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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149327/focused-time-lapse-analysis-reveals-novel-aspects-of-human-fertilization-and-suggests-new-parameters-of-embryo-viability
#1
G Coticchio, M Mignini Renzini, P V Novara, M Lain, E De Ponti, D Turchi, R Fadini, M Dal Canto
STUDY QUESTION: Can focused application of time-lapse microscopy (TLM) lead to a more detailed map of the morphokinetics of human fertilization, revealing novel or neglected aspects of this process? SUMMARY ANSWER: Intensive harnessing of TLM reveals novel or previously poorly characterised phenomena of fertilization, such as a cytoplasmic wave (CW) preceding pronuclear formation and kinetics of pronuclear chromatin polarization, thereby suggesting novel non-invasive biomarkers of embryo quality...
November 15, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148040/the-endocranial-shape-of-australopithecus-africanus-surface-analysis-of-the-endocasts-of-sts-5-and-sts-60
#2
Amélie Beaudet, Jean Dumoncel, Frikkie de Beer, Stanley Durrleman, Emmanuel Gilissen, Anna Oettlé, Gérard Subsol, John Francis Thackeray, José Braga
Assessment of global endocranial morphology and regional neuroanatomical changes in early hominins is critical for the reconstruction of evolutionary trajectories of cerebral regions in the human lineage. Early evidence of cortical reorganization in specific local areas (e.g. visual cortex, inferior frontal gyrus) is perceptible in the non-human South African hominin fossil record. However, to date, little information is available regarding potential global changes in the early hominin brain. The introduction of non-invasive imaging techniques opens up new perspectives for the study of hominin brain evolution...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147143/analyzing-text-recognition-from-tactually-evoked-eeg
#3
A Khasnobish, S Datta, R Bose, D N Tibarewala, A Konar
Tactual exploration of objects produce specific patterns in the human brain and hence objects can be recognized by analyzing brain signals during tactile exploration. The present work aims at analyzing EEG signals online for recognition of embossed texts by tactual exploration. EEG signals are acquired from the parietal region over the somatosensory cortex of blindfolded healthy subjects while they tactually explored embossed texts, including symbols, numbers, and alphabets. Classifiers based on the principle of supervised learning are trained on the extracted EEG feature space, comprising three features, namely, adaptive autoregressive parameters, Hurst exponents, and power spectral density, to recognize the respective texts...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143946/multi-scale-account-of-the-network-structure-of-macaque-visual-cortex
#4
Maximilian Schmidt, Rembrandt Bakker, Claus C Hilgetag, Markus Diesmann, Sacha J van Albada
Cortical network structure has been extensively characterized at the level of local circuits and in terms of long-range connectivity, but seldom in a manner that integrates both of these scales. Furthermore, while the connectivity of cortex is known to be related to its architecture, this knowledge has not been used to derive a comprehensive cortical connectivity map. In this study, we integrate data on cortical architecture and axonal tracing data into a consistent multi-scale framework of the structure of one hemisphere of macaque vision-related cortex...
November 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142129/entry-of-human-coronavirus-nl63-to-the-cell
#5
Aleksandra Milewska, Paulina Nowak, Katarzyna Owczarek, Artur Szczepanski, Miroslaw Zarebski, Agnieszka Hoang-Bujnowicz, Krzysztof Berniak, Jacek Wojarski, Slawomir Zeglen, Zbigniew Baster, Zenon Rajfur, Krzysztof Pyrc
First steps of human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) infection were previously described. The virus binds to target cells by heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and interacts with the ACE2 protein. Subsequent events, including virus internalization and trafficking, remain to be elucidated. In this study, we mapped the process of HCoV-NL63 entry into LLC-Mk2 cell line and ex vivo 3D tracheobronchial tissue.Using a variety of techniques we have shown that HCoV-NL63 virions require endocytosis for successful entry to the LLC-MK2 cells, and interaction between the virus and the ACE2 molecule triggers recruitment of clathrin...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141638/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-the-brains-of-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy
#6
Antje Hartmann, Steffen Sager, Klaus Failing, Marion Sparenberg, Martin J Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs. Unfortunately, up to 30% of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy show no improvement under antiepileptic drug treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging is used in human medicine to identify epileptogenic foci in the brain to allow for more invasive treatments such as deep brain stimulation or surgical removal. The aim of this study was to ass the feasibility of interictal diffusion-weighted MRI in dogs and to evaluate the distribution of diffusion in the brains of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and to compare these values to previously published values from healthy beagle dogs...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139263/-next-generation-sequencing-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-root-bark-from-paeonia-suffruticosa-cv-feng-dan
#7
Dong-Mei Xie, Nian-Jun Yu, Lu-Qi Huang, Dai-Yin Peng, Cong-Bin Liu, Yue-Jian Zhu, Hao Huang
Moutan Cortex is an important traditional Chinese medicine, "Fengdan Pi" was known as Dao-di herbs from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa cv. Feng Dan for its extracted various active components. However, the genetic basis for their activity is virtually unknown. The transcriptome of the root bark from "Fengdan" was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing platform. The clean reads were then de novo assembled into 72 997 unigenes. Among them, the number of unigenes which could been annotated by dataset Nr and GO was 41 139 and 34 592...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137009/brain-metabolism-in-patients-with-freezing-of-gait-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-a-pilot-study
#8
Seo Yeon Yoon, Sang Chul Lee, Na Young Kim, Young-Sil An, Yong Wook Kim
Movement disorders are 1 of the long-term neurological complications that can occur after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI). However, freezing of gait (FOG) after HIBI is rare. The aim of this study was to examine the brain metabolism of patients with FOG after HIBI using F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET).We consecutively enrolled 11 patients with FOG after HIBI. The patients' overall brain metabolism was measured by F-18 FDG PET, and we compared their regional brain metabolic activity with that from 15 healthy controls using a voxel-by-voxel-based statistical mapping analysis...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136125/effective-connectivity-measured-using-optogenetically-evoked-hemodynamic-signals-exhibits-topography-distinct-from-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-mouse
#9
Adam Q Bauer, Andrew W Kraft, Grant A Baxter, Patrick W Wright, Matthew D Reisman, Annie R Bice, Jasmine J Park, Michael R Bruchas, Abraham Z Snyder, Jin-Moo Lee, Joseph P Culver
Brain connectomics has expanded from histological assessment of axonal projection connectivity (APC) to encompass resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC). RS-FC analyses are efficient for whole-brain mapping, but attempts to explain aspects of RS-FC (e.g., interhemispheric RS-FC) based on APC have been only partially successful. Neuroimaging with hemoglobin alone lacks specificity for determining how activity in a population of cells contributes to RS-FC. Wide-field mapping of optogenetically defined connectivity could provide insights into the brain's structure-function relationship...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135998/multivariate-regression-analysis-of-structural-mri-connectivity-matrices-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Javier Rasero, Nicola Amoroso, Marianna La Rocca, Sabina Tangaro, Roberto Bellotti, Sebastiano Stramaglia
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people and increasing longevity ensures its prevalence will rise even further. Whether AD originates by disconnecting a localized brain area and propagates to the rest of the brain across disease-severity progression is a question with an unknown answer. An important related challenge is to predict whether a given subject, with a mild cognitive impairment (MCI), will convert or not to AD. Here, our aim is to characterize the structural connectivity pattern of MCI and AD subjects using the multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR) analysis, and to compare it to those of healthy subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133435/coordinated-plasticity-of-synapses-and-astrocytes-underlies-practice-driven-functional-vicariation-in-peri-infarct-motor-cortex
#11
Soo Young Kim, J Edward Hsu, Lincoln C Husbands, Jeffrey A Kleim, Theresa A Jones
Motor rehabilitative training after stroke can improve motor function and promote topographical reorganization of remaining motor cortical movement representations, but this reorganization follows behavioral improvements. A more detailed understanding of the neural bases of rehabilitation efficacy is needed to inform therapeutic efforts to improve it. Using a rat model of upper extremity impairments after ischemic stroke, we examined effects of motor rehabilitative training at the ultrastructural level in peri-infarct motor cortex...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133433/attention-priority-map-of-face-images-in-human-early-visual-cortex
#12
Ce Mo, Dongjun He, Fang Fang
Attention priority maps are topographic representations that are utilized for attention selection and guidance of task-related behavior during visual processing. Previous studies have identified attention priority maps of simple artificial stimuli in multiple cortical and subcortical areas, while investigating neural correlates of priority maps of natural stimuli is complicated by the complexity of their spatial structure and the difficulty of behaviorally characterizing their priority map. To overcome these challenges, we reconstructed the topographic representations of upright/invered face images from fMRI BOLD signals in human early visual areas V1-V3 based on a voxel-wise population receptive field model and behaviorally characterized the priority map as the first saccadic eye movement pattern when subjects performed a face matching task, relative to the condition in which subjects performed a phase-scrambled face matching task...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130510/heterogenous-migraine-aura-symptoms-correlate-with-visual-cortex-fmri-responses
#13
Nanna Arngrim, Anders Hougaard, Khazar Ahmadi, Mark Bitsch Vestergaard, Henrik Winther Schytz, Faisal Mohammad Amin, Henrik Bo Wiberg Larsson, Jes Olesen, Michael B Hoffmann, Messoud Ashina
OBJECTIVE: Migraine aura is sparsely studied due to the highly challenging task of capturing patients during aura. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is likely the underlying phenomenon of aura. The possible correlation between the multifaceted phenomenology of aura symptoms and the effects of CSD on the brain has not been ascertained. METHODS: Five migraine patients were studied during various forms of aura symptoms induced by hypoxia, sham or physical exercise and photostimulation...
November 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130326/resting-state-network-functional-connectivity-patterns-associated-with-the-mindful-attention-awareness-scale
#14
Elena Bilevicius, Stephen D Smith, Jennifer Kornelsen
Mindfulness refers to attending to moment-to-moment experiences with acceptance and no judgment. Several scales have been developed to quantify different components of mindfulness. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) is particularly sensitive to trait mindfulness and is proposed to measure the attentional component of mindfulness. The purpose of the current study was to identify the neural correlates of the MAAS in four resting state networks related to attention-the default mode network (DMN), the salience network (SN), and the left and right central executive network (lCEN and rCEN)...
November 12, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129793/the-interval-between-vns-tone-pairings-determines-the-extent-of-cortical-map-plasticity
#15
Michael S Borland, Crystal T Engineer, William A Vrana, Nicole A Moreno, Navzer D Engineer, Sven Vanneste, Pryanka Sharma, Meghan C Pantalia, Mark C Lane, Robert L Rennaker, Michael P Kilgard
Repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with a tone or movement drives highly-specific and long-lasting plasticity in auditory or motor cortex, respectively. Based on this robust enhancement of plasticity, VNS paired with rehabilitative training has emerged as a potential therapy to improve recovery, even when delivered long after the neurological insult. Development of VNS delivery paradigms that reduce therapy duration and maximize efficacy would facilitate clinical translation. The goal of the current study was to determine whether primary auditory cortex (A1) plasticity can be generated more quickly by shortening the interval between VNS-tone pairing events or by delivering fewer VNS-tone pairing events...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128955/right-brodmann-area-18-predicts-tremor-arrest-after-vim-radiosurgery-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#16
Constantin Tuleasca, Tatiana Witjas, Dimitri Van de Ville, Elena Najdenovska, Antoine Verger, Nadine Girard, Jerome Champoudry, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Eric Guedj, Jean Régis
INTRODUCTION: Drug-resistant essential tremor (ET) can benefit from open standard stereotactic procedures, such as deep-brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy. Non-surgical candidates can be offered either high-focused ultrasound (HIFU) or radiosurgery (RS). All procedures aim to target the same thalamic site, the ventro-intermediate nucleus (e.g., Vim). The mechanisms by which tremor stops after Vim RS or HIFU remain unknown. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on pretherapeutic neuroimaging data and assessed which anatomical site would best correlate with tremor arrest 1 year after Vim RS...
November 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128784/insular-subdivisions-functional-connectivity-dysfunction-within-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Xiaolong Peng, Pan Lin, Xiaoping Wu, Ruxue Gong, Rui Yang, Jue Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by cognitive and affective deficits. Previous studies suggested that insula is a crucial node of the salience network for initiating network switching, and dysfunctional connection to this region may be related to the mechanism of MDD. In this study, we systematically investigated and quantified the altered functional connectivity (FC) of the specific insular subdivisions and its relationship to psychopathology of MDD...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128522/biological-evidence-for-attention-bias-to-food-emotional-dysregulation-disinhibition-and-deficient-somatosensory-awareness-in-obesity-with-binge-eating-disorder
#18
Roni Aviram-Friedman, Nerys Astbury, Christopher N Ochner, Isobel Contento, Allan Geliebter
OBJECTIVES: To refine the biobehavioral markers of binge eating disorder (BED). METHODS: We conducted fMRI brain scans using images of high energy processed food (HEPF), low energy unprocessed food (LEUF), or non-foods (NF) in 42 adults (obese with BED [obese -BED; n=13] and obese with no BED [obese non-BED; n=29]) selected via ads. Two blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) signal contrast maps were examined: food versus nonfood, and HEPF versus LEUF. In addition, score differences on the disinhibition scale were correlated with BOLD signals...
November 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128414/mapping-of-the-prenatal-and-postnatal-methamphetamine-effects-on-d1-like-dopamine-m1-and-m2-muscarinic-receptors-in-rat-central-nervous-system
#19
Vladimir Farar, Paulina Valuskova, Maria Sevcikova, Jaromir Myslivecek, Romana Slamberova
Methamphetamine (MA) is worldwide known drug with high potential for addiction that causes dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin release. MA is also able to increase acetylcholine levels in adult rodents. The aim of this study was to map changes in D1-like dopamine receptors (DR), M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors (MR), and the total number of MR (M1-M5 MR) in the CNS of rats exposed to MA prenatally and in adulthood. Rat mothers were exposed to MA (5mg/kg s.c.) or saline during the entire gestation period and their male offspring were administered in adulthood with single MA (1mg/kg) or saline injection...
November 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128283/emotional-prediction-an-ale-meta-analysis-and-macm-analysis
#20
Guangming Ran, Xiaojun Cao, Xu Chen
The prediction of emotion has been explored in a variety of functional brain imaging and neurophysiological studies. However, an overall picture of the areas involved this process remains unexploited. Here, we quantitatively summarized the published literature on emotional prediction using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Furthermore, the current study employed a meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) to map the meta-analytic coactivation maps of regions of interest (ROIs)...
November 8, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
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