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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684644/a-gyral-coordinate-system-predictive-of-fibre-orientations
#1
Michiel Cottaar, Matteo Bastiani, Charles Chen, Krikor Dikranian, David Van Essen, Timothy E Behrens, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi
When axonal fibres approach or leave the cortex, their trajectories tend to closely follow the cortical convolutions. To quantify this tendency, we propose a three-dimensional coordinate system based on the gyral geometry. For every voxel in the brain, we define a "radial" axis orthogonal to nearby surfaces, a "sulcal" axis along the sulcal depth gradient that preferentially points from deep white matter to the gyral crown, and a "gyral" axis aligned with the long axis of the gyrus...
April 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681826/frontal-phonological-agraphia-and-acalculia-with-impaired-verbal-short-term-memory-due-to-left-inferior-precentral-gyrus-lesion
#2
Yasuhisa Sakurai, Emi Furukawa, Masanori Kurihara, Izumi Sugimoto
We report a patient with phonological agraphia (selective impairment of kana [Japanese phonetic writing] nonwords) and acalculia (mental arithmetic difficulties) with impaired verbal short-term memory after a cerebral hemorrhage in the opercular part of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6) and the adjacent postcentral gyrus. The patient showed phonemic paragraphia in five-character kana nonword writing, minimal acalculia, and reduced digit and letter span. Mental arithmetic normalized after 8 months and agraphia recovered to the normal range at 1 year after onset, in parallel with an improvement of the auditory letter span score from 4 to 6 over a period of 14 months and in the digit span score from 6 to 7 over 24 months...
January 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677346/reduced-functional-and-anatomic-interhemispheric-homotopic-connectivity-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-a-combined-resting-state-fmri-and-dti-study
#3
Qian Wang, Weiwei Chen, Huaizhou Wang, Xun Zhang, Xiaoxia Qu, Ying Wang, Ting Li, Ningli Wang, Junfang Xian
Purpose: To investigate if abnormal interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity were accompanied by corresponding anatomic connectivity changes in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients, and to relate connectivity changes with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed in 16 POAG patients and 19 healthy controls...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675389/altered-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-primary-visual-cortex-in-youth-patients-with-comitant-exotropia-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#4
Pei-Wen Zhu, Xin Huang, Lei Ye, Nan Jiang, Yu-Lin Zhong, Qing Yuan, Fu-Qing Zhou, Yi Shao
AIM: To evaluate the differences in the functional connectivity (FC) of the primary visual cortex (V1) between the youth comitant exotropia (CE) patients and health subjects using resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. METHODS: Totally, 32 CEs (25 males and 7 females) and 32 healthy control subjects (HCs) (25 males and 7 females) were enrolled in the study and underwent the MRI scanning. Two-sample t -test was used to examine differences in FC maps between the CE patients and HCs...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674416/altered-white-matter-microstructure-in-the-corpus-callosum-and-its-cerebral-interhemispheric-tracts-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-diffusion-tensor-imaging-analysis
#5
C Xue, L Shi, S C N Hui, D Wang, T P Lam, C-B Ip, B K W Ng, J C Y Cheng, W C W Chu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neural system was one of the important contributors to the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; additionally, the morphology of corpus callosum interconnecting both hemispheres of the brain was found to be altered morphologically. Our aim was to evaluate and compare the microstructural changes of the corpus callosum and its interhemispheric white matter fiber tracts interconnecting both cerebral hemispheres in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging...
April 19, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656270/reduced-integrity-of-the-uncinate-fasciculus-and-cingulum-in-depression-a-stem-by-stem-analysis
#6
Kartik D Bhatia, Luke A Henderson, Eugene Hsu, Mark Yim
INTRODUCTION: The subgenual cingulate gyrus (Brodmann's Area 25: BA25) is hypermetabolic in depression and has been targeted successfully with deep brain stimulation. Two of the white matter tracts that play a role in treatment response are the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the cingulum bundle. The UF has three prefrontal stems, the most medial of which extends from BA25 (which deals with mood regulation) and the most lateral of which extends from the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (concerned with executive function)...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644436/the-neural-effects-of-positively-and-negatively-re-experiencing-mental-fatigue-sensation-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#7
Akira Ishii, Takuya Ishizuka, Yuki Muta, Masaaki Tanaka, Emi Yamano, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Fatigue sensation is an essential biological alarm that urges us to take rest to avoid disrupting homeostasis and thus plays an important role in maintaining well-being. However, there are situations in which the anticipation of unpleasant fatigue sensation undesirably reduces motivation for activity. The aim of this study was to examine whether thinking positively about the fatigue sensation would increase motivation to accomplish the workload. Fourteen healthy male volunteers participated in this study and performed a two-back test for 30 min to induce mental fatigue sensation...
April 11, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628287/questions-and-answers-on-diagnosis-and-management-of-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-diseases-a-companion-document-of-the-2017-esc-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-peripheral-arterial-diseases-in-collaboration-with-the-european-society-for-vascular
#8
Authors/Task Force Members, Victor Aboyans, Martin Björck, Marianne Brodmann, Jean-Philippe Collet, Martin Czerny, Marco De Carlo, A Ross Naylor, Marco Roffi, Michal Tendera, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Jean-Baptiste Ricco, Document Reviewers, Petr Widimsky, Philippe Kolh, Florian Dick, Melina Vega de Ceniga, Massimo Francesco Piepoli, Horst Sievert, Jakub Sulzenko, Esc Committee For Practice Guidelines Cpg, Stephan Windecker, Victor Aboyans, Stefan Agewall, Emanuele Barbato, Héctor Bueno, Antonio Coca, Jean-Philippe Collet, Ioan Mircea Coman, Veronica Dean, Victoria Delgado, Donna Fitzsimons, Oliver Gaemperli, Gerhard Hindricks, Bernard Iung, Peter Jüni, Hugo A Katus, Juhani Knuuti, Patrizio Lancellotti, Christophe Leclercq, Theresa McDonagh, Massimo Francesco Piepoli, Piotr Ponikowski, Dimitrios J Richter, Marco Roffi, Evgeny Shlyakhto, Iain A Simpson, Jose Luis Zamorano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624658/primary-visual-cortex-in-neandertals-as-revealed-from-the-occipital-remains-from-the-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-site-with-emphasis-on-the-new-sd-2300-specimen
#9
Antonio García-Tabernero, Angel Peña-Melián, Antonio Rosas
The comparative analysis of the endocranial surface of the El Sidrón new occipital fragment SD-2300 shows meaningful differences in the configuration of the occipital pole region between neandertals and anatomically modern humans (AMH). The particular asymmetries found in neandertals in the venous sinus drainage and the petalial patterns are recognizable in this new specimen as well. In addition, the supra- and infracalcarine fossae of the occipital pole region appear to deviate obliquely from the mid-line when compared with sapiens...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621179/the-validity-of-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-recordings-of-visuospatial-working-memory-processes-in-humans
#10
Joëlle S Witmer, Eva A Aeschlimann, Andreas J Metz, Stefan J Troche, Thomas H Rammsayer
Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is increasingly used for investigating cognitive processes. To provide converging evidence for the validity of fNIRS recordings in cognitive neuroscience, we investigated functional activation in the frontal cortex in 43 participants during the processing of a visuospatial working memory (WM) task and a sensory duration discrimination (DD) task functionally unrelated to WM. To distinguish WM-related processes from a general effect of increased task demand, we applied an adaptive approach, which ensured that subjective task demand was virtually identical for all individuals and across both tasks...
April 5, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615111/metabolic-correlates-of-reserve-and-resilience-in-mci-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#11
Matteo Bauckneht, Andrea Chincarini, Roberta Piva, Dario Arnaldi, Nicola Girtler, Federico Massa, Matteo Pardini, Matteo Grazzini, Hulya Efeturk, Marco Pagani, Gianmario Sambuceti, Flavio Nobili, Silvia Morbelli
BACKGROUND: We explored the presence of both reserve and resilience in late-converter mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) and in patients with slowly progressing amyloid-positive MCI by assessing the topography and extent of neurodegeneration with respect to both "aggressive" and typically progressing phenotypes and in the whole group of patients with MCI, grounding the stratification on education level. METHODS: We analyzed 94 patients with MCI-AD followed until conversion to dementia and 39 patients with MCI who had brain amyloidosis (AMY+ MCI), all with available baseline18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) results...
April 3, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611255/translational-validity-of-pasat-and-the-effect-of-fatigue-and-mood-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-ms-a-functional-mri-study
#12
Dessislava Iancheva, Anastasiya G Trenova, Kiril Terziyski, Sevdalina Kandilarova, Stefka Mantarova
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is used for assessment of information processing speed, attention, and working memory, which are the most frequently affected cognitive domains in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and may be significantly affected by fatigue. However, the effect of fatigue and mood on the PASAT performance in MS patients translationally validated by fMRI has not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the translational validity of the PASAT, using fMRI during a paced visual serial addition test (PVSAT) paradigm in patients with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and to assess the impact of fatigue and mood on test performance...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596018/the-star-data-reporting-guidelines-for-clinical-high-altitude-research
#13
Monika Brodmann Maeder, Hermann Brugger, Matiram Pun, Giacomo Strapazzon, Tomas Dal Cappello, Marco Maggiorini, Peter Hackett, Peter Bärtsch, Erik R Swenson, Ken Zafren
Brodmann Maeder, Monika, Hermann Brugger, Matiram Pun, Giacomo Strapazzon, Tomas Dal Cappello, Marco Maggiorini, Peter Hackett, Peter Baärtsch, Erik R. Swenson, Ken Zafren (STAR Core Group), and the STAR Delphi Expert Group. The STARdata reporting guidelines for clinical high altitude research. High AltMedBiol. 19:7-14, 2018. AIMS: The goal of the STAR (STrengthening Altitude Research) initiative was to produce a uniform set of key elements for research and reporting in clinical high-altitude (HA) medicine...
March 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573541/treatment-of-infrapopliteal-post-pta-dissection-with-tack-implants-12-month-results-from-the-toba-btk-study
#14
Marianne Brodmann, Christian Wissgott, Andrew Holden, Robert Staffa, Thomas Zeller, Thodur Vasudevan, Peter Schneider
OBJECTIVES: The Tack implant is designed for focal, minimal metal management of dissections. This study evaluated Tacks for treating postpercutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) dissection in patients with below-the-knee (BTK) arterial occlusive disease. BACKGROUND: PTA is the most commonly used endovascular treatment for patients with occlusive disease of the BTK vessels. Post-PTA dissection is a significant clinical problem that results in poor outcomes, but currently there are limited treatment options for managing dissections...
March 24, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572659/reduced-oligodendrocyte-density-in-layer-5-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia
#15
Natalya S Kolomeets, Natalya A Uranova
Neuroimaging and post-mortem studies have implicated altered myelin integrity and oligodendrocyte abnormalities in the dysfunction of neuronal network in schizophrenia, including the prefrontal cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 10. Pyramidal neurons in layer 5 of BA10 are the important link of reciprocal frontal cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits altered in schizophrenia. Previously, we found ultrastructural dystrophic and degenerative alterations of oligodendrocytes in layer 5 of BA10 in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to estimate the numerical density (Nv) of oligodendrocytes in layer 5 of BA10 in schizophrenia as compared to normal controls...
March 23, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571872/alterations-of-regional-homogeneity-in-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Caihong Zhou, Xiaoling Zhong, Yongzhe Yang, Wanqun Yang, Lijuan Wang, Yuhu Zhang, Kun Nie, Jianmin Xu, Biao Huang
INTRODUCTION: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a serious complication in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and is more common in the late state of the disease. The high risk of falling in patients with FOG impacts their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To explore altered neuroactivity related to cognitive and executive function of PD patients with FOG. METHODS: Fourteen PD patients with FOG (FOG+), 20 PD patients without FOG (FOG-), and 18 normal controls (NC) were enrolled...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564025/decoding-the-different-states-of-visual-attention-using-functional-and-effective-connectivity-features-in-fmri-data
#17
Behdad Parhizi, Mohammad Reza Daliri, Mehdi Behroozi
The present paper concentrates on the impact of visual attention task on structure of the brain functional and effective connectivity networks using coherence and Granger causality methods. Since most studies used correlation method and resting-state functional connectivity, the task-based approach was selected for this experiment to boost our knowledge of spatial and feature-based attention. In the present study, the whole brain was divided into 82 sub-regions based on Brodmann areas. The coherence and Granger causality were applied to construct functional and effective connectivity matrices...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562505/voxel-based-acetylcholinesterase-pet-study-in-early-and-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Shigeki Hirano, Hitoshi Shinotoh, Hitoshi Shimada, Tsuneyoshi Ota, Koichi Sato, Noriko Tanaka, Ming-Rong Zhang, Makoto Higuchi, Kiyoshi Fukushi, Toshiaki Irie, Satoshi Kuwabara, Tetsuya Suhara
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by chronic progressive cognitive decline and displays underlying brain cholinergic dysfunction, providing a rationale for treatment with cholinomimetic medication. The clinical presentations and courses of AD patients may differ by age of onset. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to illustrate the regional differences of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as quantified by N-[11C]methylpiperidinyl-4-acetate ([11C]MP4A) and PET using parametric whole brain analysis and clarify those differences as a function of age...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559930/working-memory-modulates-glutamate-levels-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-during-1-h-fmrs
#19
Eric A Woodcock, Chaitali Anand, Dalal Khatib, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Jeffrey A Stanley
Glutamate is involved in excitatory neurotransmission and metabolic processes related to brain function. Previous studies using proton functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H fMRS) have demonstrated elevated cortical glutamate levels by 2-4% during visual and motor stimulation, relative to periods of no stimulation. Here, we extended this approach to working memory cognitive task performance, which has been consistently associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activation. Sixteen healthy adult volunteers completed a continuous visual fixation "rest" task followed by a letter 2-back working memory task during1 H fMRS acquisition of the left dlPFC, which encompassed Brodmann areas 45 and 46 over a 4...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548020/alterations-in-cortical-thickness-and-subcortical-volume-are-associated-with-neurological-symptoms-and-neck-pain-in-patients-with-cervical-spondylosis
#20
Davis C Woodworth, Langston T Holly, Emeran A Mayer, Noriko Salamon, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Advanced cervical spondylosis (CS) can cause structural damage to the spinal cord resulting in long-term neurological impairment including neck pain and motor weakness. We hypothesized long-term structural reorganization within the brain in patients with CS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, neurological symptoms, and pain severity in CS patients with or without myelopathy and healthy controls (HCs)...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
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