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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199761/difference-in-regional-brain-volume-between-fibromyalgia-patients-and-long-term-meditators
#1
Nicolás Fayed, Gracián García-Martí, Roberto Sanz-Requena, Luis Marti-Bonmatí, Javier Garcia-Campayo
BACKGROUND: The practice of meditation has been shown to improve pain-related quality of life and also to alter brain activity. To assess brain volumetry in fibromyalgia (FM) patients, healthy meditators and healthy non-meditator control groups, and to elucidate the possible association between brain changes in meditators and years of meditation practice. METHODS: Twelve patients diagnosed with FM, eleven long-term Zen meditators and ten healthy control subjects closely matched for sex and age were recruited...
November 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199137/brodmann-area-10-collating-integrating-and-high-level-processing-of-nociception-and-pain
#2
REVIEW
Ke Peng, Sarah C Steele, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Multiple frontal cortical brain regions have emerged as being important in pain processing, whether it be integrative, sensory, cognitive, or emotional. One such region, Brodmann Area 10 (BA 10), is the largest frontal brain region that has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of functions including risk and decision making, odor evaluation, reward and conflict, pain, and working memory. BA 10, also known as the anterior prefrontal cortex, frontopolar prefrontal cortex or rostral prefrontal cortex, is comprised of at least two cytoarchitectonic sub-regions, medial and lateral...
November 30, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181526/cortical-structures-associated-with-human-blood-pressure-control
#3
Nuria Lacuey, Johnson P Hampson, Wanchat Theeranaew, Bilal Zonjy, Ajay Vithala, Norma J Hupp, Kenneth A Loparo, Jonathan P Miller, Samden D Lhatoo
Importance: A better understanding of the role of cortical structures in blood pressure control may help us understand cardiovascular collapse that may lead to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Objective: To identify cortical control sites for human blood pressure regulation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Patients with intractable epilepsy undergoing intracranial electrode implantation as a prelude to epilepsy surgery in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit at University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center were potential candidates for this study...
November 27, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170440/evidence-for-unconscious-regulation-of-performance-in-fatigue
#4
Akira Ishii, Masaaki Tanaka, Takahiro Yoshikawa, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Since fatigue is prevalent in modern societies, it is necessary to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue. The regulation of performance through fatigue sensation is one of the mechanisms that decreases performance in fatigue. However, it is unknown whether subjective feeling of fatigue is necessary for the regulation of performance. Here, we examined whether decreased performance occurs without increased fatigue sensation through the experiment which was designed to test if fatigue can be learned unconsciously...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169779/mind-matter-interactions-and-the-frontal-lobes-of-the-brain-a-novel-neurobiological-model-of-psi-inhibition
#5
Morris Freedman, Malcolm Binns, Fuqiang Gao, Melissa Holmes, Austyn Roseborough, Stephen Strother, Antonino Vallesi, Stanley Jeffers, Claude Alain, Peter Whitehouse, Jennifer D Ryan, Robert Chen, Michael D Cusimano, Sandra E Black
CONTEXT: Despite a large literature on psi, which encompasses a range of experiences including putative telepathy (mind-mind connections), clairvoyance (perceiving distant objects or events), precognition (perceiving future events), and mind-matter interactions, there has been insufficient focus on the brain in relation to this controversial phenomenon. In contrast, our research is based on a novel neurobiological model suggesting that frontal brain systems act as a filter to inhibit psi and that the inhibitory mechanisms may relate to self-awareness...
October 23, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165742/calculation-of-has-bled-score-is-useful-for-early-identification-of-venous-thromboembolism-patients-at-high-risk-for-major-bleeding-events-a-prospective-outpatients-cohort-study
#6
Peter Rief, Reinhard Bernd Raggam, Franz Hafner, Alexander Avian, Gerald Hackl, Gerhard Cvirn, Marianne Brodmann, Thomas Gary
The aim of this study was prospective evaluation of the performance of the HAS-BLED score in predicting major bleeding complications in a real-world outpatient cohort, during long-term anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism (VTE), treated with a broad spectrum of anticoagulants. We analyzed 111 outpatients objectively diagnosed with VTE and treated long-term with various anticoagulants. Patients were grouped in three cohorts based on the anticoagulant regimen. Calculation of the HAS-BLED score and documentation of bleeding events were performed every 6 months for 1 year...
November 17, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160560/a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study-of-trauma-related-auditory-and-olfactory-cues-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-or-combat-experience
#7
Michael A Gramlich, Sandra M Neer, Deborah C Beidel, Corey J Bohil, Clint A Bowers
The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among U.S. veterans deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan necessitates the need for comprehensive assessment and treatment strategies. This study investigated the utility of a combat-related PTSD symptom provocation paradigm to elicit unique neurological responses across three groups: combat veterans with PTSD, combat veterans without PTSD, and nonmilitary participants without PTSD. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) the results indicated that combat veterans with PTSD demonstrated significant activation to a trauma-related sound compared with nonmilitary personnel, channel 14: d = 1...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154283/longitudinal-neuroimaging-analysis-in%C3%A2-mild-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-treated-with-plasma-exchange-with%C3%A2-5-human-albumin
#8
Gemma Cuberas-Borrós, Isabel Roca, Mercè Boada, Lluís Tárraga, Isabel Hernández, Mar Buendia, Lourdes Rubio, Gustavo Torres, Ángel Bittini, Juan A Guzmán-de-Villoria, Francesc Pujadas, Mireia Torres, Laura Núñez, Joan Castell, Antonio Páez
BACKGROUND: Recently, modifications of Aβ1-42 levels in CSF and plasma associated with improvement in memory and language functions have been observed in patients with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) treated with plasma exchange (PE) with albumin replacement. OBJECTIVE: To detect structural and functional brain changes in PE-treated AD patients as part of a Phase II clinical trial. METHODS: Patients received between 3 and 18 PE with albumin (Albutein® 5%, Grifols) or sham-PE (controls) for 21 weeks (divided in one intensive and two maintenance periods) followed by 6-month follow-up...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146111/microrna-expression-patterns-in-human-anterior-cingulate-and-motor-cortex-a-study-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-cases-and-controls
#9
Peter T Nelson, Wang-Xia Wang, Sarah A Janse, Katherine L Thompson
OVERVIEW: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD+DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n=52 cases initially included (n=23 with DLB), all with low (<4hrs) postmortem intervals...
November 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135806/fluid-intelligence-relates-to-the-resting-state-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-and-functional-connectivity-a-multivariate-pattern-analysis
#10
Changjun Li, Guocheng Yang, Meiling Li, Bo Li
The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between fluid intelligence (gF) and the pattern of the functional characteristics in the resting state in adults using multivariate pattern analysis. Resting-state functional images from 100 participants in the Human Connectome Project data set were analyzed. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was first calculated, and a support vector regression approach was used to identify the association with gF. To discover whether the connectivity of the gF-associated areas was also related to gF, we further checked the seed-based functional connectivity using the seeds from the ALFF...
November 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128955/right-brodmann-area-18-predicts-tremor-arrest-after-vim-radiosurgery-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#11
Constantin Tuleasca, Tatiana Witjas, Dimitri Van de Ville, Elena Najdenovska, Antoine Verger, Nadine Girard, Jerome Champoudry, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Eric Guedj, Jean Régis
INTRODUCTION: Drug-resistant essential tremor (ET) can benefit from open standard stereotactic procedures, such as deep-brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy. Non-surgical candidates can be offered either high-focused ultrasound (HIFU) or radiosurgery (RS). All procedures aim to target the same thalamic site, the ventro-intermediate nucleus (e.g., Vim). The mechanisms by which tremor stops after Vim RS or HIFU remain unknown. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on pretherapeutic neuroimaging data and assessed which anatomical site would best correlate with tremor arrest 1 year after Vim RS...
November 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128522/biological-evidence-for-attention-bias-to-food-emotional-dysregulation-disinhibition-and-deficient-somatosensory-awareness-in-obesity-with-binge-eating-disorder
#12
Roni Aviram-Friedman, Nerys Astbury, Christopher N Ochner, Isobel Contento, Allan Geliebter
OBJECTIVES: To refine the biobehavioral markers of binge eating disorder (BED). METHODS: We conducted fMRI brain scans using images of high energy processed food (HEPF), low energy unprocessed food (LEUF), or non-foods (NF) in 42 adults (obese with BED [obese -BED; n=13] and obese with no BED [obese non-BED; n=29]) selected via ads. Two blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) signal contrast maps were examined: food versus nonfood, and HEPF versus LEUF. In addition, score differences on the disinhibition scale were correlated with BOLD signals...
November 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126813/automated-immunohistochemical-method-to-analyze-large-areas-of-the-human-cortex
#13
Mohamad Abbass, Kathleen Trought, David Long, Anton Semechko, Albert H C Wong
BACKGROUND: There have been inconsistencies in the histological abnormalities found in the cerebral cortex from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Discrepancies in previously published reports may arise from small sample sizes, inconsistent methodology and biased cell counting. METHODS: We applied automated quantification of neuron density, neuron size and cortical layer thickness in large regions of the cerebral cortex in psychiatric patients...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122369/preserved-metacognitive-ability-despite-unilateral-or-bilateral-anterior-prefrontal-resection
#14
Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau, Gilles Lafargue
Brodmann area 10 (BA10) is thought to be at the summit of the prefrontal cortex's hierarchical organization. It is widely accepted that metacognitive abilities depend on the structural and functional properties of BA10. Our objective was to assess whether metacognition can be maintained after low-grade glioma surgery with BA10 resection. Three groups of participants were recruited: (i) patients having undergone resection of the right prefrontal cortex, including BA10 (n = 9); (ii) patients having undergone resection of the right prefrontal cortex but not BA10 (n = 10); and (iii) healthy controls (n = 38)...
November 6, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107845/early-alzheimer-type-lesions-in-cognitively-normal-subjects
#15
Stergios Tsartsalis, Aikaterini Xekardaki, Patrick R Hof, Enikö Kövari, Constantin Bouras
Amyloid deposits and tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, together with neuronal and synaptic loss, are the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both proteins are present in the normal brain during aging. However, the temporal sequence of their involvement in the onset of AD pathology remains controversial. To define whether amyloid β protein deposits or tau protein lesions appear first during normal brain aging, we performed an immunohistological study on serial sections from 105 autopsy brains (age range: 40-104 years) from patients free of clinical signs of cognitive decline, using anti-tau (AT8) and anti-amyloid (4G8) antibodies in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, inferior temporal cortex (Brodmann area 20), prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), occipital cortex (Brodmann areas 17 and 18), and in the brainstem...
October 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079060/omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-may-prevent-loss-of-gray-matter-thickness-in-the-left-parieto-occipital-cortex-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-secondary-outcome-analysis-of-the-offer-randomized-controlled-study
#16
Tomasz Pawełczyk, Ewa Piątkowska-Janko, Piotr Bogorodzki, Piotr Gębski, Marta Grancow-Grabka, Elżbieta Trafalska, Natalia Żurner, Agnieszka Pawełczyk
The aim of the study was to assess changes in cortical thickness related to the use of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as add-on therapy in patients with first episode schizophrenia. A double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted using a 26-week intervention composed of concentrated fish oil containing 2.2g/d of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or placebo (olive oil). Participants underwent MRI scanning twice to assess changes in cortical thickness: at the beginning and at the end of intervention...
October 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066367/brain-metabolic-correlates-of-csf-tau-protein-in-a-large-cohort-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-a-csf-and-fdg-pet-study
#17
Agostino Chiaravalloti, Gaetano Barbagallo, Maria Ricci, Alessandro Martorana, Francesco Ursini, Pasqualina Sannino, Georgios Karalis, Orazio Schillaci
AIMS: Physiopathological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still matter of debate. Especially the role of amyloid β and tau pathology in the development of the disease are still matter of debate. Changes in tau and amyloid β peptide concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and hypometabolic patterns at fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET scanning are considered as biomarkers of AD. The present study was aimed to evaluate the relationships between the concentrations of CSF total Tau (t-Tau), phosphorilated Tau (p-Tau) and Aβ1-42 amyloid peptide with 18F-FDG brain distribution in a group of patients with AD...
January 1, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050631/drug-coated-balloon-treatment-for-femoropopliteal-artery-disease-the-in-pact-global-study-de-novo-in-stent-restenosis-imaging%C3%A2-cohort
#18
Marianne Brodmann, Koen Keirse, Dierk Scheinert, Lubomir Spak, Michael R Jaff, Randy Schmahl, Pei Li, Thomas Zeller
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a paclitaxel-coated drug-coated balloon (DCB) for the treatment of patients with de novo in-stent restenosis (ISR). BACKGROUND: Treatment of patients with ISR remains a challenge. Current strategies are plagued by high rates of recurrent restenosis and need for reintervention. The best intervention for ISR remains to be elucidated. METHODS: The IN.PACT Global study is an independently adjudicated multicenter, prospective, single-arm study that enrolled 1,535 subjects with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease of the superficial femoral and/or popliteal arteries, including de novo ISR lesions...
October 23, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032294/one-year-double-blind-study-of-high-vs-low-frequency-subcallosal-cingulate-stimulation-for-depression
#19
Renana Eitan, Denys Fontaine, Michel Benoît, Caroline Giordana, Nelly Darmon, Zvi Israel, Eduard Linesky, David Arkadir, Shiri Ben-Naim, Moshe Iserlles, Hagai Bergman, Natasha Hulse, Mohamed Abdelghani, Peter McGuffin, Anne Farmer, Peichel DeLea, Keyoumars Ashkan, Bernard Lerer
Subcallosal Brodmann's Area 25 (Cg25) Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a new promising therapy for treatment resistant major depressive disorder (TR-MDD). While different DBS stimulating parameters may have an impact on the efficacy and safety of the therapy, there is no data to support a protocol for optimal stimulation parameters for depression. Here we present a prospective multi-center double-blind randomized crossed-over 13-month study that evaluated the effects of High (130 Hz) vs Low (20 Hz) frequency Cg25 stimulation for nine patients with TR-MDD...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983489/study-of-memory-deficit-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-means-of-complexity-analysis-of-fnirs-signal
#20
David Perpetuini, Roberta Bucco, Michele Zito, Arcangelo Merla
Working memory deficit is a signature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT) is a clinical test that quantifies memory deficit for AD diagnosis. However, the diagnostic accuracy of FCSRT may be increased by accompanying it with neuroimaging. Since the test requires doctor-patient interaction, brain monitoring is challenging. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) could be suited for such a purpose because of the fNIRS flexibility. We investigated whether the complexity, based on sample entropy and multiscale entropy metrics, of the fNIRS signal during FCSRT was correlated with memory deficit in early AD...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
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