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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808026/superior-colliculus-encodes-visual-saliency-before-the-primary-visual-cortex
#1
Brian J White, Janis Y Kan, Ron Levy, Laurent Itti, Douglas P Munoz
Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a bottom-up saliency map that is formed early in the visual processing stream. Although studies have reported evidence of a saliency map in various cortical brain areas, determining the contribution of phylogenetically older pathways is crucial to understanding its origin. Here, we compared saliency coding from neurons in two early gateways into the visual system: the primary visual cortex (V1) and the evolutionarily older superior colliculus (SC). We found that, while the response latency to visual stimulus onset was earlier for V1 neurons than superior colliculus superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), the saliency representation emerged earlier in SCs than in V1...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805794/large-scale-mapping-of-cortical-synaptic-projections-with-extracellular-electrode-arrays
#2
Mark Shein-Idelson, Lorenz Pammer, Mike Hemberger, Gilles Laurent
Understanding circuit computation in the nervous system requires sampling activity over large neural populations and maximizing the number of features that can be extracted. By combining planar arrays of extracellular electrodes with the three-layered cortex of turtles, we show that synaptic signals induced along individual axons as well as action potentials can be easily captured. Two types of information can be extracted from these signals, the neuronal subtype (inhibitory or excitatory)-whose identification is more reliable than with traditional measures such as action potential width-and a (partial) spatial map of functional axonal projections from individual neurons...
August 14, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805756/-an-experience-of-neurophysiological-monitoring-in-neurosurgery
#3
A G Vasyatkina, E A Levin, K Yu Orlov, V V Kobozev
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of neuromonitoring methods in prevention of postoperative neurological complications and estimation of predictive power of intraoperative changes in monitored characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study examined 240 patients, operated in the years 2014-2015 using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. One hundred and seventy-three patients suffered from hemispheric lesions and 67 had lesions located in or near the brainstem...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804783/functional-corticostriatal-connection-topographies-predict-goal-directed-behaviour-in-humans
#4
Andre F Marquand, Koen V Haak, Christian F Beckmann
Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many goal-directed behaviours, but these topographies have not been completely characterised in humans and their relationship to uniquely human behaviours remains to be fully determined. Instead, the dominant approach employs parcellations that cannot model the continuous nature of the topography, nor accommodate overlapping cortical projections in the striatum...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804450/whole-brain-mapping-of-the-inputs-and-outputs-of-the-medial-part-of-the-olfactory-tubercle
#5
Zhijian Zhang, Hongruo Zhang, Pengjie Wen, Xutao Zhu, Li Wang, Qing Liu, Jie Wang, Xiaobin He, Huadong Wang, Fuqiang Xu
The medial part of the olfactory tubercle (OT) is a brain structure located at the interface of the reward and olfactory system. It is closely related to pheromone-rewards, natural reinforcement, addiction and many other behaviors. However, the structure of the anatomic circuitry of the medial part of the OT is still unclear. In the present study, the medial part of the OT was found to be highly connected with a wide range of brain areas with the help of the pseudorabies virus tracing tool. In order to further investigate the detailed connections for specific neurons, another tracing tool - rabies virus was utilized for D1R-cre and D2R-cre mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801826/brain-activity-changes-in-somatosensory-and-emotion-related-areas-with-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-deficiency
#6
Masaru Kadowaki, Taku Tadenuma, Nobuyuki Kumahashi, Yuji Uchio
BACKGROUND: Patellar instability with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) deficiency is a common sports injury among young people. Although nonoperative and surgical treatment can provide stability of the patella, patients often have anxiety related to the knee. We speculate that neural dysfunction may be related to anxiety in these patients; however, the mechanism in the brain that generates this anxiety remains unknown. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How does brain activity in patients with MPFL deficiency change in the areas related to somatic sensation against lateral shift of the patella? (2) How does patella instability, which can lead to continuous fear or apprehension for dislocation, influence brain activity in the areas related to emotion? METHODS: Nineteen patients with MPFL deficiency underwent surgical reconstruction in our hospital from April 2012 to March 2014...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796326/gustatory-and-olfactory-responses-to-stimulation-of-the-human-insula
#7
Laure Mazzola, Jean-Pierre Royet, Hélène Catenoix, Alexandra Montavont, Jean Isnard, François Mauguière
OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous studies suggesting the role of insular cortex in the processing of gustatory and olfactory inputs, the exact location of olfacto-gustatory representation in the insula remains controversial. Here we provide a functional mapping of olfactory-gustatory responses to stimulation of the human insular cortex. METHODS: We reviewed 651 electrical stimulations of the insula that were performed in 221 patients, using stereotactically implanted depth electrodes, during the pre-surgical evaluation of drug refractory epilepsy...
August 10, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794195/object-comparison-in-the-lateral-intraparietal-area
#8
Wei Song Ong, Koorosh Mirpour, James W Bisley
We can search for and locate specific objects in our environment by looking for objects with similar features. Object recognition involves stimulus similarity responses in ventral visual areas and task related responses in prefrontal cortex. We tested whether neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of posterior parietal cortex could form an intermediary representation, collating information from object specific similarity map representations to allow general decisions about whether a stimulus matches the object being looked for...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792103/progression-of-regional-atrophy-in-the-left-hemisphere-contributes-to-clinical-and-cognitive-deterioration-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-5-year-study
#9
Paolo Preziosa, Elisabetta Pagani, Sarlota Mesaros, Gianna C Riccitelli, Jelena Dackovic, Jelena Drulovic, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
In this longitudinal study, we investigated the regional patterns of focal lesions accumulation, and gray (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy progression over a five-year follow-up (FU) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their association with clinical and cognitive deterioration. Neurological, neuropsychological and brain MRI (dual-echo and 3D T1-weighted sequences) assessments were prospectively performed at baseline (T0) and after a median FU of 4.9 years from 66 MS patients (including relapse-onset and primary progressive MS) and 16 matched controls...
August 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790908/multi-kernel-learning-with-dartel-improves-combined-mri-pet-classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-aibl-data-group-and-individual-analyses
#10
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Bernadette McGuinness, Liam P Maguire, KongFatt Wong-Lin
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are neuroimaging modalities typically used for evaluating brain changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to their complementary nature, their combination can provide more accurate AD diagnosis or prognosis. In this work, we apply a multi-modal imaging machine-learning framework to enhance AD classification and prediction of diagnosis of subject-matched gray matter MRI and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET data related to 58 AD, 108 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 120 healthy elderly (HE) subjects from the Australian imaging, biomarkers and lifestyle (AIBL) dataset...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790897/regional-specific-evidence-for-memory-load-dependent-activity-in-the-dorsal-subiculum-and-the-lateral-entorhinal-cortex
#11
Shih-Pi Ku, Nozomu H Nakamura, Nicolas Maingret, Liv Mahnke, Motoharu Yoshida, Magdalena M Sauvage
The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1) receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum), both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790831/spontaneous-alterations-of-regional-brain-activity-in-patients-with-adult-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#12
Likun Xia, Shumei Li, Tianyue Wang, Yaping Guo, Lihong Meng, Yunping Feng, Yu Cui, Fan Wang, Jian Ma, Guihua Jiang
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine how spontaneous brain activity might be related to the pathophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using resting-state functional MRI, we examined spontaneous regional brain activity in 31 GAD patients (mean age, 36.87±9.16 years) and 36 healthy control participants (mean age, 39.53±8.83 years) matched for age, education, and sex from December 2014 to October 2015. We performed a two-sample t-test on the voxel-based analysis of the regional homogeneity (ReHo) maps...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783938/neural-correlates-of-a-perspective-taking-task-using-in-a-realistic-three-dimmensional-environment-based-task-a-pilot-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#13
Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Venkataram Shivakumar, Sunil V Kalmady, Vijay Danivas, Anekal C Amaresha, Anushree Bose, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Michel-Ange Amorim, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Objective: Perspective-taking ability is an essential spatial faculty that is of much interest in both health and neuropsychiatric disorders. There is limited data on the neural correlates of perspective taking in the context of a realistic three-dimensional environment. We report the results of a pilot study exploring the same in eight healthy volunteers. Methods: Subjects underwent two runs of an experiment in a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involving alternate blocks of a first-person perspective based allocentric object location memory task (OLMT), a third-person perspective based egocentric visual perspective taking task (VPRT), and a table task (TT) that served as a control...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783763/mapping-altered-brain-connectivity-and-its-clinical-associations-in-adult-moyamoya-disease-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#14
Ken Kazumata, Khin Khin Tha, Haruto Uchino, Masaki Ito, Naoki Nakayama, Takeo Abumiya
Detection of subtle ischemic injuries in moyamoya disease may enable optimization of timing of revascularization surgery, and could potentially improve functional outcomes. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to study functional organization of the brain, but it remains unclear whether rs-fMRI could elucidate distinct characteristics in moyamoya disease. Here, we aimed to determine changes in a conventional rs-fMRI measure and analyze any associations with clinical symptoms and cerebral hemodynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774955/organization-and-somatotopy-of-corticothalamic-projections-from-l5b-in-mouse-barrel-cortex
#15
Anton Sumser, Rebecca A Mease, Bert Sakmann, Alexander Groh
Neurons in cortical layer 5B (L5B) connect the cortex to numerous subcortical areas. Possibly the best-studied L5B cortico-subcortical connection is that between L5B neurons in the rodent barrel cortex (BC) and the posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus (POm). However, the spatial organization of L5B giant boutons in the POm and other subcortical targets is not known, and therefore it is unclear if this descending pathway retains somatotopy, i.e., body map organization, a hallmark of the ascending somatosensory pathway...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774192/cortical-functional-connectivity-evident-after-birth-and-behavioral-inhibition-at-age-2
#16
Chad M Sylvester, Christopher D Smyser, Tara Smyser, Jeanette Kenley, Joseph J Ackerman, Joshua S Shimony, Steve E Petersen, Cynthia E Rogers
OBJECTIVE: The infant temperament behavioral inhibition is a potent risk factor for development of an anxiety disorder. It is difficult to predict risk for behavioral inhibition at birth, however, and the neural underpinnings are poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that neonatal functional connectivity of the ventral attention network is related to behavioral inhibition at age 2 years beyond sociodemographic and familial factors. This hypothesis is supported by the ventral attention network's role in attention to novelty, a key feature of behavioral inhibition...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771717/organizational-connectivity-among-the-ca1-subiculum-presubiculum-and-entorhinal-cortex-in-the-rabbit
#17
Yoshiko Honda, Hideshi Shibata
The laminar and topographical organization of connections between the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal regions was investigated in the rabbit following in vivo injection of cholera toxin B subunit as a retro- and anterograde tracer and biotinylated dextran amine as an anterograde tracer. We confirmed several connectional features different from those of the rat, i.e., the rabbit presubiculum received abundant afferents from CA1 and had many reciprocal connections with the entorhinal cortex. On the other hand, we identified many similarities with the rat: both the CA1 and subicular afferents that originated from the entorhinal cortex were abundant; moreover, the presubiculum received many inputs from the subiculum and sent massive projections to the entorhinal cortex...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769870/altered-coupling-between-motion-related-activation-and-resting-state-brain-activity-in-the-ipsilesional-sensorimotor-cortex-after-cerebral-stroke
#18
Jianping Hu, Juan Du, Qiang Xu, Fang Yang, Fanyong Zeng, Xi-Jian Dai, Xiaoxue Liu, Guangming Lu, Zhiqiang Zhang
Functional connectivity maps using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) can closely resemble task fMRI activation patterns, suggesting that resting-state brain activity may predict task-evoked activation or behavioral performance. However, this conclusion was mostly drawn upon a healthy population. It remains unclear whether the predictive ability of resting-state brain activity for task-evoked activation would change under different pathological conditions. This study investigated dynamic changes of coupling between patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and motion-related activation in different stages of cerebral stroke...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769835/music-of-the-7ts-predicting-and-decoding-multivoxel-fmri-responses-with-acoustic-schematic-and-categorical-music-features
#19
Michael A Casey
Underlying the experience of listening to music are parallel streams of auditory, categorical, and schematic qualia, whose representations and cortical organization remain largely unresolved. We collected high-field (7T) fMRI data in a music listening task, and analyzed the data using multivariate decoding and stimulus-encoding models. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment, which measured BOLD responses evoked by naturalistic listening to twenty-five music clips from five genres. Our first analysis applied machine classification to the multivoxel patterns that were evoked in temporal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769784/cortical-surface-thickness-in-the-middle-aged-brain-with-white-matter-hyperintense-lesions
#20
Ying Zhuang, Xianjun Zeng, Bo Wang, Muhua Huang, Honghan Gong, Fuqing Zhou
Background and purpose: Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have suggested that cortical atrophy is regionally distributed in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH) lesions. However, few studies have assessed cortical thickness in middle-aged WMH subjects. In this study, we examined cortical thickness as well as cortical morphometry associated with the presence of WMH lesion load in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Thirty-six middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group) and without clinical cognitive impairment, and 34 demographically matched healthy control subjects (HCS group) participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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