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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626333/peripheral-circulation-indicators-in-veteran-trail-runners
#1
Alexander Bolotin, Vladislav Bakayev
[Purpose] Competitive sport places strict demands on the cardiovascular systems of veteran trail runners. Our research objective was to evaluate the dynamics of microcirculation parameters of veteran runners in hypoxic and mid-altitude conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Seven male runners from Russia and Italy between the ages of 50 and 60 years were examined whilst competing at mid-altitude (1,500-2,000 m above sea level). The same runners were examined in a simulated mid-altitude hypoxic environment, which was a hypoxic chamber with 16% oxygen concentration, for 720 minutes...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588454/reelin-signaling-inactivates-cofilin-to-stabilize-the-cytoskeleton-of-migrating-cortical-neurons
#2
REVIEW
Michael Frotscher, Shanting Zhao, Shaobo Wang, Xuejun Chai
Neurons are highly polarized cells. They give rise to several dendrites but only one axon. In addition, many neurons show a preferred orientation. For example, pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex extend their apical dendrites toward the cortical surface while their axons run in opposite direction toward the white matter. This characteristic orientation reflects the migratory trajectory of a pyramidal cell during cortical development: the leading process (the future apical dendrite) extends toward the marginal zone (MZ) and the trailing process (the future axon) toward the intermediate zone (IZ) while the cells migrate radially to reach their destination in the cortical plate (CP)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529384/the-pelskin-project-part-v-towards-the-control-of-the-flow-around-aerofoils-at-high-angle-of-attack-using-a-self-activated-deployable-flap
#3
Marco E Rosti, Laura Kamps, Christoph Bruecker, Mohammad Omidyeganeh, Alfredo Pinelli
During the flight of birds, it is often possible to notice that some of the primaries and covert feathers on the upper side of the wing pop-up under critical flight conditions, such as the landing approach or when stalking their prey (see Fig. 1) . It is often conjectured that the feathers pop up plays an aerodynamic role by limiting the spread of flow separation . A combined experimental and numerical study was conducted to shed some light on the physical mechanism determining the feathers self actuation and their effective role in controlling the flow field in nominally stalled conditions...
2017: Meccanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496411/calf-compression-sleeves-change-biomechanics-but-not-performance-and-physiological-responses-in-trail-running
#4
Hugo A Kerhervé, Pierre Samozino, Fabrice Descombe, Matthieu Pinay, Guillaume Y Millet, Marion Pasqualini, Thomas Rupp
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS) affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min) outdoor trail running. Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain) wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg) or control sleeves (CON, <4 mmHg)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454909/asymmetric-interlimb-role-sharing-in-mechanical-power-during-human-sideways-locomotion
#5
Daichi Yamashita, Keisuke Fujii, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Tadao Isaka, Motoki Kouzaki
Sideways movement at a wide variety of speeds is required in daily life and sports. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of asymmetry in power output between lower limbs during sideways gait patterns. Seven healthy men performed steady-state sideways locomotion at various speeds. The mechanical external power of each limb was calculated and decomposed to the lateral and vertical components by the center of mass velocity and ground reaction force. We acquired data from 126 steps of sideways walking at 0...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362866/thoraco-abdominal-coordination-and-performance-during-uphill-running-at-altitude
#6
Eva Bernardi, Lorenza Pratali, Gaia Mandolesi, Maria Spiridonova, Giulio Sergio Roi, Annalisa Cogo
INTRODUCTION: Running races on mountain trails at moderate-high altitude with large elevation changes throughout has become increasingly popular. During exercise at altitude, ventilatory demands increase due to the combined effects of exercise and hypoxia. AIM: To investigate the relationships between thoraco-abdominal coordination, ventilatory pattern, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and endurance performance in runners during high-intensity uphill exercise. METHODS: Fifteen participants (13 males, mean age 42±9 yrs) ran a "Vertical Kilometer," i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322630/energy-macronutrient-and-water-intake-during-a-mountain-ultramarathon-event-the-influence-of-distance
#7
Sonia Martinez, Antoni Aguilo, Lluis Rodas, Leticia Lozano, Carlos Moreno, Pedro Tauler
Adequate dietary strategies are essential for the successful participation in ultra-endurance races. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the energy and water intakes of participants during three different mountain ultra-endurance runs. The study took place at the "Ultra Mallorca Serra de Tramuntana" (Mallorca, Spain), an ultra-endurance mountain event with runners participating either in a 44-km (Marathon, n = 51), a 67-km (Trail, n = 109) or a 112-km (Ultra, n = 53) run competition. Participants in the study answered a questionnaire focused on the nutritional intake within an hour after finishing the competition...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288103/reproducibility-of-computational-workflows-is-automated-using-continuous-analysis
#8
Brett K Beaulieu-Jones, Casey S Greene
Replication, validation and extension of experiments are crucial for scientific progress. Computational experiments are scriptable and should be easy to reproduce. However, computational analyses are designed and run in a specific computing environment, which may be difficult or impossible to match using written instructions. We report the development of continuous analysis, a workflow that enables reproducible computational analyses. Continuous analysis combines Docker, a container technology akin to virtual machines, with continuous integration, a software development technique, to automatically rerun a computational analysis whenever updates or improvements are made to source code or data...
April 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282421/comparison-of-vitality-states-of-finishers-and-withdrawers-in-trail-running-an-enactive-and-phenomenological-perspective
#9
Nadège Rochat, Denis Hauw, Roberta Antonini Philippe, Fabienne Crettaz von Roten, Ludovic Seifert
Studies on ultra-endurance suggest that during the races, athletes typically experience three vitality states (i.e., preservation, loss, and revival) at the phenomenological level. Nevertheless, how these states contribute to the management and outcome of performance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how the vitality states experienced by runners and their evolution during a trail race can be used to distinguish finishers from withdrawers. From an enactive and phenomenological framework, we processed enactive interviews and blog posts of race narratives...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243220/executive-function-is-selectively-impaired-in-old-age-bipolar-depression
#10
Leonardo Caixeta, Vânia L D Soares, Renata T Vieira, Cândida D Soares, Victor Caixeta, Sandra B Ferreira, Tales A Aversi-Ferreira
Background: Little is known about the cognitive signature of bipolar disorder (BD) in elderly brains. The neuropsychological features of depressive elderly with early-onset BD are largely unknown. This issue is relevant because cognitive impairment can produce an additional impact on the already compromised functionality of elderly with BD. The aim of this study is to assess executive functions (EFs) in the depressive phase of elderly outpatients with early-onset BD. Methods: Forty-nine elderly outpatients with early-onset BD were assessed with several neuropsychological tests for EF in the depressive phase of the disorder...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241018/designing-coastal-conservation-to-deliver-ecosystem-and-human-well-being-benefits
#11
Gust M Annis, Douglas R Pearsall, Katherine J Kahl, Erika L Washburn, Christopher A May, Rachael Franks Taylor, James B Cole, David N Ewert, Edward T Game, Patrick J Doran
Conservation scientists increasingly recognize that incorporating human values into conservation planning increases the chances for success by garnering broader project acceptance. However, methods for defining quantitative targets for the spatial representation of human well-being priorities are less developed. In this study we employ an approach for identifying regionally important human values and establishing specific spatial targets for their representation based on stakeholder outreach. Our primary objective was to develop a spatially-explicit conservation plan that identifies the most efficient locations for conservation actions to meet ecological goals while sustaining or enhancing human well-being values within the coastal and nearshore areas of the western Lake Erie basin (WLEB)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207976/does-increased-physical-activity-in-school-affect-children-s-executive-function-and-aerobic-fitness
#12
Silje Eikanger Kvalø, Edvin Bru, Kolbjørn Brønnick, Sindre M Dyrstad
This study seeks to explore if increased PA in school affects children's executive function and aerobic fitness. The "Active school" study was a 10-month randomized controlled trial. The sample included 449 children (10-11 years old) in five intervention and four control schools. The weekly interventions were 2x45 min physically active academic lessons, 5x10 min physically active breaks and 5x10 min physically active homework. Aerobic fitness was measured using a 10-min interval running test. Executive function was tested using four cognitive tests (Stroop, verbal fluency, digit span and Trail Making)...
February 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018651/stability-in-skipping-gaits
#13
Emanuel Andrada, Roy Müller, Reinhard Blickhan
As an alternative to walking and running, humans are able to skip. However, adult humans avoid it. This fact seems to be related to the higher energetic costs associated with skipping. Still, children, some birds, lemurs and lizards use skipping gaits during daily locomotion. We combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations to test whether stability and robustness motivate this choice. Parameters for modelling were obtained from 10 male subjects. They locomoted using unilateral skipping along a 12 m runway...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901340/effects-of-a-trail-mountain-race-on-neuromuscular-performance-and-hydration-status-in-trained-runners
#14
Ernest Baiget, Javier Peña, Xantal Borràs, Toni Caparrós, José L López, Francesc Marin, Jordi Coma, Eduard Comerma
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were (a) to examine the effects of a trail mountain race (TMR) on hydration status and neuromuscular performance of recreational trail runners and (b) to determine the relationship among these parameters, subject's characteristics and competitive performance. METHODS: 35 male recreational trail runners (age, 38.1 ± 9.5 years; height, 177.3 ± 5.8 cm; body mass, 73.8 ± 8.4 kg; mean ± SD) were assessed before and after a 21.1 km TMR...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820726/%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-hmb-supplementation-effects-on-body-mass-and-performance-in-elite-male-rugby-union-players
#15
Nicholas D McIntosh, Thomas D Love, Jillian Haszard, Hamish Osborne, Katherine E Black
Pre-season is characterized by high training volumes with short recovery periods β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been postulated to assist with recovery. HMB has been shown to improve strength and body composition amongst untrained groups the benefits of HMB amongst trained populations are unclear due to the methodologies employed. This randomized control trail determined the effects of 11 weeks HMB supplementation on body mass and performance measures in 27 elite rugby players. HMB group (n=13) mean±SD age 20...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812406/pacing-during-an-ultramarathon-running-event-in-hilly-terrain
#16
Hugo A Kerhervé, Tom Cole-Hunter, Aaron N Wiegand, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: The dynamics of speed selection as a function of distance, or pacing, are used in recreational, competitive, and scientific research situations as an indirect measure of the psycho-physiological status of an individual. The purpose of this study was to determine pacing on level, uphill and downhill sections of participants in a long (>80 km) ultramarathon performed on trails in hilly terrain. METHODS: Fifteen ultramarathon runners competed in a  173 km event (five finished at  103 km) carrying a Global-Positioning System (GPS) device...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595311/the-effect-of-three-surface-conditions-speed-and-running-experience-on-vertical-acceleration-of-the-tibia-during-running
#17
Hannelore Boey, Jeroen Aeles, Kurt Schütte, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Research has focused on parameters that are associated with injury risk, e.g. vertical acceleration. These parameters can be influenced by running on different surfaces or at different running speeds, but the relationship between them is not completely clear. Understanding the relationship may result in training guidelines to reduce the injury risk. In this study, thirty-five participants with three different levels of running experience were recruited. Participants ran on three different surfaces (concrete, synthetic running track, and woodchip trail) at two different running speeds: a self-selected comfortable speed and a fixed speed of 3...
June 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544898/acute-exercise-dose-dependent-impairment-in-atrial-performance-during%C3%A2-an-endurance-race-2d-ultrasound-speckle-tracking-strain%C3%A2-analysis
#18
Maria Sanz-de la Garza, Gonzalo Grazioli, Bart H Bijnens, Sebastian I Sarvari, Eduard Guasch, Carolina Pajuelo, Daniel Brotons, Enric Subirats, Ramon Brugada, Emma Roca, Marta Sitges
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to understand and characterize the acute atrial response to endurance exercise and the influence of the amount of exercise performed. BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise seems to be recognized as a risk factor for developing atrial arrhythmia. Atrial geometrical and functional remodeling may be the underlying substrate. METHODS: Echocardiography was performed in 55 healthy adults at baseline and after a 3-stage trail race: a short race (S) (14 km), n = 17; a medium race (M) (35 km), n = 21; and a long race (L) (56 km), n = 17...
December 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423264/mechanisms-for-regulating-step-length-while-running-towards-and-over-an-obstacle
#19
Roxanne J Larsen, William H Jackson, Daniel Schmitt
The ability to run across uneven terrain with continuous stable movement is critical to the safety and efficiency of a runner. Successful step-to-step stabilization while running may be mediated by minor adjustments to a few key parameters (e.g., leg stiffness, step length, foot strike pattern). However, it is not known to what degree runners in relatively natural settings (e.g., trails, paved road, curbs) use the same strategies across multiple steps. This study investigates how three readily measurable running parameters - step length, foot placement, and foot strike pattern - are adjusted in response to encountering a typical urban obstacle - a sidewalk curb...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396389/near-infrared-spectroscopy-more-accurate-than-heart-rate-for-monitoring-intensity-in-running-in-hilly-terrain
#20
Dennis-Peter Born, Thomas Stöggl, Mikael Swarén, Glenn Björklund
PURPOSE: To investigate the cardiorespiratory and metabolic response of trail running and evaluate whether heart rate (HR) adequately reflects the exercise intensity or if the tissue-saturation index (TSI) could provide a more accurate measure during running in hilly terrain. METHODS: Seventeen competitive runners (4 women, V̇O2max, 55 ± 6 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1); 13 men, V̇O2max, 68 ± 6 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) performed a time trial on an off-road trail course...
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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