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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544256/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-differential-effects-in-frontal-cortex-motor-and-midbrain-networks
#1
Johannes Rosskopf, Martin Gorges, Hans-Peter Müller, Dorothée Lulé, Ingo Uttner, Albert C Ludolph, Elmar Pinkhardt, Freimut D Juengling, Jan Kassubek
BACKGROUND: The topography of functional network changes in progressive supranuclear palsy can be mapped by intrinsic functional connectivity MRI. The objective of this study was to study functional connectivity and its clinical and behavioral correlates in dedicated networks comprising the cognition-related default mode and the motor and midbrain functional networks in patients with PSP. METHODS: Whole-brain-based "resting-state" functional MRI and high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data together with neuropsychological and video-oculographic data from 34 PSP patients (22 with Richardson subtype and 12 with parkinsonian subtype) and 35 matched healthy controls were subjected to network-based functional connectivity and voxel-based morphometry analysis...
May 22, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544168/presurgical-language-fmri-mapping-of-six-critical-regions
#2
Christopher F Benjamin, Patricia D Walshaw, Kayleigh Hale, William D Gaillard, Leslie C Baxter, Madison M Berl, Monika Polczynska, Stephanie Noble, Rafeed Alkawadri, Lawrence J Hirsch, Todd C Constable, Susan Y Bookheimer
Language mapping is a key goal in neurosurgical planning. fMRI mapping typically proceeds with a focus on Broca's and Wernicke's areas, although multiple other language-critical areas are now well-known. We evaluated whether clinicians could use a novel approach, including clinician-driven individualized thresholding, to reliably identify six language regions, including Broca's Area, Wernicke's Area (inferior, superior), Exner's Area, Supplementary Speech Area, Angular Gyrus, and Basal Temporal Language Area...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541078/ensembles-in-medial-and-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-construct-cognitive-maps-emphasizing-different-features-of-the-behavioral-landscape
#3
Nina Lopatina, Brian F Sadacca, Michael A McDannald, Clay V Styer, Jacob F Peterson, Joseph F Cheer, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has long been implicated in the ability to use the current value of expected outcomes to guide behavior. More recently, this specific role has been conceptualized as a special case of a more general function that OFC plays in constructing a "cognitive map" of the behavioral task space by labeling the current task state and learning relationships among task states. Here, we have used single unit recording data from 2 prior studies to examine whether and how information relating different states within and across trials is represented in medial versus lateral OFC in rats...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539126/knowledge-driven-binning-approach-for-rare-variant-association-analysis-application-to-neuroimaging-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Dokyoon Kim, Anna O Basile, Lisa Bang, Emrin Horgusluoglu, Seunggeun Lee, Marylyn D Ritchie, Andrew J Saykin, Kwangsik Nho
BACKGROUND: Rapid advancement of next generation sequencing technologies such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) has facilitated the search for genetic factors that influence disease risk in the field of human genetics. To identify rare variants associated with human diseases or traits, an efficient genome-wide binning approach is needed. In this study we developed a novel biological knowledge-based binning approach for rare-variant association analysis and then applied the approach to structural neuroimaging endophenotypes related to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD)...
May 18, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538521/examination-of-the-validity-of-the-atlas-informed-approach-to-functional-parcellation-a-resting-functional-mri-study
#5
Tien-Wen Lee, Shao-Wei Xue
With the advancement in MRI, functional parcellation (FP) of brain structure(s) has become an important topic. However, the large number of voxels is a major obstacle. A-priori partitioning of the brain into several regions of interest (ROIs) is the main data-reduction strategy to simplify brain informatics. This study aims to examine the validity of ROI-based approach to FP by exploring the concordance of the relative distance structures between voxel-wise (raw data) and atlas-informed analyses. Structural and resting state functional MRI (rfMRI) scans of 26 right-handed healthy individuals were selected from the Rockland dataset...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536516/multi-regional-adaptation-in-human-auditory-association-cortex
#6
Urszula Malinowska, Nathan E Crone, Frederick A Lenz, Mackenzie Cervenka, Dana Boatman-Reich
In auditory cortex, neural responses decrease with stimulus repetition, known as adaptation. Adaptation is thought to facilitate detection of novel sounds and improve perception in noisy environments. Although it is well established that adaptation occurs in primary auditory cortex, it is not known whether adaptation also occurs in higher auditory areas involved in processing complex sounds, such as speech. Resolving this issue is important for understanding the neural bases of adaptation and to avoid potential post-operative deficits after temporal lobe surgery for treatment of focal epilepsy...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532356/probing-human-visual-deficits-with-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Stelios M Smirnakis
Much remains to be understood about visual system malfunction following injury. The resulting deficits range from dense, visual field scotomas to mild dysfunction of visual perception. Despite the predictive value of anatomical localization studies, much patient-to-patient variability remains regarding (a) perceptual abilities following injury and (b) the capacity of individual patients for visual rehabilitation. Visual field perimetry is used to characterize the visual field deficits that result from visual system injury...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531897/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-of-a-monotreme-the-short-beaked-echidna-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#8
Sandilya Cherupalli, Craig D Hardman, Andre Bongers, Ken W S Ashwell
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study the anatomy of cortical regions, nuclear groups, and major tracts in the brain of a monotreme, i.e., the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Our specimens were from a collection held at the Australian Museum in Sydney and had been stored in formaldehyde solution for at least 70 years. Despite this, we were able to detect fine detail in the nuclear divisions of structures as well as in fiber tracts. In particular, we could detect the medial lemniscus as it approached the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, subdivisions within the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, lamination and subdivisions within the hippocampal formation, components of the olfactory pathways, and nuclei within the temporal amygdala...
May 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528963/neuronal-activity-patterns-in-the-developing-barrel-cortex
#9
Heiko J Luhmann, Rustem Khazipov
The developing barrel cortex reveals a rich repertoire of neuronal activity patterns, which have been also found in other sensory neocortical areas and in other species including the somatosensory cortex of preterm human infants. The earliest stage is characterized by asynchronous, sparse single cell firing at low frequencies. During the second stage neurons show correlated firing, which is initially mediated by electrical synapses and subsequently transforms into network bursts depending on chemical synapses...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524796/improvement-of-visual-field-defects-after-focal-resection-for-occipital-lobe-epilepsy-case-report
#10
Takahiro Yamamoto, Tadashi Hamasaki, Hideo Nakamura, Kazumichi Yamada
Improvement of visual field defects after surgical treatment for occipital lobe epilepsy is rare. Here, the authors report on a 24-year-old man with a 15-year history of refractory epilepsy that developed after he had undergone an occipital craniotomy to remove a cerebellar astrocytoma at the age of 4. His seizures started with an elementary visual aura, followed by secondary generalized tonic-clonic convulsion. Perimetry revealed left-sided incomplete hemianopia, and MRI showed an old contusion in the right occipital lobe...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523280/differences-in-orientation-tuning-between-pinwheel-and-domain-neurons-in-primary-visual-cortex-depend-on-contrast-and-size
#11
Yong-Jun Liu, Maziar Hashemi-Nezhad, David C Lyon
Intrinsic signal optical imaging reveals a highly modular map of orientation preference in the primary visual cortex (V1) of several species. This orientation map is characterized by domains and pinwheels where local circuitry is either more or less orientation selective, respectively. It has now been repeatedly demonstrated that neurons in pinwheels tend to be more broadly tuned to orientation, likely due to the broad range of orientation preference of the neighboring neurons forming pinwheels. However, certain stimulus conditions, such as a decrease in contrast or an increase in size, significantly sharpen tuning widths of V1 neurons...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522533/a-dedicated-network-for-social-interaction-processing-in-the-primate-brain
#12
J Sliwa, W A Freiwald
Primate cognition requires interaction processing. Interactions can reveal otherwise hidden properties of intentional agents, such as thoughts and feelings, and of inanimate objects, such as mass and material. Where and how interaction analyses are implemented in the brain is unknown. Using whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys, we discovered a network centered in the medial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex that is exclusively engaged in social interaction analysis. Exclusivity of specialization was found for no other function anywhere in the brain...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521137/a-map-of-anticipatory-activity-in-mouse-motor-cortex
#13
Tsai-Wen Chen, Nuo Li, Kayvon Daie, Karel Svoboda
Activity in the mouse anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) instructs directional movements, often seconds before movement initiation. It is unknown whether this preparatory activity is localized to ALM or widely distributed within motor cortex. Here we imaged activity across motor cortex while mice performed a whisker-based object localization task with a delayed, directional licking response. During tactile sensation and the delay epoch, object location was represented in motor cortex areas that are medial and posterior relative to ALM, including vibrissal motor cortex...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516672/two-photon-imaging-of-fiber-coupled-neurons
#14
M S Pochechuev, I V Fedotov, O I Ivashkina, M A Roshchina, K V Anokhin, A M Zheltikov
Optical coupling between a single, individually addressable neuron and a properly designed optical fiber is demonstrated. Two-photon imaging is shown to enable a quantitative in situ analysis of such fiber-single-neuron coupling in the live brain of transgenic mice. Fiber-optic interrogation of single pyramidal neurons in mouse brain cortex is performed with the positioning of the fiber probe relative to the neuron accurately mapped by means of two-photon imaging. These results pave the way for fiber-optic interfaces to single neurons for a stimulation and interrogation of individually addressable brain cells in chronic in vivo studies on freely behaving transgenic animal models, as well as the integration of fiber-optic single-neuron stimulation into the optical imaging framework...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515283/anisomorphic-cortical-reorganization-in-asymmetric-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#15
Steven W Cheung, Craig Anthony Atencio, Eliott R J Levy, Robert C Froemke, Christoph E Schreiner
Acoustic trauma or inner ear disease may predominantly injure one ear, causing asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). While characteristic frequency (CF) map plasticity of primary auditory cortex (AI) contralateral to the injured ear has been detailed, there is no study that also evaluates ipsilateral AI to compare cortical reorganization across both hemispheres. We assess whether normal isomorphic mirror image relationship between the two hemispheres is maintained or disrupted in mild-to-moderate asymmetric SNHL of adult squirrel monkeys...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512761/deconstructing-white-matter-connectivity-of-human-amygdala-nuclei-with-thalamus-and-cortex-subdivisions-in-vivo
#16
Aslan Abivardi, Dominik R Bach
Structural alterations in long-range amygdala connections are proposed to crucially underlie several neuropsychiatric disorders. While progress has been made in elucidating the function of these connections, our understanding of their structure in humans remains sparse and non-systematic. Harnessing diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography in humans, we investigate connections between two main amygdala nucleus groups, thalamic nuclei, and cortex. We first parcellated amygdala into deep (basolateral) and superficial (centrocortical) nucleus groups, and thalamus into six subregions, using previously established protocols based on connectivity...
May 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511982/characteristic-and-intermingled-neocortical-circuits-encode-different-visual-object-discriminations
#17
Guo-Rong Zhang, Hua Zhao, Nathan Cook, Michael Svestka, Eui M Choi, Mary Jan, Robert G Cook, Alfred I Geller
Synaptic plasticity and neural network theories hypothesize that the essential information for advanced cognitive tasks is encoded in specific circuits and neurons within distributed neocortical networks. However, these circuits are incompletely characterized, and we do not know if a specific discrimination is encoded in characteristic circuits among multiple animals. Here, we determined the spatial distribution of active neurons for a circuit that encodes some of the essential information for a cognitive task...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509903/gray-matter-anomalies-in-pedophiles-with-and-without-a-history-of-child-sexual-offending
#18
B Schiffer, T Amelung, A Pohl, C Kaergel, G Tenbergen, H Gerwinn, S Mohnke, C Massau, W Matthias, S Weiß, V Marr, K M Beier, M Walter, J Ponseti, T H C Krüger, K Schiltz, H Walter
Pedophilia is a psychiatric disorder that is inter-related with but distinct from child sexual offending (CSO). Neural alterations reportedly contribute to both pedophilia and CSO, but until now, no study has distinguished the brain structural anomalies associated with pedophilia from those specifically associated with CSO in pedophilic men. Using high-resolution T1-weighted brain images and voxel-based morphometry, we analyzed the gray matter (GM) volume of the following 219 men recruited at four acquisition sites in Germany: 58 pedophiles with a history of CSO, 60 pedophiles without any history of CSO and 101 non-pedophilic, non-offending controls to control for the effects of age, education level, verbal IQ, sexual orientation and the acquisition site...
May 16, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507127/development-of-visual-category-selectivity-in-ventral-visual-cortex-does-not-require-visual-experience
#19
Job van den Hurk, Marc Van Baelen, Hans P Op de Beeck
To what extent does functional brain organization rely on sensory input? Here, we show that for the penultimate visual-processing region, ventral-temporal cortex (VTC), visual experience is not the origin of its fundamental organizational property, category selectivity. In the fMRI study reported here, we presented 14 congenitally blind participants with face-, body-, scene-, and object-related natural sounds and presented 20 healthy controls with both auditory and visual stimuli from these categories. Using macroanatomical alignment, response mapping, and surface-based multivoxel pattern analysis, we demonstrated that VTC in blind individuals shows robust discriminatory responses elicited by the four categories and that these patterns of activity in blind subjects could successfully predict the visual categories in sighted controls...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506486/preoperative-and-intraoperative-neurophysiological-investigations-for-surgical-resections-in-functional-areas
#20
G Huberfeld, A Trébuchon, L Capelle, J-M Badier, S Chen, J-P Lefaucheur, M Gavaret
Brain regions are removed to treat lesions, but great care must be taken not to disturb or remove functional areas in the lesion and in surrounding tissue where healthy and diseased cells may be intermingled, especially for infiltrating tumors. Cortical functional areas and fiber tracts can be localized preoperatively by probabilistic anatomical tools, but mapping of functional integrity by neurophysiology is essential. Identification of the primary motor cortex seems to be more effectively performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) than functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
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