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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092224/visual-map-and-instruction-based-bicycle-navigation-a-comparison-of-effects-on-behaviour
#1
Dick de Waard, Frank Westerhuis, Danielle Joling, Stella Weiland, Ronja Stadtbäumer, Leonie Kaltofen
Cycling with a classic paper map was compared with navigating with a moving map displayed on a smartphone, and with auditory, and visual turn-by-turn route guidance. Spatial skills were found to be related to navigation performance, however only when navigating from a paper or electronic map, not with turn-by-turn (instruction based) navigation. While navigating, 25% of the time cyclists fixated at the devices that present visual information. Navigating from a paper map required most mental effort and both young and older cyclists preferred electronic over paper map navigation...
January 16, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092199/book-reviewsreviews
#2
Márta Virág, Kollár Tamás
Michael S. Gazzaniga, Richard B. Ivry and George R. Mangun Cognitive neuroscience: The biology of the mind (International student edition) (4th ed.) Trevor W. Robbins, Barry J. Everitt and David J. Nutt The neurobiology of addiction Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2010, 318 pp. ISBN: 978-0-1995-6215-2.
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089979/quality-of-care-for-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-mind-the-knowledge-gap
#3
Vera Golder, Eric F Morand, Alberta Y Hoi
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypical chronic multiorgan autoimmune disorder that can lead to significant burden of disease and loss of life expectancy. The disease burden is the result of a complex interplay between genetic, biologic, socioeconomic, and health system variables affecting the individual. Recent advances in biological understanding of SLE are yet to translate to transformative therapies, and genetic and socioeconomic variables are not readily amenable to intervention. In contrast, healthcare quality, a variable readily amenable to change, has been inadequately addressed in SLE, despite evidence in other chronic diseases that quality of care is strongly associated with patient outcomes...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089663/phase-dependent-activity-of-neurons-in-the-rostral-part-of-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-with-saccharin-intake-in-a-cue-guided-lever-manipulation-task
#4
Ryuhei Aoki, Risako Kato, Satoshi Fujita, Jun Shimada, Noriaki Koshikawa, Masayuki Kobayashi
Neurons in the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus (rTRN) receive somatosensory and motor information and regulate neural activities of the thalamic nuclei. Previous studies showed that when activity in visual TRN neurons is suppressed prior to the visual stimuli in a visual detection task, the performance of the task improves. However, little is known about such changes in the rTRN preceding certain events. In the present study, we performed unit recordings in the rTRN in alert rats during a cue-guided lever-manipulation task in which saccharin was provided as a reward...
January 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089618/24-hour-protein-arginine-and-citrulline-metabolism-in-fed-critically-ill-children-a-stable-isotope-tracer-study
#5
Carlijn T I de Betue, Xiomara C Garcia Casal, Dick A van Waardenburg, Stephen M Schexnayder, Koen F M Joosten, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Marielle P K J Engelen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The reference method to study protein and arginine metabolism in critically ill children is measuring plasma amino acid appearances with stable isotopes during a short (4-8 h) time period and extrapolate results to 24-h. However, 24-h measurements may be variable due to critical illness related factors and a circadian rhythm could be present. Since only short duration stable isotope studies in critically ill children have been conducted before, the aim of this study was to investigate 24-h appearance of specific amino acids representing protein and arginine metabolism, with stable isotope techniques in continuously fed critically ill children...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089470/conversion-hip-arthroplasty-in-failed-fixation-of-intertrochanteric-fracture-a-propensity-score-matching-study
#6
Young-Kyun Lee, Jung Taek Kim, Awad Abdalla Alkitaini, Ki-Choul Kim, Yong-Chan Ha, Kyung-Hoi Koo
BACKGROUND: Conversion hip arthroplasty is a salvage procedure for failed internal fixation of intertrochanteric fractures. However, the technical difficulties and perioperative morbidity of conversion arthroplasty are uncertain. METHODS: We compared the type of arthroplasty (total hip arthroplasty or hemiarthroplasty), operative parameters, perioperative morbidity, 1-year mortality, implant stability, and clinical results of 33 conversion hip arthroplasties due to a failed internal fixation of intertrochanteric fracture with those of a matched control group of 33 primary hip arthroplasties due to the same fracture...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088645/towards-solving-the-hard-problem-of-consciousness-the-varieties-of-brain-resonances-and-the-conscious-experiences-that-they-support
#7
Stephen Grossberg
The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how we experience qualia or phenomenal experiences, such as seeing, hearing, and feeling, and knowing what they are. To solve this problem, a theory of consciousness needs to link brain to mind by modeling how emergent properties of several brain mechanisms interacting together embody detailed properties of individual conscious psychological experiences. This article summarizes evidence that Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, accomplishes this goal...
December 6, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088546/product-vs-corporate-carbon-footprint-some-methodological-issues-a-case-study-and-review-on-the-wine-sector
#8
Alejandra Navarro, Rita Puig, Pere Fullana-I-Palmer
Carbon footprint (CF) is nowadays one of the most widely used environmental indicators. The scope of the CF assessment could be corporate (when all production processes of a company are evaluated, together with upstream and downstream processes following a life cycle approach) or product (when one of the products is evaluated throughout its life cycle). Our hypothesis was that usually product CF studies (PCF) collect corporate data, because it is easier for companies to obtain them than product data. Six main methodological issues to take into account when collecting corporate data to be used for PCF studies were postulated and discussed in the present paper: fugitive emissions, credits from waste recycling, use of "equivalent factors", reference flow definition, accumulation and allocation of corporate values to minor products...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088398/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-for-adolescents-with-functional-somatic-syndromes-a-pilot-cohort-study
#9
Ather Ali, Theresa R Weiss, Anne Dutton, Douglas McKee, Kim D Jones, Susmita Kashikar-Zuck, Wendy K Silverman, Eugene D Shapiro
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for adolescents with widespread chronic pain and other functional somatic symptoms and to make preliminary assessments of its clinical utility. STUDY DESIGN: Three cohorts of subjects completed an 8-week MBSR program. Child- and parent-completed measures were collected at baseline and 8 and 12 weeks later. Measures included the Functional Disability Inventory (FDI), the Fibromyalgia/Symptom Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQR/SIQR), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale (MASC2), and the Perceived Stress Scale...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087728/inside-an-angel-s-mind
#10
Charlotte Cliffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087561/mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-delays-depressive-relapse-across-demographic-subgroups
#11
Graham Meadows, Frances Shawyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087447/structures-biological-activities-and-industrial-applications-of-the-polysaccharides-from-hericium-erinaceus-lion-s-mane-mushroom-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Xirui He, Xiaoxiao Wang, Jiacheng Fang, Yu Chang, Ning Ning, Hao Guo, Linhong Huang, Xiaoqiang Huang, Zefeng Zhao
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers., also known as Yamabushitake, Houtou and Lion's Mane, is capable of fortifying the spleen and nourishing the stomach, tranquilizing the mind, and fighting cancer. Over the past decade, it has been demonstrated that H. erinaceus polysaccharides possess various promising bioactivities, including antitumor and immunomodulation, anti-gastric ulcer, neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, anti-oxidation and hepatoprotection, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hyperglycemia, anti-fatigue and anti-aging...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086797/sep-class-genes-in-prunus-mume-and-their-likely-role-in-floral-organ-development
#13
Yuzhen Zhou, Zongda Xu, Xue Yong, Sagheer Ahmad, Weiru Yang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Flower phylogenetics and genetically controlled development have been revolutionised during the last two decades. However, some of these evolutionary aspects are still debatable. MADS-box genes are known to play essential role in specifying the floral organogenesis and differentiation in numerous model plants like Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, belonging to the MADS-box gene family, are members of the ABCDE and quartet models of floral organ development and play a vital role in flower development...
January 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081516/autism-does-not-limit-strategic-thinking-in-the-beauty-contest-game
#14
Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
A popular hypothesis in developmental psychology is that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a specific impairment or developmental delay in their ability to reason about other people's mental processes, especially when this reasoning process is of a higher-order, recursive, or nested variety. One type of interpersonal interaction that involves this sort of complex reasoning about others' minds is an economic game, and because economic games have been extensively modeled in behavioral economics, they provide a unique testbed for a quantitative and precise analysis of cognitive functioning in ASD...
January 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081322/does-cpap-treatment-affect-the-voice
#15
Güleser Saylam, Mustafa Şahin, Dilek Demiral, Ömer Bayır, Melike Bağnu Yüceege, Emel Çadallı Tatar, Mehmet Hakan Korkmaz
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in voice parameters among patients using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with an indication for CPAP treatment without any voice problems and with normal laryngeal findings were included and voice parameters were evaluated before and 1 and 6 months after CPAP. Videolaryngostroboscopic findings, a self-rated scale (Voice Handicap Index-10, VHI-10), perceptual voice quality assessment (GRBAS: grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain), and acoustic parameters were compared...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080970/differentiating-attention-styles-and-regulatory-aspects-of-self-reported-interoceptive-sensibility
#16
REVIEW
Wolf Mehling
Based on prior research, multiple discriminable dimensions of interoception have been defined: awareness, accuracy and sensibility. Some investigators defined interoceptive awareness as metacognitive awareness of interoceptive accuracy, assessed as correspondence between subjective confidence in and objective accuracy of one's heartbeat detection. However, metacognitive awareness has been understood quite differently: 'a cognitive set in which negative thoughts/feelings are experienced as mental events, rather than as the self' or as 'error awareness'...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080969/an-active-inference-theory-of-allostasis-and-interoception-in-depression
#17
Lisa Feldman Barrett, Karen S Quigley, Paul Hamilton
In this paper, we integrate recent theoretical and empirical developments in predictive coding and active inference accounts of interoception (including the Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding model) with working hypotheses from the theory of constructed emotion to propose a biologically plausible unified theory of the mind that places metabolism and energy regulation (i.e. allostasis), as well as the sensory consequences of that regulation (i.e. interoception), at its core. We then consider the implications of this approach for understanding depression...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080254/wellness-and-multiple-sclerosis-the-national-ms-society-establishes-a-wellness-research-working-group-and-research-priorities
#18
Robert W Motl, Ellen M Mowry, Dawn M Ehde, Nicholas G LaRocca, Kathy E Smith, Kathleen Costello, Lynne Shinto, Alexander V Ng, Amy B Sullivan, Barbara Giesser, Kevin K McCully, Bo Fernhall, Malachy Bishop, Matthew Plow, Patrizia Casaccia, Nancy D Chiaravalloti
BACKGROUND: People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have identified "wellness" and associated behaviors as a high priority based on "social media listening" undertaken by the National MS Society (i.e. the Society). OBJECTIVE: The Society recently convened a group that consisted of researchers with experience in MS and wellness-related research, Society staff members, and an individual with MS for developing recommendations regarding a wellness research agenda. METHOD: The members of the group engaged in focal reviews and discussions involving the state of science within three approaches for promoting wellness in MS, namely diet, exercise, and emotional wellness...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080126/know-thy-enemy-education-about-terrorism-improves-social-attitudes-toward-terrorists
#19
Jordan Theriault, Peter Krause, Liane Young
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080118/photos-that-increase-feelings-of-learning-promote-positive-evaluations
#20
Brittany A Cardwell, Eryn J Newman, Maryanne Garry, Antonia Mantonakis, Randi Beckett
Research shows that when semantic context makes it feel easier for people to bring related thoughts and images to mind, people can misinterpret that feeling of ease as evidence that information is positive. But research also shows that semantic context does more than help people bring known concepts to mind-it also teaches people new concepts. In five experiments, we show that when photos increase these feelings of learning, they also increase positive evaluations. People saw fictitious wine names and evaluated claims about each...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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