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Trail running

Silje Eikanger Kvalø, Edvin Bru, Kolbjørn Brønnick, Sindre M Dyrstad
This study seeks to explore if increased PA in school affects children's executive function and aerobic fitness. The "Active school" study was a 10-month randomized controlled trial. The sample included 449 children (10-11 years old) in five intervention and four control schools. The weekly interventions were 2x45 min physically active academic lessons, 5x10 min physically active breaks and 5x10 min physically active homework. Aerobic fitness was measured using a 10-min interval running test. Executive function was tested using four cognitive tests (Stroop, verbal fluency, digit span and Trail Making)...
February 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Emanuel Andrada, Roy Müller, Reinhard Blickhan
As an alternative to walking and running, humans are able to skip. However, adult humans avoid it. This fact seems to be related to the higher energetic costs associated with skipping. Still, children, some birds, lemurs and lizards use skipping gaits during daily locomotion. We combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations to test whether stability and robustness motivate this choice. Parameters for modelling were obtained from 10 male subjects. They locomoted using unilateral skipping along a 12 m runway...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Ernest Baiget, Javier Peña, Xantal Borràs, Toni Caparrós, José L López, Francesc Marin, Jordi Coma, Eduard Comerma
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were (a) to examine the effects of a trail mountain race (TMR) on hydration status and neuromuscular performance of recreational trail runners and (b) to determine the relationship among these parameters, subject's characteristics and competitive performance. METHODS: 35 male recreational trail runners (age, 38.1 ± 9.5 years; height, 177.3 ± 5.8 cm; body mass, 73.8 ± 8.4 kg; mean ± SD) were assessed before and after a 21.1 km TMR...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Nicholas D McIntosh, Thomas D Love, Jillian Haszard, Hamish Osborne, Katherine E Black
Pre-season is characterized by high training volumes with short recovery periods β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been postulated to assist with recovery. HMB has been shown to improve strength and body composition amongst untrained groups the benefits of HMB amongst trained populations are unclear due to the methodologies employed. This randomized control trail determined the effects of 11 weeks HMB supplementation on body mass and performance measures in 27 elite rugby players. HMB group (n=13) mean±SD age 20...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Hugo A Kerhervé, Tom Cole-Hunter, Aaron N Wiegand, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: The dynamics of speed selection as a function of distance, or pacing, are used in recreational, competitive, and scientific research situations as an indirect measure of the psycho-physiological status of an individual. The purpose of this study was to determine pacing on level, uphill and downhill sections of participants in a long (>80 km) ultramarathon performed on trails in hilly terrain. METHODS: Fifteen ultramarathon runners competed in a  173 km event (five finished at  103 km) carrying a Global-Positioning System (GPS) device...
2016: PeerJ
Hannelore Boey, Jeroen Aeles, Kurt Schütte, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Research has focused on parameters that are associated with injury risk, e.g. vertical acceleration. These parameters can be influenced by running on different surfaces or at different running speeds, but the relationship between them is not completely clear. Understanding the relationship may result in training guidelines to reduce the injury risk. In this study, thirty-five participants with three different levels of running experience were recruited. Participants ran on three different surfaces (concrete, synthetic running track, and woodchip trail) at two different running speeds: a self-selected comfortable speed and a fixed speed of 3...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Maria Sanz-de la Garza, Gonzalo Grazioli, Bart H Bijnens, Sebastian I Sarvari, Eduard Guasch, Carolina Pajuelo, Daniel Brotons, Enric Subirats, Ramon Brugada, Emma Roca, Marta Sitges
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to understand and characterize the acute atrial response to endurance exercise and the influence of the amount of exercise performed. BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise seems to be recognized as a risk factor for developing atrial arrhythmia. Atrial geometrical and functional remodeling may be the underlying substrate. METHODS: Echocardiography was performed in 55 healthy adults at baseline and after a 3-stage trail race: a short race (S) (14 km), n = 17; a medium race (M) (35 km), n = 21; and a long race (L) (56 km), n = 17...
December 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Roxanne J Larsen, William H Jackson, Daniel Schmitt
The ability to run across uneven terrain with continuous stable movement is critical to the safety and efficiency of a runner. Successful step-to-step stabilization while running may be mediated by minor adjustments to a few key parameters (e.g., leg stiffness, step length, foot strike pattern). However, it is not known to what degree runners in relatively natural settings (e.g., trails, paved road, curbs) use the same strategies across multiple steps. This study investigates how three readily measurable running parameters - step length, foot placement, and foot strike pattern - are adjusted in response to encountering a typical urban obstacle - a sidewalk curb...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Dennis-Peter Born, Thomas Stöggl, Mikael Swarén, Glenn Björklund
PURPOSE: To 1) investigate the cardiorespiratory and metabolic response of trail running and 2) evaluate whether heart rate (HR) adequately reflects the exercise intensity or whether the tissue saturation index (TSI) could provide a more accurate measure when running in hilly terrain. METHODS: Seventeen competitive runners (female: n=4, V'O2max: 55±6 mL·kg-1·min-1; male: n=13, V'O2max: 68±6 mL·kg-1·min-1) performed a time trial on an off-road trail course...
July 11, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Tessa L Koschel, Jacob Manning, Debra Tacad, Jeffrey Montes, Tanner Elizabeth, Damon McCune, Ashley Tovar, Julie Taylor, John Young, Mark DeBeliso, James Navalta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Elizabeth Tanner, Jacob W Manning, Julie Taylor, Jeffrey Montes, Damon McCune, Tessa Koschel, Debra K Tacad, Ashley Tovar, John C Young, Mark DeBeliso, James W Navalta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Catherine A Hambleton, Jake A Deckert, Philip M Gallagher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Debra K Tacad, Jacob W Manning, Jeffery Montes, Elizabeth Tanner, Damon McCune, Tessa Koschel, Ashley Tovar, Julie Taylor, James W Navalta, Mark DeBeliso, John C Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kurt H Schütte, Jeroen Aeles, Tim Op De Beéck, Babette C van der Zwaard, Rachel Venter, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Despite frequently declared benefits of using wireless accelerometers to assess running gait in real-world settings, available research is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate outdoor surface effects on dynamic stability and dynamic loading during running using tri-axial trunk accelerometry. Twenty eight runners (11 highly-trained, 17 recreational) performed outdoor running on three outdoor training surfaces (concrete road, synthetic track and woodchip trail) at self-selected comfortable running speeds...
July 2016: Gait & Posture
M Giandolini, N Horvais, J Rossi, G Y Millet, J-B Morin, P Samozino
Minimizing musculo-skeletal damage and fatigue is considered paramount for performance in trail running. Our purposes were to investigate the effects of the foot strike pattern and its variability on (a) muscle activity during a downhill trail run and (b) immediate and delayed neuromuscular fatigue. Twenty-three runners performed a 6.5-km run (1264 m of negative elevation change). Electromyographic activity of lower-limb muscles was recorded continuously. Heel and metatarsal accelerations were recorded to identify the running technique...
June 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Fabrice Vercruyssen, Marcus Tartaruga, Nicolas Horvais, Jeanick Brisswalter
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of footwear and neuromuscular fatigue induced by short distance trail running (TR) on running economy (RE) and biomechanics in well-trained and traditionally shod runners. METHODS: RE, vertical and leg stiffness (Kvert and Kleg), as well as foot strike angle were measured from two 5-min treadmill running stages performed at a speed of 2.5 (with 10% grade, uphill running) and 2.77 m·s (level running) before and after an 18...
October 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Florian Azad Engel, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Billy Sperlich
BACKGROUND: Runners at various levels of performance and specializing in different events (from 800 m to marathons) wear compression socks, sleeves, shorts, and/or tights in attempt to improve their performance and facilitate recovery. Recently, a number of publications reporting contradictory results with regard to the influence of compression garments in this context have appeared. OBJECTIVES: To assess original research on the effects of compression clothing (socks, calf sleeves, shorts, and tights) on running performance and recovery...
December 2016: Sports Medicine
Marlene Giandolini, Nicolas Horvais, Jérémy Rossi, Guillaume Y Millet, Pierre Samozino, Jean-Benoît Morin
Trail runners are exposed to a high number of shocks, including high-intensity shocks on downhill sections leading to greater risk of osseous overuse injury. The type of foot strike pattern (FSP) is known to influence impact severity and lower-limb kinematics. Our purpose was to investigate the influence of FSP on axial and transverse components of shock acceleration and attenuation during an intense downhill trail run (DTR). Twenty-three trail runners performed a 6.5-km DTR (1264m of negative elevation change) as fast as possible...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Fabrice Vercruyssen, Mathieu Gruet, Serge S Colson, Sabine Ehrstrom, Jeanick Brisswalter
BACKGROUND: Physiological mechanisms behind the use of compression garments (CGs) during off-road running are unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of wearing CGs vs conventional running clothing (CON) on muscle contractile function and running economy before and after short-distance trail running. METHODS: Knee-extensor neuromuscular function and running economy assessed from two 5-min treadmill runs (11 and 14 km/h) were evaluated before and after an 18...
January 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Philip von Rosen, Annette I-L M Heijne, Anna Frohm
CONTEXT: In orienteering, the number of injury-registration studies is limited. Most researchers have used a cross-sectional design during specific events and, therefore, have mainly identified acute injuries. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of injuries by registering acute and overuse injuries in adolescent elite orienteerers over 26 weeks and to study the variation of injury prevalence over the season and the potential risk factors. DESIGN: Cohort study...
April 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
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