase, which hydrolyzes starch. In rice and barley seeds, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced after imbibition induce α-amylase activity via regulation of gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels during seed germination. Here, we examined whether ROS is involved in induction of grain chalkiness by α-amylase in developing rice grains under heat stress. To elucidate the role of ROS in grain chalkiness, we grew post-anthesis rice plants (Oryza sativa L...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Guan-Qun Wang, Shuai-Shuai Hao, Bei Gao, Mo-Xian Chen, Ying-Gao Liu, Jian-Chang Yang, Neng-Hui Ye, Jian-Hua Zhang
Carbon reserves in rice straws before flowering contribute to a significant portion of grain filling. However, the molecular mechanism of carbon reserve remobilization from straws (stem and sheath) to grains remains unclear. In this study, super rice LYP9 and conventional rice 9311 showed different carbon reserves remobilization behaviors. The transcriptomic profiles of straws of LYP9 and 9311 were analyzed at three stages of grain filling. Among the differentially expressed genes (DGs), 5733 genes were uniquely up- or down-regulated at 30 days after anthesis (DAA) between LYP9 and 9311 in comparison to 681 at 10 DAA and 495 at 20 DAA, respectively, suggesting that the gene expression profile of LYP9 was much different than that of 9311 at late stage of grain filling...
May 29, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Xingyu Ma, Cancan Zhao, Ying Gao, Bin Liu, Tengxu Wang, Tong Yuan, Lauren Hale, Joy D Van Nostrand, Shiqiang Wan, Jizhong Zhou, Yunfeng Yang
Aeolian soil erosion and deposition have worldwide impacts on agriculture, air quality and public health. However, ecosystem responses to soil erosion and deposition remain largely unclear in regard to microorganisms, which are the crucial drivers of biogeochemical cycles. Using integrated metagenomics technologies, we analyzed microbial communities subjected to simulated soil erosion and deposition in a semiarid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. As expected, soil total organic carbon and plant coverage were decreased by soil erosion, and soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was increased by soil deposition, demonstrating that field simulation was reliable...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Catalina I Fernández, Andrea S Wiley
Alpha-amylase exists across taxonomic kingdoms with a deep evolutionary history of gene duplications that resulted in several α-amylase paralogs. Copy number variation (CNV) in the salivary α-amylase gene (AMY1) exists in many taxa, but among primates, humans appear to have higher average AMY1 copies than nonhuman primates. Additionally, AMY1 CNV in humans has been associated with starch content of diets, and one known function of α-amylase is its involvement in starch digestion. Thus high AMY1 CNV is considered to result from selection favoring more efficient starch digestion in the Homo lineage...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Harmesh Sahay, Ajar Nath Yadav, Atul Kumar Singh, Surendra Singh, Rajeev Kaushik, Anil Kumar Saxena
Microbial communities in hot springs at high elevations have been extensively studied worldwide. In this sense, the Indian Himalaya regions is valuable ecosystems for providing both the extreme 'cold' and 'hot' sites for exploring microbial diversity. In the present study, a total of 140 thermophilic bacteria were isolated from 12 samples collected from Manikaran and Yumthang hot springs of Indian Himalayas. The bacterial isolates were studied for phylogenetic profiling, growth properties at varying conditions and potential sources of extracellular thermostable hydrolytic enzymes such as protease, amylase, xylanase and cellulase...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Satoshi Nakayama, Michio Ogasawara
Many heterotrophic animals have a one-way alimentary canal that is essential for their nutrition and sequential steps of the digestive system, namely ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination, are widely shared among bilaterians. Morphological, functional and molecular knowledge of the alimentary canal has been obtained in particular from mammalian research but the shared features and evolution of these aspects of the highly diverged alimentary canal in the animal kingdom are still unclear. We therefore investigate spatial gene expression patterns of pancreatic- and gastric-related molecules of ascidians (a sister group of vertebrates) with special reference to the functional regionality of the gastrointestinal tract...
May 25, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
Gull Rukh, Ulrika Ericson, Johanna Andersson-Assarsson, Marju Orho-Melander, Emily Sonestedt
Background: Studies have shown conflicting associations between the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) copy number and obesity. Salivary amylase initiates starch digestion in the oral cavity; starch is a major source of energy in the diet.Objective: We investigated the association between AMY1 copy number and obesity traits, and the effect of the interaction between AMY1 copy number and starch intake on these obesity traits.Design: We first assessed the association between AMY1 copy number (genotyped by digital droplet polymerase chain reaction) and obesity traits in 4800 individuals without diabetes (mean age: 57 y; 60% female) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Penghui He, Zeying Zhang, Dongbo Cai, Yaozhong Chen, Hao Wang, Xuetuan Wei, Shunyi Li, Shouwen Chen
OBJECTIVES: To improve target protein production by manipulating expression levels of alanine racemase in Bacillus licheniformis. RESULTS: The gene of dal was identified to be responsible for alanine racemase function. Based on the selection marker of dal, a food-grade expression system was constructed in B. licheniformis, and effects of different dal expression levels mediated by promoters on α-amylase production were investigated. The highest α-amylase activity (155 U/ml) was obtained in BL10D/pP43SAT-PtetDal, increased by 27% compared with that of the control strain BL10/pP43SAT in tetracycline-based system (123 U/ml)...
May 23, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Xudong Zhu, Chaobo Zhang, Weimin Wu, Xiaopeng Li, Chuan Zhang, Jinggui Fang
Grapes are categorized as a non-climacteric type of fruit which its ripening is not associated to important rises in respiration and ethylene synthesis. The starch metabolism shares a certain role in the carbohydrate metabolic pathways during grape berry development, and is regarded as an important transient pool in the pathway of sugar accumulation. However, the comprehensive role of starch and its contribution to the quality and flavor of grape berry have not been explored thoroughly. In this study, the expression levels of genes enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentrations related to starch metabolism, were analyzed to understand the molecular mechanism of starch accumulation during grape berry development...
2017: Horticulture Research
Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Sanghwa Kim, Ah Young Lee, Yoonjeong Jang, Orkhonselenge Davaadamdin, Seong-Ho Hong, Jun Sung Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
This study used an integrated approach to investigate the effects of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extract as a functional dietary supplement with a high-fat diet. This approach examined insulin resistance, the dysfunction of adipose tissue, and liver steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for the acute and chronic study, in addition to GS in different doses (100, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg body weight). Their body composition changes, serum lipid and glucose parameters, adipose and liver tissue histology, and gene expression were measured...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Masaru Nakata, Tomomi Miyashita, Rieko Kimura, Yuriko Nakata, Hiroki Takagi, Masaharu Kuroda, Takeshi Yamaguchi, Takayuki Umemoto, Hiromoto Yamakawa
Physico-chemical properties of storage starch largely determine rice grain quality and food characteristics. Therefore, modification of starch property is effective to fine-tune cooked rice textures. To obtain new resources with modified starch property as breeding materials, we screened a mutant population of a japonica cultivar Nipponbare and found two independent mutant lines, altered gelatinization (age) 1 and age2, with moderate changes in starch gelatinization property. A combination of conventional genetic analyses and the latest mapping method, MutMapPlus, revealed that both of these lines harbor novel independent mutant alleles of starch branching enzyme IIb (BEIIb) gene...
May 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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