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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026740/diabetes-and-ramadan-a-concise-and-practical-update
#1
REVIEW
Mohamed H Ahmed, Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Wadie M Elmadhoun, Sufian K Noor, Abbas A Khalil, Ahmed O Almobarak
Despite the fact that the month of Ramadan includes 29-30 days and the duration of fasting for each day can last for between 12 and 16 h, it was estimated that a large number of individuals with diabetes do fast during Ramadan. In light of recent advancement of new pharmacological agents, drugs such as vildagliptin, sitagliptin, and liraglutide were found to be safe to use during this month of fasting. These therapeutic agents can also be used in combination with metformin. The use of sulfonylureas, in most of the recent guidelines about diabetes and Ramadan, seems not to gain much support due to the risk of hypoglycemia...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025846/cohort-profile-for-the-mastermind-study-using-the-clinical-practice-research-datalink-cprd-to-investigate-stratification-of-response-to-treatment-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#2
Lauren R Rodgers, Michael N Weedon, William E Henley, Andrew T Hattersley, Beverley M Shields
PURPOSE: This is a retrospective cohort study using observational data from anonymised primary care records. We identify and extract all patients with type 2 diabetes and associated clinical data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to inform models of disease progression and stratification of treatment. PARTICIPANTS: Data were extracted from CPRD on 8 August 2016. The initial data set contained all patients (n=313 485) in the database who had received a type 2 diabetes medication...
October 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025025/the-importance-of-historical-residential-address-information-in-longitudinal-studies-using-administrative-health-data
#3
David Youens, David B Preen, Mark N Harris, Rachael E Moorin
Background: When information on changes in address or migration of people to or from a study jurisdiction is unavailable in longitudinal studies, issues relating to loss-to-follow-up and misclassification bias may result. This study investigated how estimations of associations between general practitioner (GP) contact and hospital use were affected by incomplete address and migration data. Methods: This was a retrospective population-based cohort study of Western Australians from 1990 to 2004...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024286/modelling-cumulative-exposure-for-inference-about-drug-effects-in-observational-studies
#4
Bassam Farran, Stuart McGurnaghan, Helen C Looker, Shona Livingstone, Eva Lahnsteiner, Helen M Colhoun, Paul M McKeigue
PURPOSE: To demonstrate a modelling approach that controls for time-invariant allocation bias in estimation of associations of outcome with drug exposure. METHODS: We show that in a model that includes terms for both ever-exposure versus never-exposure and cumulative exposure, the parameter for ever-exposure represents the effect of time-invariant allocation bias, and the parameter for cumulative exposure represents the effect of the drug after adjustment for this unmeasured confounding...
October 12, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020969/updates-on-cardiovascular-outcome-trials-in-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Oliver Schnell, Lars Rydén, Eberhard Standl, Antonio Ceriello
In 2008 the Food and Drug Administration introduced a guidance for industry that requires the investigation of cardiovascular outcomes of glucose-lowering medications. Since then, an increasing number of cardiovascular outcome trials have been completed in diabetes patients with high cardiovascular risk for members of the SGLT-2 and DPP4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonist classes. The trials confirmed cardiovascular safety for all tested anti-hyperglycaemic drugs and, in addition empagliflozin, semaglutide and liraglutide could even reduce cardiovascular risk...
October 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993293/association-between-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lineage-and-site-of-disease-in-florida-2009-2015
#6
Marie Nancy Séraphin, Richard Doggett, Lori Johnston, Jose Zabala, Alexandra M Gerace, Michael Lauzardo
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is characterized into four global lineages with strong geographical restriction. To date one study in the United States has investigated M. tuberculosis lineage association with tuberculosis (TB) disease presentation (extra-pulmonary versus pulmonary). We update this analysis using recent (2009-2015) data from the State of Florida to measure lineage association with pulmonary TB, the infectious form of the disease. METHODS: M...
October 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990512/fighting-type-2-diabetes-present-and-future-perspectives
#7
Cai-Guo Yu, Ying Fu, Yuan Fang, Ning Zhang, Rong-Xin Sun, Dong Zhao, Ying-Mei Feng, Bao-Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus accounts for 80-90% of diabetic patients. So far, the treatment of diabetes mainly aims at elevating insulin level and lowering glucose level in the peripheral blood and mitigating insulin resistance. Physiologically, insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is delicately regulated. Thus, how insulin-related therapies could titrate blood glucose appropriately and avoid the occurrence of hypoglycemia remains an important issue for decades. Similar question is addressed on how to attenuate vascular complication in diabetic subjects...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989244/herbal-drugs-from-sudan-traditional-uses-and-phytoconstituents
#8
REVIEW
Mohamed Gamaleldin Elsadig Karar, Nikolai Kuhnert
Sudan folklore medicine is characterized by a unique combination of Islamic, Arabic, and African cultures. In poor communities, traditional medicine has remained as the most reasonable source of treatment of several diseases and microbial infections. Although the traditional medicine is accepted in Sudan, to date there is no updated review available, which focuses on most effective and frequently used Sudanese medicinal plants. Thus, this review aims to summarize the published information on the ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants from Sudan, preparation methods, phytochemistry, and ethnopharmacology...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987311/advances-in-diabetes-pharmacotherapy-an-update-for-the-emergency-provider
#9
Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Ali Pourmand
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects millions of Americans, and its prevalence is only anticipated to increase in coming years. It is estimated that diabetes-related visits account for 1% of all emergency department (ED) encounters. In recent years, there have been several new categories of medications approved for the treatment of diabetes, including new insulins, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, an amylin analogue, and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981239/-diabetes-care-pathways-and-the-diabetic-convention-in-2017
#10
V de Brouckère, L Plat
Diabetes is a chronic, pandemic disorder which has a growing impact on healthcare costs and leads to severe micro- and macro-vascular complications. In 2009, Belgium introduced " care trajectories " (CT), a program which allows multidisciplinary management of this disease. CT is built on a partnership between three parties: the patient (central to the concept), the general practitioner (GP) and the diabetologist. The GP is responsible for the medical management according to an individualized care plan. The specialist's task is to update the GPs' knowledge and to coach them...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979168/devices-for-continuous-monitoring-of-glucose-update-in-technology
#11
REVIEW
Ana María Gómez, Diana Cristina Henao Carrillo, Oscar Mauricio Muñoz Velandia
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a tool that allows constant evaluation of glycemic control, providing data such as the trend and fluctuation of interstitial glucose levels over time. In clinical practice, there are two modalities: the professional or retrospective and the personal or real-time CGM (RT-CGM). The latest-generation sensors are more accurate and sensitive for hypoglycemia, improving adherence to self-monitoring, which has allowed optimizing glycemic control. The development of algorithms that allow the suspension of the infusion of insulin during hypoglycemia gave rise to the integrated therapy or sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy with low glucose suspend, which has proven to be an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of diabetic patients with high risk of hypoglycemia...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978986/the-relationship-between-obesity-and-hypertension-an-updated-comprehensive-overview-on-vicious-twins
#12
REVIEW
Massimo Leggio, Mario Lombardi, Elisa Caldarone, Paolo Severi, Stefania D'Emidio, Massimo Armeni, Veronica Bravi, Maria Grazia Bendini, Andrea Mazza
Obesity is a growing global health concern, with a rapid increase being observed in morbid obesity. Obesity is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and earlier onset of cardiovascular morbidity. The growing obesity epidemic is a major source of unsustainable health costs and morbidity and mortality because of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, certain cancers and major cardiovascular diseases. Similar to obesity, hypertension is a key unfavorable health metric that has disastrous health implications: currently, hypertension is the leading contributor to global disease burden, and the direct and indirect costs of treating hypertension are exponentially higher...
October 5, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977962/increased-mortality-for-colorectal-cancer-patients-with-preexisting-diabetes-mellitus-an-updated-meta-analysis
#13
Jingtao Li, Jixi Liu, Chun Gao, Fang Liu, Hongchuan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Although the preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to have a high risk for death in many cancers, its impact on the mortality for the colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is still uncertain. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore an association of DM with the survival for the CRC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a relative data search from the public available databases including Medline and Embase with a cutoff date to Jan 31, 2017...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977515/active-commuting-is-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-obesity-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-chilean-adults
#14
Lewis Steell, Alex Garrido-Méndez, Fanny Petermann, Ximena Díaz-Martínez, María Adela Martínez, Ana María Leiva, Carlos Salas-Bravo, Cristian Alvarez, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Fernando Rodríguez, Felipe Poblete-Valderrama, Pedro Delgado Floody, Nicolás Aguilar-Farias, Naomi D Willis, Carlos A Celis-Morales
Background: There is limited evidence on how active commuting is associated with health benefits in developing countries. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the associations between active commuting and markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in the Chilean adult population. Methods: In total, 5157 participants from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-10 were included in this cross-sectional study. Active commuting was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ v2)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975089/traditional-uses-of-medicinal-plants-to-prevent-and-treat-diabetes-an-updated-review-of-ethnobotanical-studies-in-iran
#15
REVIEW
Majid Asadi-Samani, Mohammad-Taghi Moradi, Leila Mahmoodnia, Shahla Alaei, Fatemeh Asadi-Samani, Tahra Luther
BACKGROUND: Obesity and physical inactivity are currently on the rise due to industrialization of the communities, which has recently led to increased incidence of different diseases such as diabetes. Epidemiological studies and figures have demonstrated the growing incidence of diabetes. Relevantly, the side effects of chemical drugs have led patients to use medicinal plants and traditional approaches despite advances in development of chemical drugs. The aim of this review article is to report the medicinal plants and their traditional uses to prevent and treat diabetes according to the findings of ethnobotanical studies conducted in different regions of Iran...
July 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973479/insulin-receptor-isoforms-in-physiology-and-disease-an-updated-view
#16
Antonino Belfiore, Roberta Malaguarnera, Veronica Vella, Michael C Lawrence, Laura Sciacca, Francesco Frasca, Andrea Morrione, Riccardo Vigneri
The insulin receptor (IR) gene undergoes differential splicing that generates two IR isoforms, IR-A and IR-B. The physiological roles of IR isoforms are incompletely understood and appear to be determined by their different binding affinities for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), particularly for IGF-2. Predominant roles of IR-A in prenatal growth and development and of IR-B in metabolic regulation are well established. However, emerging evidence indicates that the differential expression of IR isoforms may also help explain the diversification of insulin and IGF signaling and actions in various organs and tissues by involving not only different ligand-binding affinities but also different membrane partitioning and trafficking and possibly different abilities to interact with a variety of molecular partners...
October 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969552/back-to-non-basics-an-update-on-neutral-and-charge-balanced-glycosidase-inhibitors
#17
Michela I Simone, Laura Mares, Clothilde Eveleens, Adam McCluskey, Brighid B Pappin, Milton J Kiefel, Todd A Houston
Glycosidases have important anti-cancer, anti-viral and anti-diabetic properties. This review covers the literature in the past 15 years since our initial review in this journal on "neutral" glycosidase inhibitors lacking a basic nitrogen found in iminosugars and azasugars or inhibitors that are neutral by virtue of being "charge-balanced" (zwitterionic). These structurally diverse inhibitors include lactones, lactams, epoxides such as cyclophellitol, and sulfonium ion derivatives of the natural product salacinol...
October 2, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962617/oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-as-central-mediators-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Basil S Karam, Alejandro Chavez-Moreno, Wonjoon Koh, Joseph G Akar, Fadi G Akar
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in humans. Several risk factors promote AF, among which diabetes mellitus has emerged as one of the most important. The growing recognition that obesity, diabetes and AF are closely intertwined disorders has spurred major interest in uncovering their mechanistic links. In this article we provide an update on the growing evidence linking oxidative stress and inflammation to adverse atrial structural and electrical remodeling that leads to the onset and maintenance of AF in the diabetic heart...
September 29, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958579/-needs-assessment-to-improve-the-applicability-and-methodological-quality-of-a-german-s3-guideline
#19
Marion Burckhardt, Cristina Hoffmann, Brigitte Nink-Grebe, Sylvia Sänger
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines can change the practice in healthcare only if their recommendations are implemented in a comprehensive way. The German S3 guideline "Local Therapy of Chronic Wounds in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease, Chronic Venous Insufficiency, and Diabetes" will be updated in 2017. The emphasis here is on the guideline's validity, user-friendliness and implementation into practice. Therefore, the aim was to identify the improvements required in regard to the guideline's methods and content presentation...
September 25, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956668/biomarkers-of-diabetic-nephropathy-a-2017-update
#20
Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Nikolaos Marketos, George P Chrousos, Ioannis Papassotiriou
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also named diabetic kidney disease (DKD), is a devastating complication in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1D and T2D) and its diagnosis has been traditionally based on the presence of micro-albuminuria (MA). The aim of this article is to update, through review of the relevant medical literature, the most promising biomarkers for early DKD detection. MA has historically been employed as an early marker of microvascular complications, indicating risk for advanced CKD...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
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