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Marianne Brodmann, Andrew Holden, Thomas Zeller
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of treating calcified infrapopliteal stenoses using an intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) system. METHODS: The Disrupt BTK study was a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter, feasibility, and safety trial that enrolled 20 patients (mean age 79.0±9.6 years; 14 men) at 3 participating sites ( identifier NCT02911623). Fifteen patients had Rutherford category 5 ischemia, and all patients had moderate to severe below-the-knee arterial calcification...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
John C Ksander, Laura E Paige, Hunter A Johndro, Angela H Gutchess
A growing body of evidence suggests culture influences how individuals perceive the world around them. The current study investigates whether these cultural differences extend to a simple object viewing task and visual cortex by examining voxel pattern representations with Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA). During fMRI scanning, 20 East Asian and 20 American participants viewed photos of everyday items, equated for familiarity and conceptual agreement across cultures. Whole brain searchlight mapping with non-parametric statistical evaluation tested whether these stimuli evoked multi-voxel patterns that were distinct between cultural groups...
June 7, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Ken Zafren, Anne Brants, Katie Tabner, Andrew Nyberg, Matiram Pun, Buddha Basnyat, Monika Brodmann Maeder
The Nepal Earthquake of 2015 killed over 8000 people and injured over 20,000 in Nepal. Moments after the earthquake, an avalanche of falling ice came down from above Everest Base Camp (EBC). The air blast created by the avalanche flattened the middle part of EBC, killing 15 people and injuring at least 70. The casualties were initially triaged and treated at EBC and then evacuated by air to Kathmandu for definitive care. There were intermediate stops at the villages of Pheriche and Lukla during which the casualties were offloaded, retriaged, treated, and loaded again for further transport...
June 8, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Jiaming Lu, Xin Wang, Zhao Qing, Zhu Li, Wen Zhang, Ying Liu, Lihua Yuan, Le Cheng, Ming Li, Bin Zhu, Xin Zhang, Qing X Yang, Bing Zhang
For human olfactory functional MRI studies, the primary olfactory cortex (POC) suffers severe magnetic susceptibility artifacts, which adversely influences the detectability and reproducibility of the olfactory fMRI data and its clinical applications. The goal of this work is to assess the impacts of the image artifacts on the detectability and reproducibility of the olfactory activation in the POC. The severity of artifacts in the POC were classified into three levels using a Subjective Artifact score (SA_score)...
June 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Grzegorz M Wojcik, Jolanta Masiak, Andrzej Kawiak, Piotr Schneider, Lukasz Kwasniewicz, Nikodem Polak, Anna Gajos-Balinska
The interview is still the main and most important tool in psychiatrist's work. The neuroimaging methods such as CT or MRI are widely used in other fields of medicine, for instance neurology. However, psychiatry lacks effective quantitative methods to support of diagnosis. A novel neuroinformatic approach to help clinical patients by means of electroencephalographic technology in order to build foundations for finding neurophysiological biomarkers of psychiatric disorders is proposed. A cohort of 30 right-handed patients (21 males, 9 females) with psychiatric disorders (mainly with panic and anxiety disorder, Asperger syndrome as well as with phobic anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, nonorganic hypersomnia, and moderate depressive episode) were examined using the dense array EEG amplifier in the P300 experiment...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Claudio Imperatori, Benedetto Farina, Federico Todini, Chiara Di Blasi, Edoardo Mazzucchi, Valerio Brunetti, Giacomo Della Marca
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by retrograde and anterograde amnesia without other neurological deficits. Although electroencephalography (EEG) methods are commonly used in both clinical and research setting with TGA patients, few studies have investigated neurophysiological pattern in TGA using quantitative EEG (qEEG). The main aim of the present study was to extend these previous findings by exploring EEG power spectra differences between patients with acute TGA and healthy controls using the exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography software (eLORETA)...
June 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Elizabeth Scarr, Shaun Hopper, Valentina Vos, Myoung Suk Seo, Ian Paul Everall, Timothy Douglas Aumann, Gursharan Chunam, Brian Dean
BACKGROUND: Results of neuroimaging and postmortem studies suggest that people with schizophrenia may have lower levels of muscarinic M1 receptors (CHRM1) in the cortex, but not in the hippocampus or thalamus. Here, we use a novel immunohistochemical approach to better understand the likely cause of these low receptor levels. METHODS: We determined the distribution and number of CHRM1-positive (CHRM1+) neurons in the cortex, medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus and regions of the hippocampus from controls ( n = 12, 12 and 5, respectively) and people with schizophrenia ( n = 24, 24 and 13, respectively)...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Volker Arnd Coenen, Lena Valerie Schumacher, Christoph Kaller, Thomas Eduard Schlaepfer, Peter Christoph Reinacher, Karl Egger, Horst Urbach, Marco Reisert
Introduction: Despite their importance in reward, motivation, and learning there is only sparse anatomical knowledge about the human medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and the connectivity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A thorough anatomical and microstructural description of the reward related PFC/OFC regions and their connection to the VTA - the superolateral branch of the MFB (slMFB) - is however mandatory to enable an interpretation of distinct therapeutic effects from different interventional treatment modalities in neuropsychiatric disorders (DBS, TMS etc...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Antonio Micari, Marianne Brodmann, Koen Keirse, Patrick Peeters, Gunnar Tepe, Martin Frost, Hong Wang, Thomas Zeller
OBJECTIVES: The IN.PACT Global Study is the largest prospective, multicenter, independently adjudicated trial to evaluate a paclitaxel drug-coated balloon in patients with lifestyle-limiting claudication and/or ischemic rest pain due to atherosclerotic disease of the femoropopliteal artery and includes complex lesions beyond what are typically included in randomized controlled trials. BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of drug-coated balloons for the treatment of Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus Document II A and B lesions, but there is a need for large-scale prospective studies to evaluate a broader range of lesions...
May 28, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengyu Liu, Mengqi Liu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have demonstrated that structural and functional abnormalities in episodic migraine (EM), less is known about altered brain perfusion in the EM. The aim of this study is to investigate altered gray matter perfusion in EM using a 3D volumetric perfusion imaging. METHODS: Fifteen EM patients and 15 normal controls (NC) underwent structural and 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (3D pc-ASL). The structural images were segmented using DARTEL methods and the generated normalized T1 tissue probability maps were used to coregister the cerebral blood flow (CBF) images, which would further be performed with standardization using Fisher Z Transformation...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Marianne Brodmann, Eric Thérasse, Andrew Benko, Louis-Philippe Riel, Steven Dion, Philippe Généreux, Martin Brouillette
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the safety and efficacy of the SoundBite™ Crossing System for the recanalization of infrainguinal chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions. CTOs are frequent among patients with severe claudication or critical limb ischemia. Failure to recanalize CTOs remains common and is associated with poor prognosis. The SoundBite™ Crossing System (SoundBite Medical Solutions Inc., Montreal, Canada) is a newly developed device that uses a 0.018-inch wire (SoundBite™ Active Wire) to deliver acoustic shock waves to the distal tip of a steerable guidewire to facilitate directed penetration of the proximal cap and crossing of the occlusion...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Norbert J Tripolt, Felix Aberer, Regina Riedl, Jasmin Url, Gudrun Dimsity, Andreas Meinitzer, Tatjana Stojakovic, Faisal Aziz, Ronald Hödl, Gabriele Brachtl, Dirk Strunk, Marianne Brodmann, Franz Hafner, Harald Sourij
BACKGROUND: Early glucose lowering intervention in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus was demonstrated to be beneficial in terms of micro- and macrovascular risk reduction. However, most of currently ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials are performed in subjects with manifest atherosclerosis and long-standing diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) but early type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on a set of cardiovascular surrogate measurements...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Daisuke Sudo, Youichi Doutake, Hidenori Yokota, Eiju Watanabe
Stuttering occurs in approximately 5% of all children and 1% of adults. One type, neurogenic stuttering, is usually attributable to strokes or other structural damages to the brain areas that are responsible for language fluency. Here, we present the first case of neurogenic stuttering caused by a brain abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man admitted for a seizure and administered an anticonvulsant, after which he began stuttering. MRI revealed a brain abscess in the left frontal lobe that extended to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA (Brodmann's area) 9 and 46), frontal eye field (BA 8) and premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (BA 6)...
May 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Julia Sauerbeck, Kazunari Ishii, Chisa Hosokawa, Hayato Kaida, Franziska T Scheiwein, Kohei Hanaoka, Axel Rominger, Matthias Brendel, Peter Bartenstein, Takamichi Murakami
PURPOSE: In subjects with amyloid deposition, striatal accumulation of 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) demonstrated by positron emission tomography (PET) is related to the stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the correlation between striatal and cortical non-displaceable binding potential (BPND ). METHODS: Seventy-three subjects who complained of cognitive disturbance underwent dynamic PiB-PET studies and showed positive PiB accumulation were retrospectively selected...
May 5, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Naoki Yamada, Ryo Ueda, Wataru Kakuda, Ryo Momosaki, Takahiro Kondo, Takuya Hada, Nobuyuki Sasaki, Takatoshi Hara, Atsushi Senoo, Masahiro Abo
We aimed to investigate plastic changes in cerebral white matter structures using diffusion tensor imaging following a 15-day stroke rehabilitation program. We compared the detection of cerebral plasticity between generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA), a novel tool for investigating white matter structures, and fractional anisotropy (FA). Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS) of 2400 pulses applied to the nonlesional hemisphere and 240 min intensive occupation therapy (OT) daily over 15 days...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Chuanqi Sun, Yibao Wang, Run Cui, Chong Wu, Xinguo Li, Yue Bao, Yong Wang
The thalamic-prefrontal peduncle (TPP) is a large bundle connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. The definitive structure and function of the TPP are still controversial. To investigate the connectivity and segmentation patterns of the TPP, we employed diffusion spectrum imaging with generalized q-sampling reconstruction to perform both subject-specific and template-based analyses. Our results confirmed the trajectory and spatial relationship of the TPP in the human brain and identified the connection areas in the prefrontal cortex...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Li-Yuan Tang, Hai-Jun Li, Xin Huang, Jing Bao, Zubin Sethi, Lei Ye, Qing Yuan, Pei-Wen Zhu, Nan Jiang, Gui-Ping Gao, Yi Shao
Objective: Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that pain-related diseases are associated with brain function and anatomical abnormalities, whereas altered synchronous neural activity in acute eye pain (EP) patients has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to explore whether or not synchronous neural activity changes were measured with the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method in acute EP patients. Methods: A total of 20 patients (15 males and 5 females) with EP and 20 healthy controls (HCs) consisting of 15 and 5 age-, sex-, and education-matched males and females, respectively, underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Peter Rief, Reinhard B Raggam, Alexander Avian, Franz Hafner, Mahdi Sareban, Martin Wehrschuetz, Marianne Brodmann, Thomas Gary
Mean platelet volume (MPV) was recently published as a possible marker of coronary artery disease in patients at high risk for major adverse cardiac events. Because platelets play an important role in atherosclerosis, we examined the relationship between critical limb ischemia (CLI) and MPV in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Our study comprised 2124 PAOD patients. Univariate logistic regression was performed to analyze potential predictors for CLI. Nagelkerke's R² is reported. Cross validation was performed using the leave-one-out principle...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michiel Cottaar, Matteo Bastiani, Charles Chen, Krikor Dikranian, David Van Essen, Timothy E Behrens, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi
When axonal fibres approach or leave the cortex, their trajectories tend to closely follow the cortical convolutions. To quantify this tendency, we propose a three-dimensional coordinate system based on the gyral geometry. For every voxel in the brain, we define a "radial" axis orthogonal to nearby surfaces, a "sulcal" axis along the sulcal depth gradient that preferentially points from deep white matter to the gyral crown, and a "gyral" axis aligned with the long axis of the gyrus...
August 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Yasuhisa Sakurai, Emi Furukawa, Masanori Kurihara, Izumi Sugimoto
We report a patient with phonological agraphia (selective impairment of kana [Japanese phonetic writing] nonwords) and acalculia (mental arithmetic difficulties) with impaired verbal short-term memory after a cerebral hemorrhage in the opercular part of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6) and the adjacent postcentral gyrus. The patient showed phonemic paragraphia in five-character kana nonword writing, minimal acalculia, and reduced digit and letter span. Mental arithmetic normalized after 8 months and agraphia recovered to the normal range at 1 year after onset, in parallel with an improvement of the auditory letter span score from 4 to 6 over a period of 14 months and in the digit span score from 6 to 7 over 24 months...
January 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
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