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Cortex mapping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926500/occipital-lobe-and-posterior-cingulate-perfusion-in-the-prediction-of-dementia-with-lewy-body-pathology-in-a-clinical-sample
#1
Angus M J Prosser, Livia Tossici-Bolt, Christopher M Kipps
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of occipital lobe and posterior cingulate perfusion in predicting dopamine transporter imaging outcome using a quantitative measure of analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 99 patients with cognitive complaints who had undergone both technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography (Tc-HMPAO SPECT) and I ioflupane (I-FP-CIT also called DaTSCAN) imaging in a dementia diagnostic center were analyzed...
September 18, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924582/data-on-the-effect-of-conductive-hearing-loss-on-auditory-and-visual-cortex-activity-revealed-by-intrinsic-signal-imaging
#2
Manuel Teichert, Jürgen Bolz
This data article provides additional data related to the research article entitled "Simultaneous intrinsic signal imaging of auditory and visual cortex reveals profound effects of acute hearing loss on visual processing" (Teichert and Bolz, 2017) [1]. The primary auditory and visual cortex (A1 and V1) of adult male C57BL/6J mice (P120-P240) were mapped simultaneously using intrinsic signal imaging (Kalatsky and Stryker, 2003) [2]. A1 and V1 activity evoked by combined auditory and visual stimulation were measured before and after conductive hearing loss (CHL) induced by bilateral malleus removal...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924579/memory-integration-constructs-maps-of-space-time-and-concepts
#3
Neal W Morton, Katherine R Sherrill, Alison R Preston
Recent evidence demonstrates that new events are learned in the context of their relationships to existing memories. Within the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, related memories are represented by integrated codes that connect events experienced at different times and places. Integrated codes form the basis of spatial, temporal, and conceptual maps of experience. These maps represent information that goes beyond direct experience and support generalization behaviors that require knowledge be used in new ways...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924043/dynamic-regulation-of-cdr1-localization-and-phosphorylation-during-osmotic-stress
#4
Hannah E Opalko, James B Moseley
Environmental conditions modulate cell cycle progression in many cell types. A key component of the eukaryotic cell cycle is the protein kinase Wee1, which inhibits the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 in yeast through human cells. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the protein kinase Cdr1 is a mitotic inducer that promotes mitotic entry by phosphorylating and inhibiting Wee1. Cdr1 and Wee1 both localize to punctate structures termed nodes on the medial cortex, but it has been unknown if node localization can be altered by physiological signals...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923275/in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-images-reveal-neuroanatomical-sex-differences-through-the-application-of-voxel-based-morphometry-in-c57bl-6-mice
#5
Cassandra E Meyer, Florian Kurth, Stefano Lepore, Josephine L Gao, Hadley Johnsonbaugh, Mandavi R Oberoi, Stephen J Sawiak, Allan MacKenzie-Graham
Behaviorally relevant sex differences are often associated with structural differences in the brain and many diseases are sexually dimorphic in prevalence and progression. Characterizing sex differences is imperative to gaining a complete understanding of behavior and disease which will, in turn, allow for a balanced approach to scientific research and the development of therapies. In this study, we generated novel tissue probability maps (TPMs) based on 30 male and 30 female in vivo C57BL/6 mouse brain magnetic resonance images and used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to analyze sex differences...
September 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923274/mapping-orbitofrontal-limbic-maturation-in-non-human-primates-a-longitudinal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#6
Akiko Uematsu, Junichi Hata, Yuji Komaki, Fumiko Seki, Chihoko Yamada, Norio Okahara, Yoko Kurotaki, Erika Sasaki, Hideyuki Okano
Brain development involves spatiotemporally complex microstructural changes. A number of neuropsychiatric disorders are linked to the neural processes of development and aging. Thus, it is important to understanding the typical developmental patterns of various brain structures, which will help to define critical periods of vulnerability for neural maturation, as well as anatomical mechanisms of brain structure-related neuropathology. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to assess development of the orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus in a non-human primate species, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)...
September 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922355/image-identification-from-brain-activity-using-the-population-receptive-field-model
#7
Wietske Zuiderbaan, Ben M Harvey, Serge O Dumoulin
A goal of computational models is not only to explain experimental data but also to make new predictions. A current focus of computational neuroimaging is to predict features of the presented stimulus from measured brain signals. These computational neuroimaging approaches may be agnostic about the underlying neural processes or may be biologically inspired. Here, we use the biologically inspired population receptive field (pRF) approach to identify presented images from fMRI recordings of the visual cortex, using an explicit model of the underlying neural response selectivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921724/-discrete-peaks-of-excitability-and-map-overlap-reveal-task-specific-organization-of-primary-motor-cortex-for-control-of-human-forearm-muscles
#8
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Michael J G Bergin, Cyril Schneider, Siobhan Schabrun, Paul W Hodges
The primary motor cortex (M1) presents a somatotopic organization of body parts, but with overlap between muscle/movement representations. This distinct but overlapping M1 organization is believed to be important for individuated control and movement coordination, respectively. Discrete peaks of greater excitability observed within M1 might underpin organization of cortical motor control. This study aimed to examine interactions between M1 representations of synergist and antagonist forearm muscles, compare regions of greater excitability during different functional tasks, and compare characteristics of M1 representation recorded using surface and fine-wire (fw ) electrodes...
September 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921702/3d-analysis-of-mitosis-distribution-highlights-the-longitudinal-zonation-and-diarch-symmetry-in-proliferation-activity-of-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-root-meristem
#9
V V Lavrekha, T Pasternak, V B Ivanov, K Palme, V V Mironova
To date CYCB1;1 marker and cortex cell lengths are conventionally used to determine the proliferation activity of the Arabidopsis root meristem. By creating a 3D map of mitosis distribution we showed that these markers overlooked that stele and endodermis save their potency to divide longer than cortex and epidermis. Cessation of cell divisions is not a random process, so that the mitotic activity within the endodermis and stele shows a diarch pattern. Mitotic activity of all root tissues peaked at the same distance from the quiescent center (QC); however, different tissues stopped dividing at different distances, with cells of the protophloem exiting the cell cycle first and the procambial cells being the last...
September 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920933/modular-organization-of-the-brainstem-noradrenaline-system-coordinates-opposing-learning-states
#10
Akira Uematsu, Bao Zhen Tan, Edgar A Ycu, Jessica Sulkes Cuevas, Jenny Koivumaa, Felix Junyent, Eric J Kremer, Ilana B Witten, Karl Deisseroth, Joshua P Johansen
Noradrenaline modulates global brain states and diverse behaviors through what is traditionally believed to be a homogeneous cell population in the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC). However, it is unclear how LC coordinates disparate behavioral functions. We report a modular LC organization in rats, endowed with distinct neural projection patterns and coding properties for flexible specification of opposing behavioral learning states. LC projection mapping revealed functionally distinct cell modules with specific anatomical connectivity...
September 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#11
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents as a model system...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916867/reorganization-of-motor-representations-in-patients-with-brain-lesions-a-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#12
Lucia Bulubas, Nico Sollmann, Noriko Tanigawa, Claus Zimmer, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
This is an explorative study applying presurgical navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) to investigate the spatial distributions of motor sites to reveal tumor-induced brain plasticity in patients with brain tumors. We analyzed nTMS-based motor maps derived from presurgical mapping of 100 patients with motor eloquently located brain tumors (tumors in the frontal lobe, the precentral gyrus [PrG], the postcentral gyrus [PoG], the remaining parietal lobe, or the temporal lobe). Based on these motor maps, we systematically investigated changes in motor evoked potential (MEP) counts among 4 gyri (PrG, PoG, medial frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus) between subgroups of patients according to the tumor location in order to depict the tumor's influence on reorganization...
September 15, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913163/general-and-selective-brain-connectivity-alterations-in-essential-tremor-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#13
Karsten Mueller, Robert Jech, Martina Hoskovcová, Olga Ulmanová, Dušan Urgošík, Josef Vymazal, Evžen Růžička
Although essential tremor is the most common movement disorder, there is little knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease. Therefore, we explored brain connectivity based on slow spontaneous fluctuations of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in patients with essential tremor (ET). A cohort of 19 ET patients and 23 healthy individuals were scanned in resting condition using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). General connectivity was assessed by eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912157/approaching-the-ground-truth-revealing-the-functional-organization-of-human-multisensory-stc-using-ultra-high-field-fmri
#14
Francesco Gentile, Nienke van Atteveldt, Federico De Martino, Rainer Goebel
Integrating inputs across sensory systems is a property of the brain that is vitally important in everyday life. More than two decades of fMRI research have revealed crucial insights on multisensory processing, yet the multisensory operations at the neuronal level in humans have remained largely unknown. Understanding the fine-scale spatial organization of multisensory brain regions is fundamental to shed light on their neuronal operations. Monkey electrophysiology revealed that the bimodal superior temporal cortex (bSTC) is topographically organized according to the modality preference (visual, auditory and bimodal) of its neurons...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901999/recruitment-of-prefrontal-striatal-circuit-in-response-to-skilled-motor-challenge
#15
Yumei Guo, Zhuo Wang, Sandhya Prathap, Daniel P Holschneider
A variety of physical fitness regimens have been shown to improve cognition, including executive function, yet our understanding of which parameters of motor training are important in optimizing outcomes remains limited. We used functional brain mapping to compare the ability of two motor challenges to acutely recruit the prefrontal-striatal circuit. The two motor tasks - walking in a complex running wheel with irregularly spaced rungs or walking in a running wheel with a smooth internal surface - differed only in the extent of skill required for their execution...
September 8, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899717/early-patterns-of-activity-in-the-developing-cortex-focus-on-the-sensorimotor-system
#16
REVIEW
Roustem Khazipov, Mathieu Milh
Early development of somatotopic cortical maps occurs during the fetal period in humans and during the postnatal period in rodents. During this period, the sensorimotor cortex expresses transient patterns of correlated neuronal activity including delta waves, gamma- and spindle-burst oscillations. These early activity patterns are largely driven by the thalamus and triggered, in a topographic manner, by sensory feedback resulting from spontaneous movements. Early cortical activities are instrumental for competitive interactions between sensory inputs for the cortical territories, they prevent cortical neurons from apoptosis and their alteration may lead to disturbances in cortical network development in a number of neurodevelopmental diseases...
September 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893928/content-specific-codes-of-parametric-vibrotactile-working-memory-in-humans
#17
Timo Torsten Schmidt, Yuan-Hao Wu, Felix Blankenburg
To understand how the brain flexibly handles mentally represented information in the absence of sensory stimulation, working memory (WM) studies have been essential. A seminal finding in monkey research is that neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) retain stimulus-specific information when vibrotactile frequencies were memorized. A direct mapping between monkey studies and human fMRI research is still controversial. While oscillatory signatures, in terms of frequency dependent parametric beta-band modulation, have recently been observed in human EEG studies, the content-specificity of these representations in terms of multivariate pattern analysis has not yet been shown...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891782/functional-preference-for-object-sounds-but-not-for-voices-in-the-occipitotemporal-cortex-of-early-blind-individuals
#18
Giulia Dormal, Maxime Pelland, Mohamed Rezk, Esther Yakobov, Franco Lepore, Olivier Collignon
Sounds activate occipital regions in early blind individuals. However, how different sound categories map onto specific regions of the occipital cortex remains a matter of debate. We used fMRI to characterize brain responses of early blind and sighted individuals to familiar object sounds, human voices, and their respective low-level control sounds. In addition, sighted participants were tested while viewing pictures of faces, objects, and phase-scrambled control pictures. In both early blind and sighted, a double dissociation was evidenced in bilateral auditory cortices between responses to voices and object sounds: Voices elicited categorical responses in bilateral superior temporal sulci, whereas object sounds elicited categorical responses along the lateral fissure bilaterally, including the primary auditory cortex and planum temporale...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891466/thalamic-input-to-auditory-cortex-is-locally-heterogeneous-but-globally-tonotopic
#19
Sebastian A Vasquez-Lopez, Yves Weissenberger, Michael Lohse, Peter Keating, Andrew J King, Johannes C Dahmen
Topographic representation of the receptor surface is a fundamental feature of sensory cortical organization. This is imparted by the thalamus, which relays information from the periphery to the cortex. To better understand the rules governing thalamocortical connectivity and the origin of cortical maps, we used in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to characterize the properties of thalamic axons innervating different layers of mouse auditory cortex. Although tonotopically organized at a global level, we found that the frequency selectivity of individual thalamocortical axons is surprisingly heterogeneous, even in layers 3b/4 of the primary cortical areas, where the thalamic input is dominated by the lemniscal projection...
September 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889005/a-flexible-graphical-model-for-multi-modal-parcellation-of-the-cortex
#20
Sarah Parisot, Ben Glocker, Sofia Ira Ktena, Salim Arslan, Markus D Schirmer, Daniel Rueckert
Advances in neuroimaging have provided a tremendous amount of in-vivo information on the brain's organisation. Its anatomy and cortical organisation can be investigated from the point of view of several imaging modalities, many of which have been studied for mapping functionally specialised cortical areas. There is strong evidence that a single modality is not sufficient to fully identify the brain's cortical organisation. Combining multiple modalities in the same parcellation task has the potential to provide more accurate and robust subdivisions of the cortex...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
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