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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822871/altered-language-network-in-benign-childhood-epilepsy-patients-with-spikes-from-non-dominant-side-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#1
Jiajia Fang, Sihan Chen, Cheng Luo, Qiyong Gong, Dongmei An, Dong Zhou
Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is one of the most common childhood epilepsy syndromes, and language deficits associated with BECTS have become a hot topic. This study investigated alterations of the language network in BECTS children with spikes from the non-dominant side in comparison with healthy controls. Twenty-three children with BECTS and 20 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Region of interest -based whole brain functional connectivity analysis was used to identify the potential differences in the functional connectivity of the Broca's area between the two groups...
August 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819117/neuronal-encoding-of-self-and-others-head-rotation-in-the-macaque-dorsal-prefrontal-cortex
#2
M Lanzilotto, M Gerbella, V Perciavalle, C Lucchetti
Following gaze is a crucial skill, in primates, for understanding where and at what others are looking, and often requires head rotation. The neural basis underlying head rotation are deemed to overlap with the parieto-frontal attention/gaze-shift network. Here, we show that a set of neurons in monkey's Brodmann area 9/46dr (BA 9/46dr), which is involved in orienting processes and joint attention, becomes active during self head rotation and that the activity of these neurons cannot be accounted for by saccade-related activity (head-rotation neurons)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792155/altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-in-low-empathy-subjects
#3
Seung Jun Kim, Sung Eun Kim, Hyo Eun Kim, Kiwan Han, Bumseok Jeong, Jae Jin Kim, Kee Namkoong, Ji Woong Kim
Empathy is the ability to identify with or make a vicariously experience of another person's feelings or thoughts based on memory and/or self-referential mental simulation. The default mode network in particular is related to self-referential empathy. In order to elucidate the possible neural mechanisms underlying empathy, we investigated the functional connectivity of the default mode network in subjects from a general population. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 19 low-empathy subjects and 18 medium-empathy subjects...
September 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762756/intranasal-oxytocin-selectively-modulates-large-scale-brain-networks-in-humans
#4
Katja Brodmann, Oliver Gruber, Roberto Goya-Maldonado
A growing body of evidence indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) alters the neural correlates of socio-emotional and salience processing. Yet the effects of OT over important large-scale networks involved in these processes, such as the default mode (DM), ventral attention (VA) and cingulo-opercular (CO) networks, remain unknown. Therefore, we conducted a placebo-controlled crossover study with intranasal 24IU OT in 38 healthy male subjects using a resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) paradigm to investigate its impact over these three candidate networks...
August 1, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757902/resting-brain-activity-related-to-dispositional-mindfulness-a-pet-study
#5
Martin Gartenschläger, Mathias Schreckenberger, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Iris Reiner, Manfred E Beutel, Julia Adler, Matthias Michal
Mindfulness denotes a state of consciousness characterized by receptive attention to and awareness of present events and experiences. As a personality trait, it constitutes the ability to become aware of mental activities such as sensations, images, feelings, and thoughts, and to disengage from judgment, conditioned emotions, and their cognitive processing or automatic inhibition. Default brain activity reflects the stream of consciousness and sense of self at rest. Analysis of brain activity at rest in persons with mindfulness propensity may help to elucidate the neurophysiological basis of this important mental trait...
2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743011/posterior-parietal-cortex
#6
Jonathan R Whitlock
The posterior parietal cortex, along with temporal and prefrontal cortices, is one of the three major associative regions in the cortex of the mammalian brain. It is situated between the visual cortex at the caudal pole of the brain and the somatosensory cortex just behind the central sulcus. Technically, any cortex covered by the parietal bone is referred to as 'parietal cortex', but the posterior sector, formally referred to as posterior parietal cortex, is indeed its own functional section of cortex, consisting of Brodmann's areas 5, 7, 39, and 40 in humans, areas 5 and 7 in macaques, and area 7 in rodents (Figure 1)...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729250/stellarex-drug-coated-balloon-for-treatment-of-femoropopliteal-disease-12-month-outcomes-from-the-randomized-illumenate-pivotal-and-pharmacokinetic-studies
#7
Prakash Krishnan, Peter Faries, Khusrow Niazi, Ash Jain, Ravish Sachar, William B Bachinsky, Joseph A Cardenas, Martin Werner, Marianne Brodmann, J A Mustapha, Carlos I Mena-Hurtado, Michael R Jaff, Andrew H Holden, Sean P Lyden
Background -Drug-coated balloons (DCB) are a predominant revascularization therapy for symptomatic femoropopliteal artery disease. Due to differences in excipients, paclitaxel dose and coating morphologies, varying clinical outcomes have been observed with different DCBs. We report the results of two studies investigating the pharmacokinetic (PK) and clinical outcomes of a new DCB to treat femoropopliteal disease. Methods -In the ILLUMENATE Pivotal Study, 300 symptomatic patients (Rutherford class 2-4), were randomized to DCB (N=200) or standard angioplasty (PTA) (N=100)...
July 20, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705939/changes-in-pulmonary-exercise-haemodynamics-in-scleroderma-a-4-year-prospective-study
#8
Gabor Kovacs, Alexander Avian, Nora Wutte, Franz Hafner, Florentine Moazedi-Fürst, Sonja Kielhauser, Elisabeth Aberer, Marianne Brodmann, Winfried Graninger, Vasile Foris, Andrea Olschewski, Horst Olschewski
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a feared complication of systemic sclerosis. In this prospective cohort study, we monitored the changes in resting and exercise pulmonary haemodynamics of scleroderma patients without initial PAH over a mean follow-up period of ∼4 years.All patients underwent exercise echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline and follow-up. A subgroup underwent exercise right heart catheter (RHC) investigations. The primary end-point was the echocardiographic systolic pulmonary arterial pressure at 50 W exercise (sPAP50)...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692408/preliminary-findings-of-altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-linked-to-functional-outcomes-one-year-after-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Jaclyn A Stephens, Cynthia F Salorio, Anita D Barber, Sarah R Risen, Stewart H Mostofsky, Stacy J Suskauer
PURPOSE AND METHOD: This study examined functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) and examined brain-behavior relationships in a pilot cohort of children with chronic mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). RESULTS: Compared to uninjured peers, children with TBI demonstrated less anti-correlated functional connectivity between DMN and right Brodmann Area 40 (BA 40). In children with TBI, more anomalous less anti-correlated) connectivity between DMN and right BA 40 was linked to poorer performance on response inhibition tasks...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668692/wastewater-is-a-reservoir-for-clinically-relevant-carbapenemase-and-16s-rrna-methylase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#10
Katrin Zurfluh, Claudia Bagutti, Peter Brodmann, Monica Alt, Jürg Schulze, Séamus Fanning, Roger Stephan, Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen
The aim of the study was to evaluate wastewater for carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and 16S rRNA methylase producing Gram negative bacteria (MPB), and to assess their occurrence following wastewater treatment. Wastewater samples were collected between June 2015 and March 2016 in the sewage network of the city of Basel from sites located before and after influx of wastewater from the hospital into the sewage network. Samples were also obtained from the influent and from the effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658047/a-magnetoencephalography-investigation-of-coherence-source-imaging-in-panic-disorder
#11
Nash N Boutros, Seung-Suk Kang, Kathleen M Gustafson, Zach Thomas, Kemal Sagduyu, Jocelyn Pearson, Susan M Bowyer
Limbic and frontal structures are largely implicated in panic disorder (PD). Decreased coherence imaging values, as determined by magnetoencephalography (MEG), are suggestive of decreased or inefficient communication among these structures. We have previously demonstrated that coherence source imaging (CSI) values could be similar or higher in some PD patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to replicate these finding in a larger sample. Nine strictly diagnosed PD patients and nine age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls were examined...
September 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642285/state-dependent-tms-reveals-representation-of-affective-body-movements-in-the-anterior-intraparietal-cortex
#12
Noemi Mazzoni, Christianne Jacobs, Paola Venuti, Juha Silvanto, Luigi Cattaneo
In humans, recognition of others' actions involves a cortical network that comprises, among other cortical regions, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), where biological motion is coded and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), where movement information is elaborated in terms of meaningful goal-directed actions. This action observation system (AOS) is thought to encode neutral voluntary actions, and possibly some aspects of affective motor repertoire, but the role of the AOS' areas in processing affective kinematic information has never been examined...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638030/-characteristics-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Ju G Homenko, D S Susin, G V Kataeva, Ju A Irishina, I G Zavolokov
AIM: To study the relationship between early cognitive impairment symptoms and cerebral glucose metabolism in different brain regions (according to the positron emission tomography (PET) data) in Parkinson's disease (PD) in order to increase the diagnostic and treatment efficacy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups of patients with PD (stage I-III), including 11 patients without cognitive disorders and 13 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), were examined. The control group included 10 age-matched people with normal cognition...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629975/anatomical-and-functional-properties-of-the-foot-and-leg-representation-in-areas-3b-1-and-2-of-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-humans-a-7t-fmri-study
#14
Michel Akselrod, Roberto Martuzzi, Andrea Serino, Wietske van der Zwaag, Roger Gassert, Olaf Blanke
Primary somatosensory cortex (S1) processes somatosensory information and is composed of multiple subregions. In particular, tactile information from the skin is encoded in three subregions, namely Brodmann areas (BAs) 3b, 1 and 2, with each area representing a complete map of the contralateral body. Although, much is known about the somatotopic organization of the hand in human S1, less research has been carried out regarding the somatotopic maps of the foot and leg in S1. Moreover, a latero-medial S1 organization along the superior part of the postcentral gyrus has been reported when moving from hip to toes, yet to date there is no study investigating leg/foot maps within the different subregions of S1...
June 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621333/francisella-requires-dynamic-type-vi-secretion-system-and-clpb-to-deliver-effectors-for-phagosomal-escape
#15
Maj Brodmann, Roland F Dreier, Petr Broz, Marek Basler
Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen that causes the fatal zoonotic disease tularaemia. Critical for its pathogenesis is the ability of the phagocytosed bacteria to escape into the cell cytosol. For this, the bacteria use a non-canonical type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded on the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI). Here we show that in F. novicida T6SS assembly initiates at the bacterial poles both in vitro and within infected macrophages. T6SS dynamics and function depends on the general purpose ClpB unfoldase, which specifically colocalizes with contracted sheaths and is required for their disassembly...
June 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604057/heterogeneity-of-d-serine-distribution-in-the-human-central-nervous-system
#16
Masataka Suzuki, Nobuaki Imanishi, Masashi Mita, Kenji Hamase, Sadakazu Aiso, Jumpei Sasabe
D-serine is an endogenous ligand for N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. Accumulating evidence including genetic associations of D-serine metabolism with neurological or psychiatric diseases suggest that D-serine is crucial in human neurophysiology. However, distribution and regulation of D-serine in humans are not well understood. Here, we found that D-serine is heterogeneously distributed in the human central nervous system (CNS). The cerebrum contains the highest level of D-serine among the areas in the CNS...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596726/ability-to-gain-control-over-one-s-own-brain-activity-and-its-relation-to-spiritual-practice-a-multimodal-imaging-study
#17
Silvia E Kober, Matthias Witte, Manuel Ninaus, Karl Koschutnig, Daniel Wiesen, Gabriela Zaiser, Christa Neuper, Guilherme Wood
Spiritual practice, such as prayer or meditation, is associated with focusing attention on internal states and self-awareness processes. As these cognitive control mechanisms presumably are also important for neurofeedback (NF), we investigated whether people who pray frequently (N = 20) show a higher ability of self-control over their own brain activity compared to a control group of individuals who rarely pray (N = 20). All participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and one session of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR, 12-15 Hz) based NF training...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560810/changes-of-cortical-activation-in-swallowing-following-high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-older-adults
#18
J-W Park, G-J Sim, H-J Kim, J-S Yeo, H-J Hong, B S Kwon
BACKGROUND: This study explored whether high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce positive changes in the cortical areas of older adults who do not have functional difficulties in swallowing. METHODS: Ten healthy, right-handed, elderly volunteers were subjected to 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography(FDG-PET) scans when at rest, swallowing before rTMS, and swallowing after rTMS. During the swallowing study, water was infused orally via a catheter at a rate of 600 mL/h...
May 31, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560268/learning-stable-and-predictive-network-based-patterns-of-schizophrenia-and-its-clinical-symptoms
#19
Mina Gheiratmand, Irina Rish, Guillermo A Cecchi, Matthew R G Brown, Russell Greiner, Pablo I Polosecki, Pouya Bashivan, Andrew J Greenshaw, Rajamannar Ramasubbu, Serdar M Dursun
Schizophrenia is often associated with disrupted brain connectivity. However, identifying specific neuroimaging-based patterns pathognomonic for schizophrenia and related symptom severity remains a challenging open problem requiring large-scale data-driven analyses emphasizing not only statistical significance but also stability across multiple datasets, contexts and cohorts. Accurate prediction on previously unseen subjects, or generalization, is also essential for any useful biomarker of schizophrenia. In order to build a predictive model based on functional network feature patterns, we studied whole-brain fMRI functional networks, both at the voxel level and lower-resolution supervoxel level...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560265/isoform-specific-differences-in-phospholipase-c-beta-1-expression-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-and-suicide
#20
M Udawela, E Scarr, S Boer, J Y Um, A J Hannan, C McOmish, C C Felder, E A Thomas, B Dean
Our previous study demonstrated that phospholipase C beta 1 mRNA was down-regulated in Brodmann's area 46 from subjects with schizophrenia. However, phospholipase C beta 1 protein has also been shown to be lower in Brodmann's area 8 and 9 from teenage suicide subjects, creating a potential confound in interpreting the findings in schizophrenia due to the high suicide rate associated with this disorder. To begin to reconcile and consolidate these findings, in this study, we measured mRNA and protein levels of phospholipase C beta 1 variants a and b in Brodmann's area 46 and Brodmann's area 9 from subjects with schizophrenia, many of whom were suicide completers, and determined the diagnostic specificity of observed findings...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
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