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Stuart K Gardiner, Steven L Mansberger
Purpose: We have previously shown that sensitivities obtained at severely damaged visual field locations (<15-19 dB) are unreliable and highly variable. This study evaluates a testing algorithm that does not present very high contrast stimuli in damaged locations above approximately 1000% contrast, but instead concentrates on more precise estimation at remaining locations. Methods: A trained ophthalmic technician tested 36 eyes of 36 participants twice with each of two different testing algorithms: ZEST0, which allowed sensitivities within the range 0 to 35 dB, and ZEST15, which allowed sensitivities between 15 and 35 dB but was otherwise identical...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
P Abreu, K F Vitzel, I C C R Monteiro, T I Lima, A N Queiroz, J H Leal-Cardoso, S M Hirabara, V M Ceccatto
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
I A Välimäki, T Vuorimaa, M Ahotupa, T Vasankari
We studied the effects of different types of exercises on the concentrations of oxidised HDL (oxHDLlipids) and LDL lipids (oxLDLlipids), serum lipids, antioxidant potential, paraoxonase and malondialdehyde in endurance runners by performing both a 40-min continuous run (velocity corresponding to 80% VO2max) and a 40-min intermittent run (2-min run, velocity corresponding to 100% VO2max, and 2-min rest) using a treadmill. Blood samples were taken before exercise, after 20 and 40 min of exercise, and 15 and 90 min after the end of exercise...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Bo-Kyu Yang, Seung-Rim Yi, Young-Joon Ahn, Se-Hyuk Im, Sang-Hyun Park
Fatigue fracture of the pelvis is the form of fracture due to repetitive micro-stress accumulation, can be affected by a number of factors such as patient's nutritional status, biomechanics, social status and so on. Still there is no study about precise standard degree of external force that lead to stress fracture, but it may caused by compression force, traction force or complex force and others. Avulsion stress to ischial tuberosity or anterior superior iliac spine by attached muscle is known as the main factor for the avulsion fracture...
September 2016: Hip Pelvis
David W Templeton, Justin B Sluiter, Amie Sluiter, Courtney Payne, David P Crocker, Ling Tao, Ed Wolfrum
BACKGROUND: In an effort to find economical, carbon-neutral transportation fuels, biomass feedstock compositional analysis methods are used to monitor, compare, and improve biofuel conversion processes. These methods are empirical, and the analytical variability seen in the feedstock compositional data propagates into variability in the conversion yields, component balances, mass balances, and ultimately the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). We report the average composition and standard deviations of 119 individually extracted National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) bagasse [Reference Material (RM) 8491] run by seven analysts over 7 years...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Carme Perez-Quilis, Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Roman Leischik, Herbert Löllgen, Enrique Serrano-Ostáriz, Alejandro Lucia
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia, the risk of which typically increases with age. This condition is commonly associated with major cardiovascular diseases and structural heart damage, while it is rarely observed in healthy young people. However, increasing evidence indicates that paroxysmal AF can also onset in young or middle-aged and otherwise healthy endurance athletes (e.g., cyclists, runners and cross-country skiers). Here we review the topic of AF associated with strenuous endurance exercise (SEE), for example cycling, running and cross-country skiing, especially at a competitive level, and we propose the definition of a new syndrome based on the accumulating data in the literature: SEE-related AF under the acronym of 'PAFIYAMA' ('paroxysmal AF in young and middle-aged athletes')...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Shane Malone, Kieran Collins
Malone, S and Collins, K. Relationship between individualized training impulse and aerobic fitness measures in Hurling players across a training period. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3140-3145, 2016-The current study examined the association between individual internal training load (individualized training impulse, iTRIMP) and aerobic fitness variables in male hurling players. Twenty hurling players (age, 25.5 ± 3.2 years; height, 178.9 ± 3.2 cm; body mass, 78.5 ± 4.5 kg) performed treadmill testing for V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, running economy (RE), and the speed at blood lactate concentrations of 2 mmol·L (S2) and 4 mmol·L (S4) on separate occasions before and after an 8-week training period...
November 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ali Ghanchi
On Friday, November 13, 2015, Paris was subjected to a multiple terrorist attack that caused widespread carnage. Although French emergency planning, response, and resilience procedures (Plan Blanc) anticipated crisis management of a major incident, these had to be adapted to the local context of Pitié-Salpêtrière University Teaching Hospital. Health care workers had undergone Plan Blanc training and exercises and it was fortunate that such a drill had occurred on the morning of the attack. The procedures were observed to work well because this type of eventuality had been fully anticipated, and staff performance exceeded expectations owing to prior in-depth training and preparations...
October 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Sijie Tan, Cheng Chen, Mingyang Sui, Lunan Xue, Jianxiong Wang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of exercise training on body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness in 5-year-old obese and lean children. METHODS: 42 obese and 62 lean children were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups separately. Body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness were measured at baseline and the end of the intervention. The exercise groups participated in 10 weeks of supervised moderate intensity exercise training (at 50% of heart rate reserve), 50 training sessions in total...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Rabeea'h W Aslam, Vickie Bates, Yenal Dundar, Juliet Hounsome, Marty Richardson, Ashma Krishan, Rumona Dickson, Angela Boland, Eleanor Kotas, Joanne Fisher, Sudip Sikdar, Louise Robinson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a growing public health concern, and is one of the most distinctive characteristics of all dementias. The timely recognition of dementia syndromes can be beneficial, as some causes of dementia are treatable and are fully or partially reversible. Several automated cognitive assessment tools for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia are now available. Proponents of these tests cite as benefits the tests' repeatability and robustness and the saving of clinicians' time...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Vanessa Di Cataldo, Alain Géloën, Jean-Baptiste Langlois, Fabien Chauveau, Benoît Thézé, Violaine Hubert, Marlène Wiart, Erica N Chirico, Jennifer Rieusset, Hubert Vidal, Vincent Pialoux, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas
Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE(-/-) mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE(-/-) mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Rosario Scarfone, Antonio Ammendolia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological demands and technical-tactical performances of field players in Italian elite beach soccer team. METHODS: Three official matches of the Italian First Division beach soccer tournament were analyzed to evaluate the heart rate (HR) and time-motion analysis considering: standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting, and technical-tactical aspects. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of time on the physiological measures and time motion analysis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Joel S Steele, Jean M McMahon, Greg Stewart
Although studies often find racial disparities in policing outcomes, less is known about how suspect race biases police interactions as they unfold. This study examines what is differentially occurring during police-suspect interactions for White, Black, and Latino suspects across time. It is hypothesized that racial bias may be more evident earlier in interactions, when less information about the situation is available. One hundred thirty-nine (62 White, 42 Black, and 35 Latino) use-of-force case files and associated written narratives from a medium to large size urban police department in the United States were analyzed...
October 20, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Cory W Baumann, Dongmin Kwak
PURPOSE: Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood's oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation...
September 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Afshin Pourmokhtarian, Charles T Driscoll, John L Campbell, Katharine Hayhoe, Anne M K Stoner
Assessments of future climate change impacts on ecosystems typically rely on multiple climate model projections, but often utilize only one downscaling approach trained on one set of observations. Here, we explore the extent to which modeled biogeochemical responses to changing climate are affected by the selection of the climate downscaling method and training observations used at the montane landscape of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. We evaluated three downscaling methods: the delta method (or the change factor method), monthly quantile mapping (Bias Correction-Spatial Disaggregation, or BCSD), and daily quantile regression (Asynchronous Regional Regression Model, or ARRM)...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Peter Kokkinos
A plethora of evidence exists supporting that structured aerobic exercise or activities that increase cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) lower resting blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension (HTN). Relatively few studies have assessed the effects of anaerobic or resistance exercise on BP. Thus, its role in managing HTN is not defined. Also, possible risks related with exercise in hypertensive patients have not been adequately addressed.In addition to lowering BP, CRF attenuates the incidence of HTN. A substantial part of the age-related progression to HTN is not an inevitable outcome of aging as once thought, but a consequence of lifestyle characterized by high-fat/salt diets and physical inactivity...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Robert M Lystrup, Gordon F West, Cara Olsen, Matthew Ward, Mark B Stephens
INTRODUCTION: Physically active providers are more likely to prescribe exercise. Unfortunately, many become sedentary during their training. We examined pedometry as an incentive to promote physical activity in a cohort of medical students. METHODS: This was a prospective, unblinded clinical trial of pedometry. 107 preclinical medical students volunteered. 50 students received Fitbit pedometers and 57 served as controls. All students ran 1.5- or 2-mile timed runs before pedometer issue, and again 1 year after...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Leo Djaoui, Karim Chamari, Adam Owen, Alexandre Dellal
The aim of the present study was to compare 1) the maximal sprinting speed (MSS) attained by soccer players during matches (MSSmatch) according to their level of play (professional 1st French division vs. elite amateur 4th French division) and the playing positions; and 2) the MSS attained by professional soccer players during 14 different types of small-sided games (SSG, MSSSSG) and match-play. All players monitored through the study performed a 40-m sprint test to assess individual MSS (MSStest) and compare it to the training and match activity, with the calculation of the percentage of MSStest (%MSStest) reached...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Debbie Van Biesen, Florentina Hettinga, Katina McCulloch, Yves C Vanlandewijck
PURPOSE: To understand how athletes invest their energy over a race, differences in pacing ability between athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II) were explored using a novel field test. METHODS: Well-trained runners (n=67) participated in this study, including 34 runners with II (age = 24.4 ± 4.5 years; IQ = 63.1 ± 7.7) and 33 runners without II (age = 31.4 ± 11.2 years). The ability to perform at a pre-planned submaximal pace was assessed. Two 400m running trials were performed on an athletics track, with an individually standardized velocity...
October 5, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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