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Diabetes update

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457582/green-leafy-and-cruciferous-vegetable-consumption-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-results-from-the-singapore-chinese-health-study-and-meta-analysis
#1
Guo-Chong Chen, Woon-Puay Koh, Jian-Min Yuan, Li-Qiang Qin, Rob M van Dam
Several previous prospective studies suggest that consumption of green leafy and cruciferous vegetables may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated the association between consumption of different types of vegetables in relation to T2D risk in an Asian Population. We included 45 411 participants (age range: 45-74 years) of the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS) free of diabetes, cancer or CVD at baseline (1993-1998). Dietary information was collected using a validated FFQ. Physician-diagnosed incident diabetes was reported at follow-up I (1999-2004) and II (2006-2010) interviews...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452095/the-role-of-free-fatty-acid-receptor-4-ffa4-in-human-cancers-and-cancer-cell-lines
#2
REVIEW
Ilya S Senatorov, Nader H Moniri
A dietary influence on cancer progression has been evident for many decades, and dietary fatty acids, particularly long chain mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to play significant roles in influencing growth of a variety of human cancers. The discovery of the family of cell-surface free-fatty acid receptors, which include the long-chain fatty acid receptors FFA1 and FFA4, suggest that many of the effects of dietary fats could be receptor-mediated. FFA4 is ubiquitously expressed and has recently been shown to modulate a variety of important anti-inflammatory and metabolic processes...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451021/the-uva-padova-type-1-diabetes-simulator-goes-from-single-meal-to-single-day
#3
Roberto Visentin, Enrique Campos-Náñez, Michele Schiavon, Dayu Lv, Martina Vettoretti, Marc Breton, Boris P Kovatchev, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli
BACKGROUND: A new version of the UVA/Padova Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Simulator is presented which provides a more realistic testing scenario. The upgrades to the previous simulator, which was accepted by the Food and Drug Administration in 2013, are described. METHOD: Intraday variability of insulin sensitivity (S I ) has been modeled, based on clinical T1D data, accounting for both intra- and intersubject variability of daily S I . Thus, time-varying distributions of both subject's basal insulin infusion and insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio were calculated and made available to the user...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450394/update-on-retinal-vascular-caliber
#4
REVIEW
Alina Gabriela Dumitrescu, Liliana Voinea, Ioana Anca Badarau, Vanessa Andrada Paun, Marilena Schowe, Radu Ciuluvica
Retinal vessels are the only blood vessels that can be viewed directly, in vivo, repetitively and non-invasively. Retinal vessel caliber is influenced by physiological (age, sex, race, blood pressure, blood glucose, body mass index) and pathological (atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, smoking) determinants. There are studies on large population groups that demonstrate the associations between retinal vasculature and subclinical or clinical changes in systemic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, stroke, renal or cardiac diseases)...
July 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449364/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-update-of-mechanisms-contributing-to-this-clinical-entity
#5
REVIEW
Guanghong Jia, Michael A Hill, James R Sowers
Heart failure and related morbidity and mortality are increasing at an alarming rate, in large part, because of increases in aging, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The clinical outcomes associated with heart failure are considerably worse for patients with diabetes mellitus than for those without diabetes mellitus. In people with diabetes mellitus, the presence of myocardial dysfunction in the absence of overt clinical coronary artery disease, valvular disease, and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia, has led to the descriptive terminology, diabetic cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447380/sirtuins-in-gamete-biology-and-reproductive-physiology-emerging-roles-and-therapeutic-potential-in-female-and-male-infertility
#6
Carla Tatone, Giovanna Di Emidio, Arcangelo Barbonetti, Gaspare Carta, Alberto M Luciano, Stefano Falone, Fernanda Amicarelli
BACKGROUND: Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. Together, they respond to metabolic challenges, inflammatory signals or hypoxic/oxidative stress, and are associated with aging and longevity. The role of Sirtuins in the regulation of fertility emerged in 2003 when a defective reproductive phenotype was observed in SIRT1-null mice. Although studies on Sirtuins in reproductive biology have been increasing in the last years, a recent comprehensive update on this issue is still lacking...
February 13, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447091/obesity-in-pregnancy-a-comparison-of-four-national-guidelines
#7
Dana Vitner, Kristin Harris, Cynthia Maxwell, M D Farine
BACKGROUND: Obesity in pregnancy has become one of the most important challenges in obstetrical care given its prevalence and potential adverse impact on both mother and fetus. The primary objective of this descriptive review is to identify common themes and distinctions within the current recommendations for maternal obesity in the most updated version of four published national guidelines. METHODS: We reviewed the following guidelines for obesity in pregnancy: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) 2015, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RANZCOG) 2013, Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (RCOG) 2010, and Society of Obstetrics and Gynecologists of Canada (SOGC) 2010...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445837/alkaline-phosphatases-in-the-complex-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorders
#8
Jordi Bover, Pablo Ureña, Armando Aguilar, Sandro Mazzaferro, Silvia Benito, Víctor López-Báez, Alejandra Ramos, Iara daSilva, Mario Cozzolino
Alkaline phosphatases (APs) remove the phosphate (dephosphorylation) needed in multiple metabolic processes (from many molecules such as proteins, nucleotides, or pyrophosphate). Therefore, APs are important for bone mineralization but paradoxically they can also be deleterious for other processes, such as vascular calcification and the increasingly known cross-talk between bone and vessels. A proper balance between beneficial and harmful activities is further complicated in the context of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
February 14, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439834/-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-elderly-patients
#9
R Gómez-Huelgas, F Gómez Peralta, L Rodríguez Mañas, F Formiga, M Puig Domingo, J J Mediavilla Bravo, C Miranda, J Ena
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) increases markedly with age. Antidiabetic treatment and the objectives of glycaemic control in elderly patients with DM2 should be individualised according to their biopsychosocial characteristics. In elderly patients for whom the benefits of intensive antidiabetic treatment are limited, the basic objectives should be to improve the quality of life, preserve functionality and avoid adverse effects, especially hypoglycaemia. Treatment of DM2 in the elderly was the subject of a consensus document published in 2012 and endorsed by several Spanish scientific societies...
February 10, 2018: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438571/use-of-non-vitamin-k-oral-anticoagulants-in-people-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
O Itzhaki, B Zadok, A Eisen
AIMS: To examine the efficacy and safety of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants in people with both atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We reviewed efficacy and safety data from the warfarin-controlled phase III non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants trials (ARISTOTLE, RE-LY, ROCKET-AF, ENGAGE and AF-TIMI 48) and their post hoc analyses with regard to diabetes status. We also reviewed the updated literature regarding this population. RESULTS: At baseline 20-40% of the participants in the phase III non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants trials had diabetes mellitus at baseline...
February 13, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438164/the-autoimmune-ecology-an-update
#11
Juan-Manuel Anaya, Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Carolina Ramírez-Santana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The autoimmune ecology refers to the interactions between individuals and their environment leading to a breakdown in immune tolerance and, therefore, to the development of one or more autoimmune diseases in such an individual. Herein, an update is offered on four specific factors associated with autoimmune diseases, namely, vitamin D, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption from the perspective of exposome and metabolomics. RECENT FINDINGS: Smoking is associated with an increased risk for most of the autoimmune diseases...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427794/concerted-redox-modulation-by-sulforaphane-alleviates-diabetes-and-cardiometabolic-syndrome
#12
Bijal Patel, Giovanni E Mann, Sarah J Chapple
Diabetes and cardiometabolic disorders such as hypertension and obesity are major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease, with a wealth of evidence suggesting that oxidative stress is linked to the initiation and pathogenesis of these disease processes. With yearly increases in the global incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes, numerous studies have focused on characterizing whether upregulating antioxidant defenses through exogenous antioxidants (e.g. vitamin E, vitamin C) or activation of endogenous defenses (e...
February 7, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423911/planned-birth-at-or-near-term-for-improving-health-outcomes-for-pregnant-women-with-pre-existing-diabetes-and-their-infants
#13
REVIEW
Linda M Biesty, Aoife M Egan, Fidelma Dunne, Valerie Smith, Pauline Meskell, Eugene Dempsey, G Meabh Ni Bhuinneain, Declan Devane
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes (Type 1 or Type 2) have increased rates of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Current clinical guidelines support elective birth, at or near term, because of increased perinatal mortality during the third trimester of pregnancy.This review replaces a review previously published in 2001 that included "diabetic pregnant women", which has now been split into two reviews. This current review focuses on pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes (Type 1 or Type 2) and a sister review focuses on women with gestational diabetes...
February 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417249/post-contrast-acute-kidney-injury-part-2-risk-stratification-role-of-hydration-and-other-prophylactic-measures-patients-taking-metformin-and-chronic-dialysis-patients-recommendations-for-updated-esur-contrast-medium-safety-committee-guidelines
#14
Aart J van der Molen, Peter Reimer, Ilona A Dekkers, Georg Bongartz, Marie-France Bellin, Michele Bertolotto, Olivier Clement, Gertraud Heinz-Peer, Fulvio Stacul, Judith A W Webb, Henrik S Thomsen
OBJECTIVES: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 2011 guidelines on the prevention of post-contrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI). The results of the literature review and the recommendations based on it, which were used to prepare the new guidelines, are presented in two papers. AREAS COVERED IN PART 2: Topics reviewed include stratification of PC-AKI risk, the need to withdraw nephrotoxic medication, PC-AKI prophylaxis with hydration or drugs, the use of metformin in diabetic patients receiving contrast medium and the need to alter dialysis schedules in patients receiving contrast medium...
February 7, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412831/oxyntomodulin-actions-and-role-in-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Jens J Holst, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Maria Buur Nordskov Gabe, Mette Marie Rosenkilde
Oxyntomodulin is a product of the glucagon precursor, proglucagon, produced and released from the endocrine L-cells of the gut after enzymatic processing by the precursor prohormone convertase 1/3. It corresponds to the proglucagon sequence 33-69 and thus contains the entire glucagon sequence plus a C-terminal octapeptide, comprising in total 37 amino acids. As might have been expected, it has glucagon-like bioactivity, but also and more surprisingly also activates the receptor for GLP-1. This has given the molecule an interesting status as a glucagon-GLP-1 co-agonist, which is currently attracting considerable interest for its potential in the treatment of diabetes and obesity...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410356/a-shared-latent-space-matrix-factorisation-method-for-recommending-new-trial-evidence-for-systematic-review-updates
#16
Didi Surian, Adam G Dunn, Liat Orenstein, Rabia Bashir, Enrico Coiera, Florence T Bourgeois
BACKGROUND: Clinical trial registries can be used to monitor the production of trial evidence and signal when systematic reviews become out of date. However, this use has been limited to date due to the extensive manual review required to search for and screen relevant trial registrations. Our aim was to evaluate a new method that could partially automate the identification of trial registrations that may be relevant for systematic review updates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 179 systematic reviews of drug interventions for type 2 diabetes, which included 537 clinical trials that had registrations in ClinicalTrials...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409087/-chronic-kidney-disease-update-2018
#17
Markus Ketteler, Christoph Wanner
SGLT2-INHIBITION IN DIABETIC AND NON-DIABETIC KIDNEY DISEASE: The CANVAS Program Collaborative Group study confirmed nephroprotective actions by canagliflocin comparable to empagliflozin as published in the EMPA-REG Outcome study. Treatment with Liraglutide (LEADER study) also suggests nephroprotection via albuminuria reduction a decreased eGFR decline in subgroups and depending on stages of diabetic nephropathy. KDIGO CKD-MBD GUIDELINE UPDATE 2017: In July 2017, an update of the KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) 2009 guideline on diagnostic and treatment chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) was published...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406006/neonatal-diabetes-mellitus-an-update-on-diagnosis-and-management
#18
REVIEW
Michelle Blanco Lemelman, Lisa Letourneau, Siri Atma W Greeley
Neonatal diabetes mellitus is likely to be due to an underlying monogenic defect when it occurs at less than 6 months of age. Early recognition and urgent genetic testing are important for predicting the clinical course and raising awareness of possible additional features. Early treatment of sulfonylurea-responsive types of neonatal diabetes may improve neurologic outcomes. It is important to distinguish neonatal diabetes mellitus from other causes of hyperglycemia in newborns. Other causes include infection, stress, inadequate pancreatic insulin production in preterm infants, among others...
March 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401348/evaluation-of-the-group-lifestyle-balance-program-in-a-military-setting-an-investment-worth-expanding
#19
Jana L Wardian, Mark W True, Tom J Sauerwein, Nina A Watson, Austin M Hoover
Introduction: The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated that lifestyle intervention programs were effective in preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes. The Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) program translated the DPP curriculum into a 12-wk group intervention for those at risk for diabetes. This retrospective evaluation examined clinical outcomes for patients in the Diabetes Center of Excellence GLB program located at Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center from 2009 to 2013...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398211/peripheral-nerve-injury-after-elbow-arthroscopy-an-analysis-of-risk-factors
#20
Alexander H Jinnah, T David Luo, Ethan R Wiesler, Zhongyu Li, Gary G Poehling, Christopher J Tuohy, Benjamin R Graves, Michael T Freehill, Anastasios Papadonikolakis
PURPOSE: To identify risk factors associated with peripheral nerve injury after elbow arthroscopy and provide an updated incidence of those complications. METHODS: The elbow arthroscopies that were performed at our institution between 2006 and 2016 were identified. Over a 10-year period, 253 elbow arthroscopies were performed at our institution. Two hundred twenty-seven cases had a minimum follow-up of 4 weeks, and were included in our analysis. Minor and major nerve-related complications were recorded...
February 2, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
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