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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219039/morphogenesis-and-mucus-production-of-epithelial-tissues-of-three-major-salivary-glands-of-embryonic-mouse-in-3d-culture
#1
Azusa Nakao, Takumi Inaba, Akiko Murakami-Sekimata, Hiroyuki Nogawa
Embryonic mouse submandibular epithelia initiate branching morphogenesis within two days when embedded in Matrigel and stimulated by members of the epidermal growth factor family. However, it is unknown whether the end buds further branch over longer culture periods, and whether saliva-producing cells differentiate there. In the present study, we cultivated three major (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) salivary epithelia from 13-day embryos for 14 days in mesenchyme-free cultures. All epithelia continued to grow and branch to form numerous acinus-like structures in medium supplemented with neuregulin 1, fibroblast growth factor 1, and insulintransferrin-sodium selenite...
December 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211628/comparative-expression-analysis-of-starch-degrading-genes-between-dormant-and-non-dormant-wheat-seeds
#2
Menghan Sun, Yuji Yamasaki, Belay T Ayele
To gain insights into the molecular basis of starch degradation in wheat seeds with respect to dormancy maintenance and release, this study compared the expression of starch degrading genes between dormant and after-ripened seeds in both dry and imbibed states. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of ABA on the expression of starch degrading genes during imbibition of non-dormant seeds. Release of dormancy due to after-ripening led to the upregulation of specific genes encoding α-amylase and α-glucosidase during imbibition while dormancy maintenance is associated with repression of these genes...
December 6, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210078/mdatg18a-overexpression-improves-tolerance-to-nitrogen-deficiency-and-regulates-anthocyanin-accumulation-through-increased-autophagy-in-transgenic-apple
#3
Xun Sun, Xin Jia, Liuqing Huo, Runmin Che, Xiaoqing Gong, Ping Wang, Fengwang Ma
Nitrogen (N) availability is an essential factor for plant growth. Recycling and remobilization of N have strong impacts on crop yield and quality under N deficiency. Autophagy is a critical nutrient-recycling process that facilitates remobilization under starvation. We previously showed that an important AuTophaGy (ATG) protein from apple, MdATG18a, has a positive role in drought tolerance. In this study, we explored its biological role in response to low-N. Overexpression of MdATG18a in both Arabidopsis and apple improved tolerance to N-depletion and caused a greater accumulation of anthocyanin...
December 5, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175347/adaptation-of-the-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-to-gradual-changes-to-a-low-ph-environment
#4
Si-Yin Han, Bao-Jie Wang, Mei Liu, Meng-Qiang Wang, Ke-Yong Jiang, Xin-Wei Liu, Lei Wang
pH variation could cause a stress response in euryhaline penaeids, we evaluated the mortality, growth performance, osmoregulation gene expression, digestive enzyme activity, histology, and resistance against Vibrio parahemolyticus of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared under conditions of gradual changes to a low-pH environment (gradual-low pH, 6.65-8.20) or a high-pH environment (gradual-high pH, 8.20-9.81) versus a normal pH environment (8.14-8.31) during a 28-d experiment. Consequently, under gradual-high pH, the cumulative mortality rate (CMR) rose with time until 39...
November 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175162/a-ph-stable-detergent-and-chelator-resistant-type-i-pullulanase-from-bacillus-pseudofirmus-703-with-high-catalytic-efficiency
#5
Zhenghui Lu, Xinlin Hu, Panpan Shen, Qinhong Wang, Yuling Zhou, Guimin Zhang, Yanhe Ma
Pullulanase with high catalytic efficiency has attracted great attention from both the academic and industrial communities for its wide application in cold starch hydrolysis. A novel pullulanase gene pul703 was cloned from a mesophilic bacteria Bacillus pseudofirmus 703. Pul703 was characterized to be a type I pullulanase with maximal activity at 45°C and good low-temperature stability, more than 70% of activity was detected after incubation at 25-35°C for 72h. Pul703 obtained the maximal activity around pH 7...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173301/targeted-gene-next-generation-sequencing-in-chinese-children-with-chronic-pancreatitis-and-acute-recurrent-pancreatitis
#6
Yuan Xiao, Wentao Yuan, Bo Yu, Yan Guo, Xu Xu, Xinqiong Wang, Yi Yu, Yi Yu, Biao Gong, Chundi Xu
OBJECTIVE: To identify causal mutations in certain genes in children with acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) or chronic pancreatitis (CP). STUDY DESIGN: After patients were enrolled (CP, 55; ARP, 14) and their clinical characteristics were investigated, we performed next-generation sequencing to detect nucleotide variations among the following 10 genes: cationic trypsinogen protease serine 1 (PRSS1), serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR), chymotrypsin C (CTRC), calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), cathepsin B (CTSB), keratin 8 (KRT8), CLAUDIN 2 (CLDN2), carboxypeptidase A1 (CPA1), and ATPase type 8B member 1 (ATP8B1)...
December 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166855/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-flower-leaf-and-bulb-scale-of-lilium-oriental-hybrid-sorbonne-and-putative-control-network-for-scent-genes
#7
Fang Du, Junmiao Fan, Ting Wang, Yun Wu, Donald Grierson, Zhongshan Gao, Yiping Xia
BACKGROUND: Lily is an economically important plant, with leaves and bulbs consisting of overlapping scales, large ornamental flowers and a very large genome. Although it is recognized that flowers and bulb scales are modified leaves, very little is known about the genetic control and biochemical differentiation underlying lily organogenesis and development. Here we examined the differentially expressed genes in flower, leaf and scale of lily, using RNA-sequencing, and identified organ-specific genes, including transcription factors, genes involved in photosynthesis in leaves, carbohydrate metabolism in bulb scales and scent and color production in flowers...
November 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163548/emodin-alleviates-sodium-taurocholate-induced-pancreatic-acinar-cell-injury-via-microrna-30a-5p-mediated-inhibition-of-high-temperature-requirement-a-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-inflammatory-signaling
#8
Hong Xiang, Xufeng Tao, Shilin Xia, Jialin Qu, Huiyi Song, Jianjun Liu, Dong Shang
Pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease that is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, and it can induce pancreatic necrosis that starts within pancreatic acinar cells in severe cases. Emodin, a pleiotropic natural product isolated from the Chinese herb Rheum palmatum L., has effective anti-inflammatory activities. In this paper, we investigated the protective effects and molecular mechanism of emodin against sodium taurocholate (STC)-induced pancreatic acinar cells injury in vitro and in vivo; and the results showed that emodin could significantly alleviate STC-induced pancreatic acinar cells injury through decreasing trypsin, amylase and the release of inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155449/baicalein-inhibits-acinar-to-ductal-metaplasia-of-pancreatic-acinal-cell-ar42j-via-improving-the-inflammatory-microenvironment
#9
Wei-Ling Pu, Ying-Ying Luo, Ru-Yu Bai, Ao-Wei Guo, Kun Zhou, Yun-Sha Zhang, Lin Miao, Curzio Rüegg, Micheal O Hottiger, Xiu-Mei Gao, Li-Kang Sun
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive cancers. Recent research has demonstrated that chronic pancreatitis (CP) is associated with an increased risk of PDAC, partly due to acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). Baicalein has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects for CP or PDAC, respectively. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of baicalein, and the putative underlying mechanism, on inflammatory cytokines-induced ADM of rat pancreatic acinar cell line AR42J...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150640/early-endosome-motility-mediates-%C3%AE-amylase-production-and-cell-differentiation-in-aspergillus-oryzae
#10
Yusuke Togo, Yujiro Higuchi, Yoshinori Katakura, Kaoru Takegawa
Recent research in filamentous fungi has revealed that the motility of an endocytic organelle early endosome (EE) has a versatile role in many physiological functions. Here, to further examine the motility of EEs in the industrially important fungus Aspergillus oryzae, we visualized these organelles via the Rab5 homolog AoRab5 and identified AoHok1, a putative linker protein between an EE and a motor protein. The Aohok1 disruptant showed retarded mycelial growth and no EE motility, in addition to an apical accumulation of EEs and peroxisomes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147970/effect-of-different-salinities-on-gene-expression-and-activity-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-thick-lipped-grey-mullet-chelon-labrosus
#11
REVIEW
I M Pujante, F J Moyano, J A Martos-Sitcha, J M Mancera, G Martínez-Rodríguez
The effects of different environmental salinities (0, 12, 40, and 55 ppt) on pepsinogen 2 (pga2), trypsinogen 2 (try2), chymotrypsinogen (ctr), and pancreatic alpha-amylase (amy2a) gene expression, and on the total activities of their corresponding enzymes, were assessed in Chelon labrosus juveniles, after their corresponding full-complementary DNA sequences were cloned. Furthermore, the quantitative effect of different salinities on the hydrolysis of feed protein by fish digestive enzymes was evaluated using an in vitro system...
November 17, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108629/spontaneous-pepsin-c-catalyzed-activation-of-human-pepsinogen-c-in-transgenic-rice-cell-suspension-culture-production-and-characterization-of-human-pepsin-c
#12
Md Reyazul Islam, Nan-Sun Kim, Jae-Wan Jung, Hyo-Boon Kim, So-Chon Han, Moon-Sik Yang
A human pepsinogen C (hPGC) gene was synthesized with rice-optimized codon usage and cloned into a rice expression vector containing the promoter, signal peptide, and terminator derived from the rice α-amylase 3D (Ramy3D) gene. In addition, a 6-His tag was added to the 3' end of the synthetic hPGC gene for easy purification. The plant expression vector was introduced into rice calli (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The integration of the hPGC gene into the chromosome of the transgenic rice callus and hPGC expression in transgenic rice cell suspensions was verified via genomic DNA polymerase chain reaction amplification and Northern blot analysis...
January 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071169/draft-genome-sequence-of-a-thermostable-alkaliphilic-%C3%AE-amylase-and-protease-producing-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-strain-kcp2
#13
Vimalkumar S Prajapati, Sanket Ray, Jitendra Narayan, Chaitanya C Joshi, Kamlesh C Patel, Ujjval B Trivedi, R M Patel
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain KCP2 was isolated from municipal food waste samples collected in Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India. Strain KCP2 is noteworthy due to its ability to produce a thermostable, alkaliphilic α-amylase and a protease. These enzymes have importance in several industrial processes including bread making, brewing, starch processing, pharmacy, and textile industries. Whole genome sequencing of strain KCP2 showed that the estimated genome size was 3.9 Mb, the G + C content was 46%, and it coded for 4113 genes...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069329/potential-for-plant-biocontrol-activity-of-isolated-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-bacillus-stratosphericus-strains-against-bacterial-pathogens-acting-through-both-induced-plant-resistance-and-direct-antagonism
#14
Kaliannan Durairaj, Palanivel Velmurugan, Jung-Hee Park, Woo-Suk Chang, Yool-Jin Park, Palaninaicker Senthilkumar, Kyung-Min Choi, Jeong-Ho Lee, Byung-Taek Oh
Phytopathogenic bacteria have caused significant damage to agricultural crops in both controlled and open cultivation practices, imposing heavy losses to farmers. Thereby, the goal of this study was to evaluate Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus stratosphericus isolated from soil has antagonistic activity against bacterial phytopathogens with the potential to control plant diseases. Isolated novel strains of P. aeruginosa and B. stratosphericus showed broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against five bacterial phytopathogens...
October 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066669/arabidopsis-%C3%AE-amylase2-is-a-k-requiring-catalytic-tetramer-with-sigmoidal-kinetics
#15
Jonathan D Monroe, Jillian S Breault, Lauren E Pope, Catherine E Torres, Tewaldemedhine B Gebrejesus, Christopher E Berndsen, Amanda R Storm
The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains nine β-amylase (BAM) genes, some of which play important roles in starch hydrolysis. However, little is known about BAM2, a plastid-localized enzyme reported to have extremely low catalytic activity. Using conservation of intron positions, we determined that the nine Arabidopsis BAM genes fall into two distinct subfamilies. A similar pattern was found in each major lineage of land plants suggesting that these subfamilies diverged prior to the origin of land plants. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis indicated that BAM2 is the ancestral member of one of these subfamilies...
October 24, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051768/comparisons-of-copy-number-genomic-structure-and-conserved-motifs-for-%C3%AE-amylase-genes-from-barley-rice-and-wheat
#16
Qisen Zhang, Chengdao Li
Barley is an important crop for the production of malt and beer. However, crops such as rice and wheat are rarely used for malting. α-amylase is the key enzyme that degrades starch during malting. In this study, we compared the genomic properties, gene copies, and conserved promoter motifs of α-amylase genes in barley, rice, and wheat. In all three crops, α-amylase consists of four subfamilies designated amy1, amy2, amy3, and amy4. In wheat and barley, members of amy1 and amy2 genes are localized on chromosomes 6 and 7, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046501/characterization-of-amylolytic-enzyme-overproducing-mutant-of-aspergillus-luchuensis-obtained-by-ion-beam-mutagenesis
#17
Toshihiro Kojo, Chihiro Kadooka, Marisa Komohara, Shiori Onitsuka, Miya Tanimura, Yukiko Muroi, Shugo Kurazono, Yohei Shiraishi, Ken Oda, Kazuhiro Iwashita, Masahira Onoue, Kayu Okutsu, Yumiko Yoshizaki, Kazunori Takamine, Taiki Futagami, Kazuki Mori, Hisanori Tamaki
Aspergillus luchuensis is a kuro (black) koji fungus that has been used as a starch degrader for the awamori- and shochu-making industries in Japan. In this study, we investigated the effect of ion beam irradiation on A. luchuensis RIB2601 and obtained a high starch-degrading mutant strain U1. Strain U1 showed reduced growth rate, whereas it showed higher α-amylase, glucoamylase, and α-glucosidase activities on a mycelial mass basis than the wild type (wt) strain both on agar plates and in rice koji. In addition, strain U1 showed higher N-acetylglucosamine content in the cell wall and higher sensitivity to calcofluor white, suggesting a deficiency in cell wall composition...
October 17, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045415/isolation-identification-and-phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-pathogenic-vibrio-vulnificus-isolated-from-litopenaeus-vannamei
#18
Tao Teng, Liguo Liang, Kai Chen, Bingwen Xi, Jun Xie, Pao Xu
The morphology and the drug sensitivity of the strain GYX2014-1 isolated from the hepatic pancreatic tissue of moribund Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated by conventional culture characteristics, physical and chemical characteristics, and molecular biology methods. Detection of extracellulase and hemolysin activity shows that the isolated GYX2014-1 has protease, lipase, gelatinase activity, but none of amylase, or lecithinase activity. The 16S rRNA gene (GenBank accession number: KT781675) was analyzed, and a phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the isolated pathogen was most closely related to V...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037836/the-genomic-and-transcriptomic-basis-of-the-potential-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-a6-to-improve-the-nutritional-quality-of-a-cereal-based-fermented-food
#19
Williams Turpin, Marion Weiman, Jean-Pierre Guyot, Aurélie Lajus, Stéphane Cruveiller, Christèle Humblot
The objective of this work was to investigate the nutritional potential of Lactobacillus plantarum A6 in a food matrix using next generation sequencing. To this end, we characterized the genome of the A6 strain for a complete overview of its potential. We then compared its transcriptome when grown in a food matrix made from pearl millet to and its transcriptome when cultivated in a laboratory medium. Genomic comparison of the strain L. plantarum A6 with the strains WCFS1, ST-III, JDM1 and ATCC14917 led to the identification of five regions of genomic plasticity...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030997/rna-interference-and-functional-characterization-of-a-tergal-gland-alpha-amylase-in-the-german-cockroach-blattella-germanica-l
#20
A J Myers, A D Gondhalekar, M Fardisi, K D Pluchar, K D Saltzmann, G W Bennett, M E Scharf
German cockroach males possess tergal glands that secrete a combination of oligosaccharides, lipids and proteins. Four major proteins occur in the secretion, with one being the 63 kDa alpha-amylase Blattella germanica Tergal Gland protein-1 (BGTG-1). Denaturing and starch gel electrophoresis coupled with peptide sequencing verified amylase activity for the BGTG-1 protein. BGTG-1 gene expression profiles were determined by using quantitative real-time PCR to compare messenger RNA abundance among isolated tissues of males, females and gravid females...
October 14, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
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