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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724246/health-consequences-of-electric-lighting-practices-in-the-modern-world-a-report-on-the-national-toxicology-program-s-workshop-on-shift-work-at-night-artificial-light-at-night-and-circadian-disruption
#1
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, David E Blask, Andrew N Coogan, Mariana G Figueiro, Michael R Gorman, Janet E Hall, Johnni Hansen, Randy J Nelson, Satchidananda Panda, Michael H Smolensky, Richard G Stevens, Fred W Turek, Roel Vermeulen, Tania Carreón, Claire C Caruso, Christina C Lawson, Kristina A Thayer, Michael J Twery, Andrew D Ewens, Sanford C Garner, Pamela J Schwingl, Windy A Boyd
The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes controlled by endogenous circadian clocks, potentially resulting in adverse health outcomes. Many of the studies evaluating adverse health effects have been conducted among night- and rotating-shift workers, because this scenario gives rise to significant exposure to LAN...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724150/pregnancy-options-counseling-and-abortion-referrals-among-us-primary-care-physicians-results-from-a-national-survey
#2
Kelsey Holt, Elizabeth Janiak, Marie C McCormick, Ellice Lieberman, Christine Dehlendorf, Sandhya Kajeepeta, Jacquelyn M Caglia, Ana Langer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Primary care physicians (PCPs) can play a critical role in addressing unintended pregnancy through high-quality options counseling and referrals. METHODS: We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 3,000 PCPs in general, family, and internal medicine on practices and opinions related to options counseling for unintended pregnancy. We assessed predictors of physician practices using multivariable logistic regression weighted for sampling design and differential non-response...
July 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724027/-the-beginning-of-human-life-ethical-and-legal-perspectives-in-the-context-of-biotechnological-progress
#3
Vicente de Paulo Barretto, Elis Cristina Uhry Lauxen
Questions concerning the beginning of human life have pervaded society since antiquity. In the post-modern world, scientific and technological advances have fueled discussions on the issue, such that debates previously concentrated on abortion now also focus on biotechnological interventions. The article addresses the latter, reflecting on the extent to which human dignity can be considered a (hermeneutic) reference in establishing ethical and legal parameters for biotechnological advances in the definition of the beginning of human life...
July 13, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724014/prescription-medication-by-physiotherapists-a-brazilian-view-of-the-united-kingdom-canada-australia-and-new-zealand
#4
Valton da Silva Costa
Many health systems (HS) have adopted novel models of care which have included non-medical prescription (NMP) by physiotherapists. The aim of this study was to verify in the literature the existence of this practice and its possible benefits. A literature review was carried out through search on Science Direct, PubMed, SciELO, Lilacs and Google Scholar, and in the World Confederation for Physical Therapy and Chartered Society of Physiotherapy websites. In recent decades the United Kingdom adopted the NMP for health professionals, followed by Canada...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724011/the-aids-epidemic-and-the-mozambican-society-of-medicines-an-analysis-of-brazilian-cooperation
#5
Maíra da Silva Fedatto
This article analyzes the Brazilian South South Cooperation in Health in Mozambique, specifically the fight against the AIDS Epidemic through the Antiretroviral Factory, in light of the concept of Structural Cooperation in Health, and with a basis in the literature on Cooperation for Development and Global Health. Thus, the article is divided into four parts: (i) a historical-bibliographic review of health as an International Relations issue; (ii) an overview of the field of health in Mozambique; (iii) an historical-political-conceptual debate about both types of International Cooperation for Development: North-South Cooperation and South-South Cooperation; (iv) a study about the antiretroviral factory, better known as the Mozambican Society of Medicines (Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos)...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724007/-mal-nutrition-and-the-new-epidemiological-trend-in-a-context-of-development-and-inequalities
#6
Nathália Paula de Souza, Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira, Annick Fontbonne, Fernanda Cristina de Lima Pinto, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa Cesse
The current context of intense social, economic and political transformations has contributed to changes in the health profile of the population and generated discussions about the impact of these changes on the reorganization of society. At the present moment, the increase in non-communicable illnesses and diseases raises major concerns about the paradox of malnutrition and obesity. Based on an in-depth reading and interpretation of texts, documents and databases, this article discusses issues related to nutrition, considering the dimensions of shortages and excesses, the evolution of nutrition over time, and the connection with the new epidemiological trend...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723991/health-inequalities-a-global-perspective
#7
Mauricio Lima Barreto
The objective of this article is to present health inequalities as a global problem which afflicts the populations of the poorest countries, but also those of the richest countries, and whose persistence represents one of the most serious and challenging health problems worldwide. Two components of global inequalities are highlighted: inequalities between groups within the same society, and inequalities between nations. The understanding that many of these inequalities are unjust, and therefore inequities, is largely derived from the inequalities that are identified between the various social groups of a given society...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723779/can-operations-achieve-good-outcomes-in-elderly-patients-with-sanders-ii-iii-calcaneal-fractures
#8
Jun Su, Xuecheng Cao
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effect of operative treatment and nonoperative treatment for elderly patients with Sanders II-III calcaneal fractures.The study consisted of 60 patients with Sanders II-III calcaneal fractures who were treated in our institution from January 2007 to April 2012. The clinical effect between the operative treatment group of 32 patients and the nonoperative treatment group of 28 patients was studied. Böhler angle, Gissane angle, subtalar joint motion, calcaneal width, and calcaneal height were measured before and after treatment, and these indexes were also measured on the uninjured foot...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723767/return-of-the-cadaver-key-role-of-anatomic-dissection-for-plastic-surgery-resident-training
#9
Swenn Maxence Krähenbühl, Paul Čvančara, Thomas Stieglitz, Raphaël Bonvin, Murielle Michetti, Marjorie Flahaut, Sébastien Durand, Lina Deghayli, Lee Ann Applegate, Wassim Raffoul
Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques.In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723752/full-covered-self-expandable-metal-stents-for-the-treatment-of-anastomotic-leak-using-a-silk-thread
#10
Cheol Woong Choi, Dae Hwan Kang, Hyung Wook Kim, Su Bum Park, Su Jin Kim, Sun Hwi Hwang, Si Hak Lee
To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of fixation of the fully covered self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement using a silk thread for complete closure of an anastomotic leak. An anastomotic leak is a life-threatening complication after gastrectomy. Although the traditional treatment of choice was surgical re-intervention, an endoscopic SEMS can be used alternatively.During the study period, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients who received a modified covered SEMS capable of being fixed using a silk thread (Shim technique) due to an anastomotic leak after gastrectomy to prevent stent migration...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723715/novel-weight-based-dose-threshold-for-18f-naf-pet-ct-imaging-using-advanced-pet-ct-systems-a-potential-tool-for-reducing-radiation-burden
#11
Fahad Marafi, Abdulreda Esmail, Rashid Rasheed, Fareeda Alkandari, Sharjeel Usmani
BACKGROUND: Fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) PET/CT is an important tool for detecting and evaluating metastatic bone cancer. Besides traditional dose metrics, recent methods such as real-time dose mapping, dose calculation from DICOM information, and their relevance to entrance skin exposure are currently in use to reduce the radiation burden. In this study, we have analyzed the data of 1062 patients retrospectively to evaluate patterns of absorbed dose for institutional weight-based dose protocol as compared with fixed dose method guidelines of Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI)...
July 18, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723471/urinary-tract-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients-with-diabetes-chronic-kidney-disease-and-kidney-transplant
#12
REVIEW
Zafer Tandogdu, Tommaso Cai, Bela Koves, Florian Wagenlehner, Truls Erik Bjerklund-Johansen
CONTEXT: This paper provides a brief overview of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in immunocompromised patients from the perspective of a practicing urologist. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to provide an update on UTIs in immunocompromised patients. Diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease, and kidney transplant (KT) are the most common clinical cases encountered by urologists. Diagnosis, management, and future research needs are summarised. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723369/evaluation-and-classification-of-stress-urinary-incontinence-current-concepts-and-future-directions
#13
REVIEW
Nadir I Osman, Vincenzo Li Marzi, Jean N Cornu, Marcus J Drake
CONTEXT: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common and bothersome problem that frequently requires operative management. Over the past two decades, novel techniques have been introduced into clinical practice. With the greater variety of surgical options now available, there is an increasing focus on selecting the appropriate procedure for the individual patient based on the likely underlying pathophysiologic mechanism. OBJECTIVE: To review the methods used in the evaluation of SUI and the proposed classification systems...
August 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723316/when-green-and-red-mycology-meet-impressions-from-an-interdisciplinary-forum-on-virulence-mechanisms-of-phyto-and-human-pathogenic-fungi
#14
Yidong Yu, Bernhard Hube, Jörg Kämper, Vera Meyer, Sven Krappmann
Fungal infections pose a constant threat to plants and humans, but detailed knowledge about pathogenesis, immunity, or virulence is rather scarce. Due to the fact that a certain overlap in the armoury of infection exists between plant- and human-pathogenic fungi, an interdisciplinary forum was held in October 2016 at the Institute for Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene in Erlangen under the organisational umbrella from two special interest groups of German microbial societies. Scientific exchange and intense discussion of this timely topic was fostered by bringing together renowned experts in their respective fields to present their thoughts and recent findings in the course of a plenary lecture and six themed sessions, accompanied by oral and poster contributions of young researchers...
July 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722802/pathology-imagebase-a-reference-image-database-for-standardization-of-pathology
#15
Lars Egevad, John Cheville, Andrew J Evans, Jonas Hörnblad, James G Kench, Glen Kristiansen, Katia R M Leite, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Chin-Chen Pan, Hemamali Samaratunga, John R Srigley, Lawrence True, Ming Zhou, Mark Clements, Brett Delahunt
AIMS: Despite efforts to standardize histopathology practice through the development of guidelines, the interpretation of morphology is still hampered by subjectivity. We here describe Pathology Imagebase, a novel mechanism for establishing an international standard for the interpretation of pathology specimens. METHODS AND RESULTS: The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) established a reference image database through the input of experts in the field...
July 19, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722780/add-on-effects-of-fluvastatin-in-simeprevir-pegylated-interferon-ribavirin-combination-therapy-for-patients-with-genotype-1-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-randomized-controlled-study
#16
Goki Suda, Jun Ito, Atsushi Nagasaka, Yoshiya Yamamoto, Ken Furuya, Munenori Okamoto, Katsumi Terashita, Tomoe Kobayashi, Izumi Tsunematsu, Junichi Yoshida, Takashi Meguro, Masatsugu Ohara, Naoki Kawagishi, Megumi Kimura, Machiko Umemura, Takaaki Izumi, Yoko Tsukuda, Masato Nakai, Takuya Sho, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Kenichi Morikawa, Koji Ogawa, Naoya Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: The Japan Society of Hepatology guidelines indicate that HCV protease inhibitor combination therapy with simeprevir (SMV), pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN), and ribavirin (RBV) is a therapeutic option for patients who fail to respond to a direct direct-acting antiviral (DAA) containing regimen. However, treatment outcomes have room for improvement. Fluvastatin (FLV) add-on treatment in Peg-IFN and RBV combination therapy for hepatitis C-infected patients significantly improved the sustained virological response (SVR), but the add-on effect of FLV on SMV combination therapy is not well understood...
July 19, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722593/the-benjamin-h-kean-travel-fellowship-in-tropical-medicine-assessment-of-impact-at-15-years
#17
Aubri S Carman, Chandy C John
The Benjamin H. Kean Fellowship in Tropical Medicine is an American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene initiative that provides medical students with funding for international clinical or research experiences lasting at least 1 month. Of the 175 Kean fellows from 1998 to 2013, 140 had current available e-mails, and 70 of the 140 (50%) responded to a survey about their fellowship experience. Alumni indicated that the Kean Fellowship had a high impact on their career plans with regard to preparation for (N = 65, 94...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722548/the-change-makers-of-west-africa
#18
EDITORIAL
Sue Godt, Sharmila Mhatre, Anne-Marie Schryer-Roy
West Africa was the focus of global attention during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, when systemic health system weaknesses compounded a serious emergency and complicated response efforts. Following the crisis, calls were made to strengthen health systems, but investments to date have fallen short of delivering the support needed to build strong health systems able to prevent and manage future outbreaks.In part, this reality serves to highlight the shortcomings of the solutions being repeatedly prioritised by external funders and experts, solutions that often fail to consider the wealth of West African evidence and actors actively working to strengthen the leadership and health systems needed to drive and sustainably improve national health outcomes...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722485/characterization-of-nontyphoidal-salmonella-isolates-from-asymptomatic-migrant-food-handlers-in-peninsular-malaysia
#19
Pei Yee Woh, Kwai Lin Thong, Jerzy Marian Behnke, John Watkin Lewis, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
Asymptomatic Salmonella carriers who work as food handlers pose food safety and public health risks, particularly during food preparation, and this has serious implications for the disease burden in society. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the number of Salmonella carriers in a migrant cohort in several food establishments in three major cities in Peninsular Malaysia. Sociodemographic data and stool samples were collected and analyzed using standard methods of detection and isolation. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of the positive samples were also performed...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722342/green-micellar-hplc-analysis-of-three-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-in-their-mixtures-with-hydrochlorothiazide-and-modeling-of-their-retention-behavior-by-fitting-to-foley-s-model
#20
Manal Eid, Yasser El-Shabrawy, Rania El-Shaheny
We present an environmentally friendly method for the analysis of three angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and hydrochlorothiazide simultaneously using a green micellar eluent for the first time. The chromatographic separation of enalapril maleate, lisinopril dihydrate, benazepril hydrochloride, and hydrochlorothiazide was implemented on an octadecyl silica column with a solution containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.12 M), 1-propyl alcohol (10% v/v), triethylamine (0.3% v/v) and H3 PO4 (0.02 M) at pH 3...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
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