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Michele Tinazzi, Christian Geroin, Marialuisa Gandolfi, Nicola Smania, Stefano Tamburin, Francesca Morgante, Alfonso Fasano
Pisa syndrome was first described in 1972 in patients treated with neuroleptics. Since 2003, when it was first reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Pisa syndrome has progressively drawn the attention of clinicians and researchers. Although emerging evidence has partially clarified its prevalence and pathophysiology, the current debate revolves around diagnostic criteria and assessment and the effectiveness of pharmacological, surgical, and rehabilitative approaches. Contrary to initial thought, Pisa syndrome is common among PD patients, with an estimated prevalence of 8...
October 25, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Po-Hao Chen, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chieh-Hsin Lin
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is one of the most severe iatrogenic emergencies in clinical service. The symptoms including sudden consciousness change, critical temperature elevation and electrolytes imbalance followed by mutli-organ system failure were common in NMS. In addition to aggressive interventions with intravenous fluid resuscitation and antipyretics, several antidotes have been suggested to prevent further progression of the muscle damage. Dantrolene has been reported to be one of the most effective treatments for NMS...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mario Degli Stefani, Michele Biasutti
Objective: Framed in the patients' engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Saori Morozumi, Shigenori Kato, Keizo Yasui, Yasuhiro Hasegawa
We present the case of a 77-year-old man with a 10-year history of Parkinson disease (PD), who developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We diagnosed the case as PRES based on clinical features and MRI findings. He experienced orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension, including nocturnal hypertension. PRES may result from marked supine/nocturnal hypertension and fluctuation in blood pressure. In addition, exacerbated factors could be representative of neuroleptic malignant syndrome...
October 21, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Tafheem Malik, Sheema Hasan, Shahid Pervez, Tasneem Fatima, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
The symptoms of Parkinsonism and oral dyskinesia have been showing to be induced by neuroleptics that significantly affect its clinical use. In this study, we investigate whether Nigella sativa-oil (NS) (black cumin seeds)-a traditional medicine used for the seizure treatment in eastern country-may reduce the haloperidol (HAL)-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)-like behavior in rats. After combine treatment with HAL (1 mg/kg) on NS (0.2 ml/rat), rats displayed a significant decreased EPS-like behavior including movement disorders and oral dyskinesia as compared to controls...
October 18, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Rachel Mourot-Cottet, Frédéric Maloisel, François Séverac, Olivier Keller, Thomas Vogel, Martine Tebacher, Jean-Christophe Weber, Georges Kaltenbach, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Bernard Goichot, Jean Sibilia, Anne-Sophie Korganow, Raoul Herbrecht, Emmanuel Andrès
BACKGROUND: Little data is currently available in the literature on neutropenia and agranulocytosis in the elderly, and, to our knowledge, idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis is particularly poorly covered, or not at all. OBJECTIVE: We herein describe the clinical picture and outcome of patients aged ≥75 years with established idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 61 patients over 75 years old with idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis were retrospectively reviewed...
September 5, 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Liina Haring, René Mõttus, Kärolin Kajalaid, Kadri Koch, Kärt Uppin, Eduard Maron, Eero Vasar
Our aim with the present study was to evaluate rank-order and mean-level cognitive functioning stability among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, measured using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), over a six month period. We also aimed to examine longitudinal measurement invariance and identify factors-such as age, gender, educational level, treatment and psychopathological change scores-potentially linked to cognitive change among patients. In addition, correlations between objectively measured and subjectively evaluated cognitive functioning were estimated...
October 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Maria Vittoria De Angelis, Roberta Di Giacomo, Antonio Di Muzio, Marco Onofrj, Laura Bonanni
BACKGROUND: Movement disorder emergencies include any movement disorder which develops over hours to days, in which failure to appropriately diagnose and manage can result in patient morbidity or mortality.Movement disorder emergencies include acute dystonia: sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements. Acute dystonia is a serious challenge for emergency room doctors and neurologists, because of the high probability of misdiagnosis, due to the presence of several mimickers including partial seizures, meningitis, localized tetanus, serum electrolyte level abnormalities, strychnine poisoning, angioedema, malingering, catatonia, and conversion...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bayram Taskin, Ferda E Percin, Mehmet Ali Ergun
Pharmacogenetics is interested in the variable response to drugs depending on the genetic constitution of an individual. Depending on the genetic variation in individuals known as polymorphism; leads to differences in the types of proteins, enzymes or receptors that play a role in the elimination of drugs. Investigation of the correlation between the genotype with phenotype changes in drug metabolism is among the most important topics of today. CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms show clinical efficiency in the use of especially antidepressants, neuroleptics, antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, beta blocker, and morphine derivatives...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Masatsugu Moriwaki, Shuji Iritani, Chikako Habuchi, Youta Torii, Kentaro Umeda, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Mari Yoshida, Kiyoshi Fujita
We herein report the case of a 75-year-old male who had shown many psychiatric symptoms, but whose autopsy disclosed the presence of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). When he was 70 years old, the patient had presented with stereotyped behavior, dietary changes, and a decline in social interpersonal conduct in clinical settings, and it was thought that these symptoms were consistent with a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and he lacked the core features of DLB. Nevertheless, this case was pathologically defined as the limbic type of DLB after he died at the age of 75 years...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
Joong Seok Kim, Dong Woo Ryu, Ju Hee Oh, Yang Hyun Lee, Sung Jin Park, Kipyung Jeon, Jong Yun Lee, Seong Hee Ho, Jungmin So, Jin Hee Im, Kwang Soo Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent studies have shown that several nonmotor symptoms differ between Parkinson's disease (PD) and drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP). However, there have been no reports on cardiovascular autonomic function in DIP, and so this study investigated whether cardiovascular autonomic function differs between PD and DIP patients. METHODS: This study consecutively enrolled 20 DIP patients, 99 drug-naïve PD patients, and 25 age-matched healthy controls who underwent head-up tilt-table testing and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Charles Khouri, Marion Lepelley, Céline Villier, Thierry Bougerol, Michel Mallaret
PURPOSE: Cyamemazine (Tercian(®)) is currently the most widely prescribed neuroleptic in France. This widespread use is due to its anxiolytics properties and to a claimed good safety profile. Although, prescription of cyamemazine is not devoid of the risks associated with the use of neuroleptics: extrapyramidal syndromes. This study aims at describing extrapyramidal syndromes induced by cyamemazine registered in the French pharmacovigilance database. METHODS: All spontaneous reports of extrapyramidal syndromes in the French pharmacovigilance database between 1st January 1985 and 31th December 2015 were described and analyzed...
September 15, 2016: Thérapie
William L Hasler
Chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting (CUNV) refers to a symptom complex defined by nausea and/or vomiting with normal diagnostic testing, including anatomic assessments (including upper endoscopy) and measures of upper gut function (e.g., gastric emptying testing). Nausea and vomiting in this condition are postulated to result from aberrant peripheral or central neurohumoral activity. A substantial subset of patients satisfies this diagnosis as more than half of individuals referred for scintigraphic testing exhibit normal gastric emptying rates...
October 10, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Takayuki Komatsu, Tomohisa Nomura, Hiroki Takami, So Sakamoto, Keiko Mizuno, Hajime Sekii, Kotaro Hatta, Manabu Sugita
A 42-year-old Japanese woman with a 10-year history of schizophrenia was admitted due to a disturbance in consciousness that met the diagnostic criteria for both neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia. Despite systemic supportive treatments, the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms persisted. The symptoms improved after lorazepam administration, leading to a retrospective diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Catatonia is thought to be caused by a dysfunction of ganmma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the cortico-cortical networks of the frontal lobes, which causes hypoactivity of the dopaminergic transmission in the subcortical areas...
2016: Internal Medicine
Jaspinder Kaur, Dileep Kumar, Mostafa Alfishawy, Ricardo Lopez, Issac Sachmechi
Paliperidone, an active metabolite of risperidone, is a new atypical antipsychotic agent. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), and rhabdomyolysis are the uncommon side effects of psychotropic drugs. We report a case of 35-year-old male with schizoaffective disorder who was admitted for acute-on-chronic exacerbation of his psychotic disorder for which intramuscular paliperidone 234 mg injection was given. Two days later, the patient developed hyponatremic seizures secondary to SIADH which was treated with hypertonic saline...
2016: Case Reports in Critical Care
Saeed Shoja Shafti, Abbas Azizi Khoei
BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest that the cholinergic system may be disrupted in schizophrenia and so this may contribute to the cognitive impairments of schizophrenic patients. Because such deficits do not respond to neuroleptic treatment, different approaches have been done by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). The objective of the present assessment was to evaluate the safety and clinical effects of rivastigmine, as an adjunctive drug, on the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
G Daş, A Vernunft, S Görs, E Kanitz, J M Weitzel, K-P Brüssow, C C Metges
Physiological research with swine often includes sedation or general anesthesia (GA), which may influence the basal physiological responses of experimental animals and may have the potential to confound or interfere with the effects of experimental factors of interest. Using 6 adult female pigs, we investigated whether selected plasma metabolites and hormones are influenced by GA induced with ketamine (K) and 2 neuroleptic sedatives, namely azaperone (A) and xylazine (X). Fasted pigs rotationally received either no drug, a single intravenous administration of A or X, or A or X combined with ketamine (AK or XK, respectively), and plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), glucagon, insulin, and cortisol were determined for a 5-h period following administration...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Simon G Anderson, Ram P Narayanan, Daniela Radford, Richard Hodgson, Marc De Hert, Adrian H Heald
BACKGROUND: People with severe mental illness (SMI) have higher rates of diabetes than the general population. AIMS: To assess the type-2 diabetes screening rates in primary care and the relation between body mass index (BMI) and dysglycaemia for patients on the SMI register in the Cheshire region of the United Kingdom. METHODS: The setting was 24 general practices in Central and Eastern Cheshire, United Kingdom. Subjects were identified through a semianonymized search of GP registers...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Mental Health
Katharina Grau, Paul L Plener, Maximilian Gahr, Christian Denzer, Roland W Freudenmann
Risperidone is a widely used, second-generation antipsychotic approved for treating schizophrenia as well as for treating aggression in children and adolescents with mental retardation. The substance has a well-established risk profile including alterations of body temperature. Apart from hyperthermia with and without full-blown malignant neuroleptic syndrome, low body temperatures (hypothermia) have also been reported anecdotally, usually appearing in the context of comedication. Here, we report a case of hypothermia associated with a low-dose risperidone monotherapy in a child...
September 29, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Eugene A Kiyatkin, Suelynn E Ren
Psychomotor stimulants are frequently used by humans to intensify the subjective experience of different types of social interactions. Since psychomotor stimulants enhance metabolism and increase body temperatures, their use under conditions of physiological activation and in warm humid environments could result in pathological hyperthermia, a life-threatening symptom of acute drug intoxication. Here, we will describe the brain hyperthermic effects of MDMA, MDPV, and methylone, three structurally related recreational drugs commonly used by young adults during raves and other forms of social gatherings...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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