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Diabetes update

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335514/the-association-between-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-diabetic-retinopathy-in-type-2-diabetes-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#1
Bang-An Luo, Fan Gao, Lu-Lu Qin
Emerging evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the association between vitamin D and the risk of diabetic retinopathy. We conducted a systematic literature search of Pubmed, Medline, and EMBASE updated in September 2016 with the following keywords: "vitamin D" or "cholecalciferol" or "25-hydroxyvitamin D" or "25(OH)D" in combination with "diabetic retinopathy" or "DR"...
March 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326628/incidence-recurrence-and-cost-of-hyperglycaemic-crises-requiring-emergency-treatment-in-andalusia-spain
#2
R J Barranco, F Gomez-Peralta, C Abreu, M Delgado-Rodriguez, A Moreno-Carazo, F Romero, M A de la Cal, J M Barranco, F J Pasquel, G E Umpierrez
AIMS: Hyperglycaemic crises (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state) are medical emergencies in people with diabetes. We aimed to determine their incidence, recurrence and economic impact. METHODS: An observational study of hyperglycaemic crises cases using the database maintained by the out-of-hospital emergency service, the Healthcare Emergency Public Service (EPES) during 2012. The EPES provides emergency medical services to the total population of Andalusia, Spain (8...
March 22, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323921/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#3
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319895/impact-of-high-cholesterol-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-on-metabolic-diseases-an-updated-mini-review
#4
REVIEW
Erdi Sozen, Nesrin Kartal Ozer
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site of protein folding and calcium storage. Beside the role of ER in protein homeostasis, it controls the cholesterol production and lipid-membrane biosynthesis as well as surviving and cell death signaling mechanisms in the cell. It is well-documented that elevated plasma cholesterol induces adverse effects in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis (NASH), and metabolic diseases which are associated with oxidative and ER stress...
March 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319485/recent-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-not-the-same-old-song
#5
Raymond K Hsu, Neil R Powe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review recent updates on the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent analyses from the National Health and Nutritional Examination survey describe the temporal trend in CKD prevalence in US adults. The overall prevalence of estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m increased from 4.8% in 1988-1994 to 6.9% in 2003-2004, but has since stabilized at 6.4-6.9% up to 2011-2012. Prevalence of CKD stages 1-4 has also stabilized at ∼14% of adults since 2003-2004...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319004/updated-risk-factors-should-be-used-to-predict-development-of-diabetes
#6
Mary Angelyn Bethel, Kristen A Hyland, Antonio R Chacra, Prakash Deedwania, Gregory R Fulcher, Rury R Holman, Trond Jenssen, Naomi S Levitt, John J V McMurray, Eleni Boutati, Laine Thomas, Jie-Lena Sun, Steven M Haffner
AIMS: Predicting incident diabetes could inform treatment strategies for diabetes prevention, but the incremental benefit of recalculating risk using updated risk factors is unknown. We used baseline and 1-year data from the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) Trial to compare diabetes risk prediction using historical or updated clinical information. METHODS: Among non-diabetic participants reaching 1year of follow-up in NAVIGATOR, we compared the performance of the published baseline diabetes risk model with a "landmark" model incorporating risk factors updated at the 1-year time point...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316924/newer-proposed-classification-of-periimplant-defects-a-critical-update
#7
REVIEW
Deepak Passi, Mahinder Singh, Shubha Ranjan Dutta, Sarang Sharma, Mansi Atri, Jyoti Ahlawat, Abhinav Jain
The term peri-implantitis is used to describe a destructive inflammatory process affecting the soft and hard tissues around osseo integrated implants, leads to the formation of a peri-implant pocket and loss of supporting bone. Predisposing factors are Poor Plaque Control, inflammation, infection, Smoking, Diabetes and Occlusal Overload. It is diagnosed on the basis of clinical and radiographic interpretation and still no definite criteria have been proposed for the diagnosis and treatment of peri-implantitis...
January 2017: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303572/intracellular-calcium-release-channels-an-update
#8
Gaetano Santulli, Ryutaro Nakashima, Qi Yuan, Andrew R Marks
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are calcium (Ca(2+) ) release channels on the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR). Here we summarize the latest advances in the field, describing the recently discovered mechanistic roles of intracellular Ca(2+) release channels in the regulation of mitochondrial fitness and endothelial function, providing novel therapeutic options for the treatment of heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. This article is protected by copyright...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289069/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-fish-oil-supplementation-and-the-prevention-of-clinical-cardiovascular-disease-a-science-advisory-from-the-american-heart-association
#9
REVIEW
David S Siscovick, Thomas A Barringer, Amanda M Fretts, Jason H Y Wu, Alice H Lichtenstein, Rebecca B Costello, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Terry A Jacobson, Mary B Engler, Heather M Alger, Lawrence J Appel, Dariush Mozaffarian
Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementation for the primary prevention of clinical cardiovascular events in the general population have not been examined, RCTs have assessed the role of supplementation in secondary prevention among patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes, patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, and those with prevalent coronary heart disease...
March 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288484/pharmacologic-therapy-for-type-2-diabetes-synopsis-of-the-2017-american-diabetes-association-standards-of-medical-care-in-diabetes
#10
James J Chamberlain, William H Herman, Sandra Leal, Andrew S Rhinehart, Jay H Shubrook, Neil Skolnik, Rita Rastogi Kalyani
Description: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) annually updates the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested parties with evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with diabetes. Methods: For the 2017 Standards, the ADA Professional Practice Committee updated previous MEDLINE searches performed from 1 January 2016 to November 2016 to add, clarify, or revise recommendations based on new evidence...
March 14, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283926/differential-metabolic-effects-of-beta-blockers-an-updated-systematic-review-of-nebivolol
#11
REVIEW
Maria Marketou, Yashaswi Gupta, Shashank Jain, Panos Vardas
Blood pressure management in hypertensive patients with metabolic abnormalities is challenging, since many of the antihypertensive drugs adversely affect metabolism. Besides effective control of blood pressure in patients with hypertension, third-generation beta-blockers such as nebivolol offer additional benefits for central hemodynamics and neutral or beneficial effects on metabolism. Emerging clinical data suggest that nebivolol also has similar effects on metabolism in obese hypertensive and hypertensive diabetic patients...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283913/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-an-updated-overview
#12
REVIEW
E Chiefari, B Arcidiacono, D Foti, A Brunetti
The clinical and public health relevance of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is widely debated due to its increasing incidence, the resulting negative economic impact, and the potential for severe GDM-related pregnancy complications. Also, effective prevention strategies in this area are still lacking, and controversies exist regarding diagnosis and management of this form of diabetes. Different diagnostic criteria are currently adopted worldwide, while recommendations for diet, physical activity, healthy weight, and use of oral hypoglycemic drugs are not always uniform...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282065/fundus-autofluorescence-imaging-systematic-review-of-test-accuracy-for-the-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-retinal-conditions
#13
REVIEW
G K Frampton, N Kalita, L Payne, J L Colquitt, E Loveman, S M Downes, A J Lotery
We conducted a systematic review of the accuracy of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging for diagnosing and monitoring retinal conditions. Searches in November 2014 identified English language references. Sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and MEDION databases; reference lists of retrieved studies; and internet pages of relevant organisations, meetings, and trial registries. For inclusion, studies had to report FAF imaging accuracy quantitatively. Studies were critically appraised using QUADAS risk of bias criteria...
March 10, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278558/discriminatory-ability-of-visceral-adiposity-index-vai-in-diagnosis-of-metabolic-syndrome-a-population-based-study
#14
N Motamed, M R Khonsari, B Rabiee, H Ajdarkosh, G R Hemasi, M R Sohrabi, M Maadi, F Zamani
Background Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has been suggested as an index of visceral adiposity. This study was conducted to determine the discriminatory ability of VAI in diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods and materials We used the data of 5 312 subjects aged 18-74 years of a cohort study conducted among 6 140 individuals aged 10-90 years in Amol, northern Iran. The city population was divided into 16 strata based on gender and age groups in 10-year intervals. The subjects were randomly selected from each stratum...
March 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278145/vital-signs-prevalence-of-doctor-diagnosed-arthritis-and-arthritis-attributable-activity-limitation-united-states-2013-2015
#15
Kamil E Barbour, Charles G Helmick, Michael Boring, Teresa J Brady
BACKGROUND: In the United States, doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common and disabling chronic condition. Arthritis can lead to severe joint pain and poor physical function, and it can negatively affect quality of life. METHODS: CDC analyzed 2013-2015 data from the National Health Interview Survey, an annual, nationally representative, in-person interview survey of the health status and behaviors of the noninstitutionalized civilian U.S. adult population, to update previous prevalence estimates of arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitations...
March 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273690/weight-gain-adequacy-and-pregnancy-outcomes-in-gestational-diabetes-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
C Viecceli, L R Remonti, V N Hirakata, L S Mastella, V Gnielka, M L R Oppermann, S P Silveiro, A J Reichelt
The Institute of Medicine updated guidelines for gestational weight gain in 2009, with no special recommendations for gestational diabetes. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of weight gain adequacy and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE and SCOPUS. We calculated the pooled prevalence of gain adequacy and relative risks for pregnancy outcomes within Institute of Medicine categories. Thirty-three studies/abstracts (88,599 women) were included...
March 8, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271765/how-to-promote-patients-sleep-in-hospital
#17
Irene Gilsenan
Rationale and key points Disturbed or disrupted sleep is associated with adverse effects on physical and psychological health. This article explores the importance of promoting patients' sleep in hospital, although some of the principles can be applied to other healthcare settings. Sleep is essential to recovery and well-being, and nurses are well placed to support patients to achieve and sustain sleep. » Sleep has a restorative function and is particularly important in maintaining patients' health and well-being...
March 8, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266823/cardiovascular-disease-update-atrial-fibrillation
#18
Johnathan D McDivitt, Craig Barstow
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. The prevalence increases with age, especially in the seventh and eighth decades of life. AF also is associated with multiple risk factors and conditions that are managed commonly in family medicine settings, such as hypertension and diabetes. Rhythm control and rate control are primarily equivalent for mortality rate, but patients treated for rhythm control have more hospitalizations; however, rhythm control may be a viable option for select patients...
March 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266118/ageing-dental-caries-and-periodontal-diseases
#19
Rodrigo López, Patricio C Smith, Gerd Göstemeyer, Falk Schwendicke
AIM: To review the burden of caries and periodontitis in the elderly, changes with age that can explain this burden, and the vulnerability to disease of elderly populations. METHODS: An assessment of surveys in two populations was conducted. Indicators for caries were identified by updating a systematic review. Secular trends for smoking and type 2 diabetes were discussed. RESULTS: Changes in the susceptibility to periodontitis with age may be explained by exposure to pro-inflammatory conditions and changes in the healing capacity of cells and tissues...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266044/role-and-impact-of-the-extracellular-matrix-on-integrin-mediated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-functions
#20
REVIEW
Caroline Arous, Bernhard Wehrle-Haller
Understanding the organization and role of the extracellular matrix in islets of Langerhans is critical for maintaining pancreatic β-cells, and to recognize and revert the physiopathology of diabetes. Indeed, integrin-mediated adhesion signaling in response to the pancreatic extracellular matrix plays crucial roles in β-cell survival and insulin secretion, two major functions, which are affected in diabetes. Here, we would like to present an update on the major components of the pancreatic extracellular matrix, their role during integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and how they are affected during diabetes...
March 7, 2017: Biology of the Cell
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