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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440997/layer-and-cell-type-specific-modulation-of-excitatory-neuronal-activity-in-the-neocortex
#1
REVIEW
Gabriele Radnikow, Dirk Feldmeyer
From an anatomical point of view the neocortex is subdivided into up to six layers depending on the cortical area. This subdivision has been described already by Meynert and Brodmann in the late 19/early 20. century and is mainly based on cytoarchitectonic features such as the size and location of the pyramidal cell bodies. Hence, cortical lamination is originally an anatomical concept based on the distribution of excitatory neuron. However, it has become apparent in recent years that apart from the layer-specific differences in morphological features, many functional properties of neurons are also dependent on cortical layer or cell type...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432620/association-of-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-and-brain-bdnf-levels-with-major-depression-and-suicide
#2
Mariam M Youssef, Mark D Underwood, Yung-Yu Huang, Shu-Chi Hsiung, Yan Liu, Norman R Simpson, Mihran J Bakalian, Gorazd B Rosoklija, Andrew J Dwork, Victoria Arango, J John Mann
Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide. Both are partly caused by early life adversity (ELA) and ELA reduces BDNF protein levels. This study examines the association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and brain BDNF levels with depression and suicide. We hypothesized that both MDD and ELA would be associated with the Met allele and lower brain BDNF levels. Such an association would be consistent with low BDNF mediating the effect of ELA on adulthood suicide and MDD...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425959/imaging-mass-spectrometry-of-frontal-white-matter-lipid-changes-in-human-alcoholics
#3
Suzanne M de la Monte, Jared Kay, Emine B Yalcin, Jillian J Kril, Donna Sheedy, Greg T Sutherland
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use disorders (AUD) are associated with white matter (WM) degeneration with altered myelin integrity. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) enables high throughput analysis of myelin lipid biochemical histopathology to help characterize disease mechanisms. PURPOSE: This study utilized MALDI-IMS to investigate frontal lobe WM myelin lipid abnormalities in AUD. METHODS: Standardized cores of formalin-fixed WM from Brodmann Area 4 (BA4) and BA8/9 of 20 postmortem AUD and 19 control adult human brains were embedded in carboxymethyl-cellulose, cryo-sectioned (8 μm), thaw-mounted onto indium tin oxide (ITO) -coated glass slides, and sublimed with 2,5-dihydroxybenzxoic acid (DHB) matrix...
August 17, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425606/2017-esc-guidelines-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-peripheral-arterial-diseases-in-collaboration-with-the-european-society-for-vascular-surgery-esvs
#4
Victor Aboyans, Jean-Baptiste Ricco, Marie-Louise E L Bartelink, Martin Bjorck, Marianne Brodmann, Tina Cohnert, Jean-Philippe Collet, Martin Czerny, Marco De Carlo, Sebastian Debusa, Christine Espinola-Klein, Thomas Kahan, Serge Kownator, Lucia Mazzolai, A Ross Naylora, Marco Roffi, Joachim Rotherb, Muriel Sprynger, Michal Tendera, Gunnar Tepe, Maarit Venermoa, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Ileana Desormais
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414494/neuroanatomical-morphometric-characterization-of-sex-differences-in-youth-using-statistical-learning
#5
Farshid Sepehrband, Kirsten M Lynch, Ryan P Cabeen, Clio Gonzalez-Zacarias, Lu Zhao, Mike D'Arcy, Carl Kesselman, Megan M Herting, Ivo D Dinov, Arthur W Toga, Kristi A Clark
Exploring neuroanatomical sex differences using a multivariate statistical learning approach can yield insights that cannot be derived with univariate analysis. While gross differences in total brain volume are well-established, uncovering the more subtle, regional sex-related differences in neuroanatomy requires a multivariate approach that can accurately model spatial complexity as well as the interactions between neuroanatomical features. Here, we developed a multivariate statistical learning model using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to predict sex from MRI-derived regional neuroanatomical features from a single-site study of 967 healthy youth from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC)...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392838/cortical-differences-in-diverticular-disease-and-correlation-with-symptom-reports
#6
A Pitiot, J K Smith, D J Humes, J Garratt, S T Francis, P A Gowland, R C Spiller, L Marciani
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the brain of patients with gastrointestinal disease differ both structurally and functionally from that of controls. Highly somatizing diverticular disease (HSDD) patients were also shown to differ from low somatizing (LSDD) patients functionally. This study aimed to investigate how they differed structurally. METHODS: Four diseases subgroups were studied in a cross-sectional design: 20 patients with asymptomatic diverticular disease (ADD), 18 LSDD, 16 HSDD, and 18 with irritable bowel syndrome...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381979/multiple-arterial-thromboses-due-to-cystic-medial-degeneration-erdheim-gsell-a-case-report
#7
Philipp Jud, Thomas Gary, Franz Hafner, Kurt Tiesenhausen, Thomas Ott, Wolfgang Kurt Oswald, Marianne Brodmann
RATIONALE: Cystic medial degeneration Erdheim-Gsell is a vascular pathology mainly of the large vessels, which is mostly associated with Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The clinical findings of this entity are aneurysms of the aorta or large peripheral arteries which usually present in an acute setting due to rupture of an aneurysm. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 43-year-old Caucasian male with histologically proven cystic medial degeneration of the lower limb vessels mimicking peripheral artery occlusive disease...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372597/differences-in-the-neural-correlates-of-frontal-lobe-tests
#8
Teruyuki Matsuoka, Yuka Kato, Ayu Imai, Hiroshi Fujimoto, Keisuke Shibata, Kaeko Nakamura, Kei Yamada, Jin Narumoto
BACKGROUND: The Executive Interview (EXIT25), the executive clock-drawing task (CLOX1), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) are used to assess executive function at the bedside. These tests assess distinct psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural correlates of the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based on magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Fifty-eight subjects (30 with Alzheimer's disease, 10 with mild cognitive impairment, and 18 healthy controls) participated in this study...
January 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363894/lutonix%C3%A2-014-dcb-global-below-the-knee-registry-study-interim-6-month-outcomes
#9
Marcus Thieme, Michael Lichtenberg, Marianne Brodmann, Angelo Cioppa, Dierk Scheinert
BACKGROUND: Most common clinical presentation of peripheral artery disease (PAD) comprises intermittent claudication (IC), but about one third of patients will progress to critical limb ischemia (CLI), characterized by rest pain and/or tissue loss, which is the most severe limb manifestation of PAD. Paclitaxel-coated balloons are well established for the endovascular treatment of femoropopliteal lesions in patients with IC and CLI. This ongoing multicenter registry study is exploring the role of the Lutonix® 014 drug- coated balloon (DCB) in the treatment of below-the-knee (BTK) arteries and CLI...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343737/moderate-decline-in-select-synaptic-markers-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-ba9-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-at-various-cognitive-stages
#10
Odile Poirel, Sébastien Mella, Catherine Videau, Lauriane Ramet, Maria Antonietta Davoli, Etienne Herzog, Pavel Katsel, Naguib Mechawar, Vahram Haroutunian, Jacques Epelbaum, Stéphanie Daumas, Salah El Mestikawy
Synaptic loss, plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are viewed as hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated synaptic markers in neocortical Brodmann area 9 (BA9) samples from 171 subjects with and without AD at different levels of cognitive impairment. The expression levels of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1&2), glutamate uptake site (EAAT2), post-synaptic density protein of 95 kD (PSD95), vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VIAAT), somatostatin (som), synaptophysin and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) were evaluated...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332063/diffusion-tensor-imaging-investigation-of-uncinate-fasciculus-anatomy-in-healthy-controls-description-of-a-subgenual-stem
#11
Kartik Bhatia, Luke Henderson, Mark Yim, Eugene Hsu, Rajiv Dhaliwal
The uncinate fasciculus is the largest white matter association tract connecting the prefrontal cortex and the anteromedial temporal lobe. The traditional anatomical description outlines a temporal stem that hooks around the posterior insula, a subinsular body, and 2 prefrontal stems extending to the lateral orbital gyri and the frontopolar cortex. Recent imaging studies of the white matter tracts deep to the subgenual cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 25: BA25) suggest the presence of white matter fibers extending from BA25 to the amygdala, via a route that would run in close proximity to the uncinate fasciculus, that are of functional importance in mood disorders...
January 12, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326153/treatment-effect-of-drug-coated-balloons-is-durable-to-3-years-in-the-femoropopliteal-arteries-long-term-results-of-the-in-pact-sfa-randomized-trial
#12
Peter A Schneider, John R Laird, Gunnar Tepe, Marianne Brodmann, Thomas Zeller, Dierk Scheinert, Christopher Metzger, Antonio Micari, Ravish Sachar, Michael R Jaff, Hong Wang, Melissa S Hasenbank, Prakash Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials have reported favorable 1-year outcomes with drug-coated balloons (DCBs) for the treatment of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease when compared with standard percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Evidence remains limited on the durability of the treatment effect with DCBs in the longer term. METHODS AND RESULTS: IN.PACT SFA is a single-blind, randomized trial (Randomized Trial of IN.PACT Admiral Paclitaxel-Coated Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty [PTA] Balloon Catheter vs Standard PTA for the Treatment of Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Superficial Femoral Artery [SFA] and/or Proximal Popliteal Artery [PPA]) that enrolled 331 patients with symptomatic (Rutherford 2-4) femoropopliteal lesions up to 18 cm in length...
January 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322264/cerebral-gray-matter-volume-in-patients-with-chronic-migraine-correlations-with-clinical-features
#13
Gianluca Coppola, Barbara Petolicchio, Antonio Di Renzo, Emanuele Tinelli, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Vincenzo Parisi, Mariano Serrao, Valentina Calistri, Stefano Tardioli, Gaia Cartocci, Anna Ambrosini, Francesca Caramia, Vittorio Di Piero, Francesco Pierelli
BACKGROUND: To date, few MRI studies have been performed in patients affected by chronic migraine (CM), especially in those without medication overuse. Here, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses to investigate the gray matter (GM) volume of the whole brain in patients affected by CM. Our aim was to investigate whether fluctuations in the GM volumes were related to the clinical features of CM. METHODS: Twenty untreated patients with CM without a past medical history of medication overuse underwent 3-Tesla MRI scans and were compared to a group of 20 healthy controls (HCs)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315459/pretherapeutic-functional-neuroimaging-predicts-tremor-arrest-after-thalamotomy
#14
C Tuleasca, E Najdenovska, J Régis, T Witjas, N Girard, J Champoudry, M Faouzi, J-P Thiran, M Bach Cuadra, M Levivier, D Van De Ville
OBJECTIVE: Essential tremor (ET) represents the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard stereotactic procedures (deep brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy) or alternatively minimally invasive high-focused ultrasound or radiosurgery. All aim at same target, thalamic ventro-intermediate nucleus (Vim). METHODS: The study included a cohort of 17 consecutive patients, with ET, treated only with left unilateral stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T) between September 2014 and August 2015...
January 7, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311653/meta-analysis-of-epigenome-wide-association-studies-of-cognitive-abilities
#15
Riccardo E Marioni, Allan F McRae, Jan Bressler, Elena Colicino, Eilis Hannon, Shuo Li, Diddier Prada, Jennifer A Smith, Letizia Trevisi, Pei-Chien Tsai, Dina Vojinovic, Jeannette Simino, Daniel Levy, Chunyu Liu, Michael Mendelson, Claudia L Satizabal, Qiong Yang, Min A Jhun, Sharon L R Kardia, Wei Zhao, Stefania Bandinelli, Luigi Ferrucci, Dena G Hernandez, Andrew B Singleton, Sarah E Harris, John M Starr, Douglas P Kiel, Robert R McLean, Allan C Just, Joel Schwartz, Avron Spiro, Pantel Vokonas, Najaf Amin, M Arfan Ikram, Andre G Uitterlinden, Joyce B J van Meurs, Tim D Spector, Claire Steves, Andrea A Baccarelli, Jordana T Bell, Cornelia M van Duijn, Myriam Fornage, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Jonathan Mill, Thomas H Mosley, Sudha Seshadri, Ian J Deary
Cognitive functions are important correlates of health outcomes across the life-course. Individual differences in cognitive functions are partly heritable. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are susceptible to both genetic and environmental factors and may provide insights into individual differences in cognitive functions. Epigenome-wide meta-analyses for blood-based DNA methylation levels at ~420,000 CpG sites were performed for seven measures of cognitive functioning using data from 11 cohorts...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306356/the-usefulness-of-sloreta-in-evaluating-the-effect-of-high-dose-ara-c-on-brain-connectivity-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-an-exploratory-study
#16
A Zarabla, S Ungania, A Cacciatore, A Maialetti, G Petreri, A Mengarelli, A Spadea, F Marchesi, D Renzi, Svitlana Gumenyuk, L Strigari, Marta Maschio
Cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) is one of the key drugs for treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML). High intravenous doses may produce a number of central nervous system (CNS) toxicities and contribute to modifications in brain functional connectivity. sLORETA is a software used for localizing brain electrical activity and functional connectivity. The aim of this study was to apply sLORETA in the evaluation of possible effects of Ara-C on brain connectivity in patients with AML without CNS involvement. We studied eight patients with AML; four were administered standard doses of Ara-C while the other four received high doses...
October 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302837/up-regulated-pro-inflammatory-micrornas-mirnas-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-and-age-related-macular-degeneration-amd
#17
Aileen I Pogue, Walter J Lukiw
Alzheimer's disease (AD) of the brain neocortex and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) of the retina are two complex neurodegenerative disorders, which (i) involve the progressive dysregulation and deterioration of multiple neurobiological signaling pathways, (ii) exhibit the temporal accumulation of pro-inflammatory lesions including the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide-containing senile plaques of AD and the drusen of AMD, and (iii) culminate in an insidious inflammatory neurodegeneration ending, respectively, in neural cell atrophy and death and progressive loss of cognition and central visual function...
January 4, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285773/functional-architecture-of-the-somatosensory-homunculus-detected-by-electrostimulation
#18
Franck-Emmanuel Roux, Imène Djidjeli, Jean-Baptiste Durand
KEY POINTS: We performed a prospective electrostimulation study, based on 50 operated intact patients, to acquire accurate MNI coordinates of the functional areas of the somatosensory homunculus. In the contralateral BA1, the hand representation displayed not only medial-to-lateral, little-finger-to-thumb, but also rostral-to-caudal discrete somatotopy, with the tip of each finger located more caudally than the proximal phalanx. The analysis of the MNI body coordinates showed rare inter-individual variations in the medial-to-lateral somatotopic organization in these patients with rather different intensity thresholds needed to elicit sensations in different body parts...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273230/exploring-the-neural-bases-of-primary-muscle-tension-dysphonia-a-case-study-using-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Nelson Roy, Maria Dietrich, Michael Blomgren, Amanda Heller, Daniel R Houtz, James Lee
Primary muscle tension dysphonia (pMTD) is a voice disorder that occurs in the absence of laryngeal pathology. Dysregulated activity of the paralaryngeal muscles is considered the proximal cause; however, the central origin of this aberrant laryngeal muscle activation is unclear. The Trait Theory (Roy and Bless, 2000a,b) proposed that specific personality traits can predispose one to laryngeal motor inhibition and pMTD, and this inhibition is mediated by a hyperactive "behavioral inhibition system (BIS)" composed of limbic system structures (and associated prefrontal connections)...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234599/selecting-the-most-relevant-brain-regions-to-discriminate-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-from-healthy-controls-using-multiple-kernel-learning-a-comparison-across-functional-and-structural-imaging-modalities-and-atlases
#20
Jane Maryam Rondina, Luiz Kobuti Ferreira, Fabio Luis de Souza Duran, Rodrigo Kubo, Carla Rachel Ono, Claudia Costa Leite, Jerusa Smid, Ricardo Nitrini, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel, Geraldo F Busatto
Background: Machine learning techniques such as support vector machine (SVM) have been applied recently in order to accurately classify individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on neuroimaging data. However, the multivariate nature of the SVM approach often precludes the identification of the brain regions that contribute most to classification accuracy. Multiple kernel learning (MKL) is a sparse machine learning method that allows the identification of the most relevant sources for the classification...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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