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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528078/change-in-hemoglobin-a1c-one-year-following-the-2014-american-diabetes-association-guideline-update
#1
G Todd Alonso, Laura Pyle, Brigitte Frohnert
AIMS: In June 2014, the American Diabetes Association lowered recommended hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) targets from <8.5% (69mmol/mol) for children <6years of age and from <8.0% (64mmol/mol) for children 6-12years of age to <7.5% (58mmol/mol). Lower target HbA1c may lead to better glycemic control but could increase the risk of severe hypoglycemia. METHODS: Patients with type 1 diabetes >1year duration, age 0-12years and seen in our center between January 1 and June 30, 2014 or between January 1 and June 30, 2015 were included...
May 10, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527166/consensus-on-initiation-and-intensification-of-premix-insulin-in-type-2-diabetes-management
#2
Viswanathan Mohan, Sanjay Kalra, Jothydev Kesavadev, Awadhesh Kumar Singh, Ajay Kumar, Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan, Rajeev Chawla, Jagat Jyoti Mukherjee, Rakesh Kumar Sahay, J S Kumar, Anil Bhoraskar, Arthur J Asirvatham, Jayanta Kumar Panda, Abdul Hamid Zargar, Ashok Kumar Das
INTRODUCTION: Premix insulin is the most commonly used insulin preparation in India. The first Indian premix guidelines were developed in 2009 and thereafter were updated in 2013. There is a need to revisit the Indian premix insulin guidelines, in view of emerging evidence and introduction of newer co-formulations. OBJECTIVE: The present consensus has been developed to evaluate available premix formulations, examine existing evidence related to premix formulations, and evolve consensus statement of recommendations on the topic...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526186/cardiovascular-protection-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-a-review-of-clinical-trial-results-across-drug-classes
#3
Francesco Paneni, Thomas F Lüscher
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have a significantly higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD)-namely myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. Despite clear advances in the prevention and treatment of CVD, the impact of T2DM on CVD outcome remains high and continues to escalate. Available evidence indicates that the risk of macrovascular complications increases with the severity of hyperglycemia, thus suggesting that the relation between metabolic disturbances and vascular damage is approximately linear...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526182/pharmacologic-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-available-therapies
#4
James Thrasher
Choices for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have multiplied as our understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic defects has evolved. Treatment should target multiple defects in T2DM and follow a patient-centered approach that considers factors beyond glycemic control, including cardiovascular risk reduction. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology and the American Diabetes Association recommend an initial approach consisting of lifestyle changes and monotherapy, preferably with metformin...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520942/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#5
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs (miRNAs), noncoding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
April 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520716/expected-population-weight-and-diabetes-impact-of-the-1-peso-per-litre-tax-to-sugar-sweetened-beverages-in-mexico
#6
Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez, Rodrigo Zepeda-Tello, Eliane R Rodrigues, Arantxa Colchero-Aragonés, Rosalba Rojas-Martínez, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila, Juan Rivera-Dommarco, Rafael Meza
STUDY QUESTION: What effect on body mass index, obesity and diabetes can we expect from the 1-peso-per-litre tax to sugar sweetened beverages in Mexico? METHODS: Using recently published estimates of the reductions in beverage purchases due to the tax, we modelled its expected long-term impacts on body mass index (BMI), obesity and diabetes. Microsimulations based on a nationally representative dataset were used to estimate the impact of the tax on BMI and obesity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517913/sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-and-diabetic-ketoacidosis-an-updated-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Benedetta Maria Bonora, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
AIMS: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are increasingly used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and can improve glucose control also in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In May 2015, regulatory agencies issued a warning that SGLT2i may cause diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We report details on two new cases of SGLT2i-associated DKA and review the literature for similar cases within randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and single reports. METHODS: We searched the medical literature for reports of SGLT2i-associated DKA cases...
May 18, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512432/whole-body-cryotherapy-in-athletes-from-therapy-to-stimulation-an-updated-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Giovanni Lombardi, Ewa Ziemann, Giuseppe Banfi
Nowadays, whole-body cryotherapy is a medical physical treatment widely used in sports medicine. Recovery from injuries (e.g., trauma, overuse) and after-season recovery are the main purposes for application. However, the most recent studies confirmed the anti-inflammatory, anti-analgesic, and anti-oxidant effects of this therapy by highlighting the underlying physiological responses. In addition to its therapeutic effects, whole-body cryotherapy has been demonstrated to be a preventive strategy against the deleterious effects of exercise-induced inflammation and soreness...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509784/pharmacotherapy-options-for-pediatric-diabetes
#9
Maria Loredana Marcovecchio, Francesco Chiarelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are frequent conditions during childhood and adolescence. The present review offers an update on current available treatment strategies for T1D and T2D approved for use in children and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: Insulin remains the main and essential therapeutic strategy in youth with T1D. A second generation of insulin analogues is being evaluated and could help in improving glycemic control...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506900/chinese-materia-medica-used-in-medicinal-diets
#10
Fang Tan, Yalin Chen, Xiaolei Tan, Yunyun Ma, Yong Peng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal diets have a history of more than 2000 years. Locally referred to as yaoshan (Chinese: ), a medicinal diet is understood in China as a dietary product that combines herbs and food with the purpose of preventing and treating diseases or improving health under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory. Medicinal diets are used in Chinese people's daily life and in specialized restaurants. Hundreds of Chinese materia medica (CMM) are used in medicinal diets; however, a comprehensive evaluation of medicinal diets is lacking...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505225/original-findings-and-updated-meta-analysis-for-the-association-between-maternal-diabetes-and-risk-for-congenital-heart-disease-phenotypes
#11
Thanh T Hoang, Lisa K Marengo, Laura E Mitchell, Mark A Canfield, A J Agopian
Maternal diabetes is associated with congenital heart defects (CHDs) as a group, but few studies have assessed risk for specific CHD phenotypes. We analyzed these relationships using data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and statewide vital records for deliveries taking place in 1999-2009 (n = 48,249 cases). We used Poisson regression to calculate prevalence ratios for the associations between maternal diabetes (pregestational or gestational) and each CHD phenotype, adjusting for potential confounders...
May 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500476/update-on-apoa5-genetics-toward-a-better-understanding-of-its-physiological-impact
#12
REVIEW
Montse Guardiola, Josep Ribalta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is intended to summarize the genetic studies published during the last 3 years that help us understand the physiology of apoAV and its clinical implications. RECENT FINDINGS: APOA5 is probably the gene with the strongest effect on triglyceride (TG) metabolism. APOA5 is almost exclusively expressed in the liver, and its product apoAV has a very low circulating concentration. New physiological roles of apoAV have been recently elucidated, such as control of chylomicron production in the intestine and TG accumulation in adipose tissue...
July 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497222/interleukin-1-blockade-an-update-on-emerging-indications
#13
REVIEW
Anoop Mistry, Sinisa Savic, Jeroen C H van der Hilst
Interleukin (IL)-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that induces local and systemic inflammation aimed to eliminate microorganisms and tissue damage. However, an increasing number of clinical conditions have been identified in which IL-1 production is considered inappropriate and IL-1 is part of the disease etiology. In autoinflammatory diseases, gout, Schnitzler's syndrome, and adult-onset Still's disease, high levels of inappropriate IL-1 production have been shown to be a key process in the etiology of the disease...
May 11, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497094/an-update-on-diabetic-kidney-disease-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-agents
#14
Leila Mahmoodnia, Esmat Aghadavod, Sara Beigrezaei, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that is defined by relative or absolute deficiency of insulin secretion. Diabetic kidney disease seems to be one of the most frequent complications of diabetes mellitus. Based on evidence, increased free-radical formation and/or diminished antioxidant defenses induce oxidative stress that is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. It is evident that diabetic state induces oxidative stress through different signaling pathways as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation that attributes to the activation of various downstream signaling cascade leading to structural the way to structural and functional changes in kidney...
2017: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491239/opuntia-spp-characterization-and-benefits-in-chronic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
María Del Socorro Santos Díaz, Ana-Paulina Barba de la Rosa, Cécile Héliès-Toussaint, Françoise Guéraud, Anne Nègre-Salvayre
Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490797/action-on-diabetic-macular-oedema-achieving-optimal-patient-management-in-treating-visual-impairment-due-to-diabetic-eye-disease
#16
R Gale, P H Scanlon, M Evans, F Ghanchi, Y Yang, G Silvestri, M Freeman, A Maisey, J Napier
This paper identifies best practice recommendations for managing diabetes and sight-threatening diabetic eye disease. The authors provide an update for ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals on key aspects of diabetes management, supported by a review of the pertinent literature, and recommend practice principles for optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease. In people with diabetes, early optimal glycaemic control reduces the long-term risk of both microvascular and macrovascular complications...
May 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490661/surgery-for-subacromial-impingement-syndrome-in-relation-to-occupational-exposures-lifestyle-factors-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-nationwide-nested-case-control-study
#17
Annett Dalbøge, Poul Frost, Johan Hviid Andersen, Susanne Wulff Svendsen
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) in relation to occupational exposures, lifestyle factors and diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested in a register-based cohort study of the Danish working population. For each of 3000 first-time cases of surgery for SIS, two age-matched and sex-matched controls were drawn. Cases and controls received a questionnaire on job history and other factors...
May 10, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484449/interleukin-6-signaling-pathway-and-its-role-in-kidney-disease-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Hua Su, Chun-Tao Lei, Chun Zhang
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that not only regulates the immune and inflammatory response but also affects hematopoiesis, metabolism, and organ development. IL-6 can simultaneously elicit distinct or even contradictory physiopathological processes, which is likely discriminated by the cascades of signaling pathway, termed classic and trans-signaling. Besides playing several important physiological roles, dysregulated IL-6 has been demonstrated to underlie a number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, metabolic abnormalities, and malignancies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477328/can-chronic-disease-be-managed-through-integrated-care-cost-effectively-evidence-from-a-systematic-review
#19
J Cronin, A Murphy, E Savage
BACKGROUND: The increase in demand for integrated care models to manage chronic disease is a challenge for the Irish health system, which is traditionally organised around the acute hospital services. Implementing integrated care programmes requires significant investment, and thus, their economic impact requires consideration. AIMS: This paper updates the previous evidence on the cost-effectiveness of integrated care programmes to support the development of a cost-effective integrated care programme for chronic disease management...
May 5, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474708/-molecular-mechanisms-of-insulin-resistance-an-update
#20
Citlaly Gutiérrez-Rodelo, Adriana Roura-Guiberna, Jesús Alberto Olivares-Reyes
The biological actions of insulin are initiated by activating its membrane receptor, which triggers multiple signaling pathways to mediate their biological actions. Due to the importance of metabolic regulation and promoting functions of cell growth and proliferation, insulin actions are highly regulated to promote proper metabolic functioning and energy balance. If these mechanisms are altered, this can lead to a condition known as insulin resistance, which is the consequence of a deficient insulin signaling caused by mutations or post-translational modifications of the receptor or effector molecules located downstream...
March 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
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