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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680740/moringa-concanensis-nimmo-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-by-upregulating-ppar-%C3%AE-c-ebp-%C3%AE-via-akt-signaling-pathway-and-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#1
Brindha Banu Balakrishnan, Kalaivani Krishnasamy, Ki Choon Choi
Moringa concanensis Nimmo is a medicinal plant for treating various human illnesses including menstrual pain, high blood pressure, jaundice, inflammation, pain, fever, sore eyes, and cholesterol in Indian folk medicine. Despite its versatility, its antihyperglycemic mechanism of action (in vitro and in vivo) remains unclear. Therefore, in this study we developed the possible antihyperglycemic mechanism of action in 3T3-L1 cells by evaluating mRNA and protein expression, which are associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis (insulin sensitizer)...
April 19, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666540/antimicrobial-antioxidant-and-probiotics-characterization-of-dominant-bacterial-isolates-from-traditional-fermented-fish-of-manipur-north-east-india
#2
Sambanduram Samarjit Singh, Surajit De Mandal, Esther Lalnunmawii, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar
Utonga - kupsu , Hentak and Ngari are traditional fermented fish products produced by the Manipuri people living in the North-Eastern part of India. The present study was designed with the aim to isolate, identify and characterize the microorganisms present in these fermented foods. Bacterial pure cultures were isolated using serially diluted samples and were further identified by conventional biochemical tests and Sanger sequencing of 16s rRNA gene. Results show that the number of bacterial count in Nutrient agar and Starch casein agar was 14-20 and 10-16 CFU/g, respectively...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653119/adenovirus-mediated-overexpression-of-sst2-attenuates-cardiac-injury-in-the-rat-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#3
Lei Li, Zhongwei Sun, Caiming Xu, Jun Wu, Geliang Liu, Hongzhang Cui, Hailong Chen
AIMS: Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a serious disease associated with systematic inflammation and multiple organs dysfunction. Soluble ST2 (sST2), a member of the Toll interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily, has been demonstrated to exert immune-regulatory and anti-inflammatory properties in several inflammation-related diseases. In this study, we investigated whether transfer of sST2 gene by adenovirus vector could attenuate sodium taurocholate-induced SAP and associated cardiac injury...
April 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627853/insect-symbionts-as-valuable-grist-for-the-biotechnological-mill-an-alkaliphilic-silkworm-gut-bacterium-for-efficient-lactic-acid-production
#4
Xili Liang, Chao Sun, Bosheng Chen, Kaiqian Du, Ting Yu, Vijitra Luang-In, Xingmeng Lu, Yongqi Shao
Insects constitute the most abundant and diverse animal class and act as hosts to an extraordinary variety of symbiotic microorganisms. These microbes living inside the insects play critical roles in host biology and are also valuable bioresources. Enterococcus mundtii EMB156, isolated from the larval gut (gut pH >10) of the model organism Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), efficiently produces lactic acid, an important metabolite for industrial production of bioplastic materials. E. mundtii EMB156 grows well under alkaline conditions and stably converts various carbon sources into lactic acid, offering advantages in downstream fermentative processes...
April 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626670/dietary-effects-of-succinic-acid-on-the-growth-digestive-enzymes-immune-response-and-resistance-to-ammonia-stress-of-litopenaeus-vannamei
#5
Yafei Duan, Yun Wang, Jiasong Zhang, Yongxu Sun, Jun Wang
Organic acids acts as an growth promoter and antimicrobial agent in aquaculture. The present study investigated the effects of a natural organic acid - succinic acid (SA) on the growth, digestive enzymes, immune response and resistance to ammonia stress of Litopenaeus vannamei. The shrimps were firstly fed with diets containing different levels of SA: 0% (Control), 0.25% (SA1), 0.50% (SA2), and 1.0% (SA3) (w/w) for 56 days, followed by an acute ammonia stress for 48 h. The results indicated that dietary of SA improved the growth of shrimp, and increased the survival rate of shrimp after ammonia stress for 48 h...
April 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607285/purification-of-an-alpha-amylase-from-aspergillus-flavus-nsh9-and-molecular-characterization-of-its-nucleotide-gene-sequence
#6
Kazi Muhammad Rezaul Karim, Ahmad Husaini, Ngieng Ngui Sing, Fazia Mohd Sinang, Hairul Azman Roslan, Hasnain Hussain
In this study, an alpha-amylase enzyme from a locally isolated Aspergillus flavus NSH9 was purified and characterized. The extracellular α-amylase was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography at a final yield of 2.55-fold and recovery of 11.73%. The molecular mass of the purified α-amylase was estimated to be 54 kDa using SDS-PAGE and the enzyme exhibited optimal catalytic activity at pH 5.0 and temperature of 50 °C. The enzyme was also thermally stable at 50 °C, with 87% residual activity after 60 min...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604465/a-transcriptomic-investigation-of-digestive-processes-in-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-before-during-and-after-metamorphic-development
#7
Kelli Anderson, Chia-Yu Kuo, Ming-Wei Lu, Ido Bar, Abigail Elizur
The orange-spotted grouper (OG), Epinephelus coioides, is an ecologically and economically important species with strong market demand. However, larval rearing for this species is especially difficult, with mass mortality occurring at multiple stages including the period coinciding with metamorphic development. The aim of the present study was to characterise the molecular ontogenesis of genes that influence appetite, feeding, and digestion in OG larvae head and body tissue at 12, 18, and 50 days post hatch (dph), which coincides with the beginning and end of metamorphic development...
March 28, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594979/anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-effects-of-captopril-compared-to-methylprednisolone-in-l-arginine-induced-acute-pancreatitis
#8
Nahla E El-Ashmawy, Naglaa F Khedr, Hoda A El-Bahrawy, Omnia B Hamada
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage in acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation with infiltration of leukocytes. The pancreatic renin-angiotensin system may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AP. AIM: The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective role of captopril (CAP), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in attenuating L-arginine-induced AP rat model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
March 29, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572446/transcriptome-profiles-reveal-the-crucial-roles-of-hormone-and-sugar-in-the-bud-dormancy-of-prunus-mume
#9
Zhiyong Zhang, XiaoKang Zhuo, Kai Zhao, Tangchun Zheng, Yu Han, Cunquan Yuan, Qixiang Zhang
Bud dormancy transition is a vital developmental process for perennial plant survival. The process is precisely regulated by diverse endogenous genetic factors and environmental cues, but the mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Prunus mume is an ideal crop for bud dormancy analysis because of its early spring-flowering characteristics and small sequenced genome. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome profiles at the three endodormancy stages and natural flush stage using RNA sequencing combined with phytohormone and sugar content measurements...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563907/a-novel-bifunctional-amino-acid-racemase-with-multiple-substrate-specificity-maly-from-lactobacillus-sakei-lt-13-genome-based-identification-and-enzymological-characterization
#10
Shiro Kato, Tadao Oikawa
The Lactobacillus sakei strain LK-145 isolated from Moto, a starter of sake, produces potentially large amounts of three D-amino acids, D-Ala, D-Glu, and D-Asp, in a medium containing amylase-digested rice as a carbon source. The comparison of metabolic pathways deduced from the complete genome sequence of strain LK-145 to the type culture strain of Lactobacillus sakei strain LT-13 showed that the L- and D-amino acid metabolic pathways are similar between the two strains. However, a marked difference was observed in the putative cysteine/methionine metabolic pathways of strain LK-145 and LT-13...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558897/upregulation-of-genes-encoding-digestive-enzymes-and-nutrient-transporters-in-the-digestive-system-of-broiler-chickens-by-dietary-supplementation-of-fiber-and-inclusion-of-coarse-particle-size-corn
#11
Sarbast K Kheravii, Robert A Swick, Mingan Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
BACKGROUND: Measures to improve bird performance have been sought due to the imminent phase out of in-feed antibiotics in poultry and continued demand for higher poultry feeding efficiency. Increasing grain particle size and dietary fibre may improve gizzard function, digestive efficiency and nutrient absorption. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect increased particle size of corn and inclusion of sugarcane bagasse (SB) on mRNA expression of genes encoding digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in broilers...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556245/salinity-inhibits-rice-seed-germination-by-reducing-%C3%AE-amylase-activity-via-decreased-bioactive-gibberellin-content
#12
Li Liu, Weili Xia, Haixia Li, Hanlai Zeng, Benhui Wei, Suoyi Han, Changxi Yin
Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs), such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547863/effects-of-exogenous-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-on-%C3%AE-amylase-activity-in-the-aleurone-of-barley-seeds
#13
Yidi Sheng, Huiyuan Xiao, Chunli Guo, Hong Wu, Xiaojing Wang
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, often accumulates in plants exposed to certain environmental stimuli. Previous studies indicated that a closed relationship existed between endogenous GABA and seed germination. However, there are few studies on the effect of exogenous GABA on seed germination. The objective of this study was to explore whether exogenous GABA affected α-amylase activity which the activation is an important stage in seed germination. The level of endogenous GABA in barley seeds rose gradually during germination, suggesting that endogenous GABA was involved in germination...
March 3, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541880/rna-interference-based-silencing-of-the-alpha-amylase-amy1-gene-in-aspergillus-flavus-decreases-fungal-growth-and-aflatoxin-production-in-maize-kernels
#14
Matthew K Gilbert, Rajtilak Majumdar, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Qijian Wei, Christine M Sickler, Matthew D Lebar, Jeffrey W Cary, Bronwyn R Frame, Kan Wang
Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus resulted in suppression of alpha-amylase (amy1) gene expression and decreased fungal growth during in situ infection resulting in decreased aflatoxin production. Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus and pathogen to several important food and feed crops, including maize. Once the fungus colonizes lipid-rich seed tissues, it has the potential to produce toxic secondary metabolites, the most dangerous of which is aflatoxin...
March 14, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541080/novel-bioengineered-cassava-expressing-an-archaeal-starch-degradation-system-and-a-bacterial-adp-glucose-pyrophosphorylase-for-starch-self-digestibility-and-yield-increase
#15
Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Jenna Jones, Emmanuel Donkor, Sanjeev Chandrayan, Farris Pole, Chang-Hao Wu, Claire Vieille, Michael W W Adams, Bertrand B Hankoua
To address national and global low-carbon fuel targets, there is great interest in alternative plant species such as cassava ( Manihot esculenta ), which are high-yielding, resilient, and are easily converted to fuels using the existing technology. In this study the genes encoding hyperthermophilic archaeal starch-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and glucoamylase from Sulfolobus solfataricus , together with the gene encoding a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase ( glgC ) from Escherichia coli , were simultaneously expressed in cassava roots to enhance starch accumulation and its subsequent hydrolysis to sugar...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526324/morphologic-digestive-enzymes-and-immunological-responses-of-intestine-from-litopenaeus-vannamei-after-lipopolysaccharide-injection
#16
Yafei Duan, Yun Wang, Jiasong Zhang, Qingsong Liu, Xian Ding
The shrimp intestine barrier serves as the first line of the host defense against pathogen infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, which known as endotoxin and induce the intestine inflammation. In this study, the acute toxicity effects of LPS injection on the morphology, digestive enzymes and immunological responses of intestine from Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. HE stain showed that LPS injection damaged the intestine connective and epithelium tissue...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521054/the-significance-of-anthocyanins-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Dorota Różańska, Bożena Regulska-Ilow
Anthocyanins are food compounds which belong to polyphenols and can mainly be found in dark fruits (e.g., blueberries, black currants, cranberries) and vegetables (e.g., red cabbage, radish, eggplant). The results of large research have shown that these compounds play an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In rodent studies and in studies with isolated omental adipocytes, it was observed that anthocyanins regulated the carbohydrate metabolism in the body due to the upregulation of GLUT4 (insulinregulated glucose transporter) translocation, increased activation of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in adipose tissue and skeletal muscles as well as increased secretion of adiponectin and leptin...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511847/characterization-of-novel-roles-of-a-hmg-box-protein-poxhmbb-in-biomass-degrading-enzyme-production-by-penicillium-oxalicum
#18
Ya-Ru Xiong, Shuai Zhao, Li-Hao Fu, Xu-Zhong Liao, Cheng-Xi Li, Yu-Si Yan, Lu-Sheng Liao, Jia-Xun Feng
High-mobility group (HMG)-box proteins are involved in chromatin organization in eukaryotes, especially in sex determination and regulation of mitochondrial DNA compaction. Although a novel HMG-box protein, PoxHmbB, had been initially identified to be required for filter paper cellulase activity by Penicillium oxalicum, the biological roles of HMG-box proteins in biomass-degrading enzyme production have not been systematically explored. The P. oxalicum mutant ∆PoxHmbB lost 34.7-86.5% of cellulase (endoglucanase, p-nitrophenyl-β-cellobiosidase, and p-nitrophenyl-β-glucopyranosidase) activities and 60...
March 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491632/biochemical-characterization-of-fungus-isolated-during-in-vitro-propagation-of-bambusa-balcooa
#19
Bhawna Tyagi, Salil Tewari, Ashutosh Dubey
Background: Bambusa balcooa ( Poaceae: Bambusoideae ) is a multipurpose bamboo species, which is native of the Indian subcontinent. B. balcooa is regarded as one of the best species for scaffolding and building purposes because of its strong culm. Other uses include paper pulp, handicrafts, and products of the wood chip industry. Due to these various uses in industries, this species has been identified as one of the priority bamboos by the National Bamboo Mission. Objective: This study is designed to analyze the identification of fungus and develop the strategy to eliminate the contamination during in vitro establishment of B...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485701/brain-alpha-amylase-a-novel-energy-regulator-important-in-alzheimer-disease
#20
Elin Byman, Nina Schultz, Malin Fex, Malin Wennström
Reduced glucose metabolism and formation of polyglucosan bodies (PGB) are, beside amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, well-known pathological findings associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since both glucose availability and PGB are regulated by enzymatic degradation of glycogen, we hypothesize that dysfunctional glycogen degradation is a critical event in AD progression. We therefore investigated whether alpha (α)-amylase, an enzyme known to efficiently degrade polysaccharides in the gastrointestinal tract, is expressed in the hippocampal CA1/subiculum and if the expression is altered in AD patients...
February 27, 2018: Brain Pathology
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