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Cardiovascular assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944931/basic-concepts-of-heart-lung-interactions-during-mechanical-ventilation
#1
Martin R Grübler, Olivier Wigger, David Berger, Stefan Blöchlinger
Critically ill patients with the need for mechanical ventilation show complex interactions between respiratory and cardiovascular physiology. These interactions are important as they may guide the clinician's therapeutic decisions and, possibly, affect patient outcome. The aim of the present review is to provide the practicing physician with an overview of the concepts of heart-lung interactions during mechanical ventilation. We outline the basic cardiac and respiratory physiology during spontaneous breathing and under mechanical ventilation...
September 25, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944873/coxsackieviruses-b3-infection-of-myocardial-microvascular-endothelial-cells-activates-fractalkine-via-the-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#2
Jili Wen, Congxin Huang
Infections by pathogens may lead to cardiovascular diseases, including acute/chronic myocarditis. (Coxsackieviruses B3) CVB3 is considered to be the most common causative agent in m‑yocarditis, which can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of CVB3‑infected myocardial microvascular endothelial cells. The CVB3 infection was detected by 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). The role of fractalkine (FKN) in the infection was detected using western blotting and RNA interference...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944108/the-association-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-chronic-medical-conditions-by-ethnicity
#3
Sarah E Valentine, Carrie J Nobles, Monica W Gerber, Adin Vaewsorn, Derri L Shtasel, Luana Marques
Our study extends the literature on associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic medical conditions by assessing differences in the magnitude of these relations by ethnicity. We examined group differences in the magnitude of the relation between PTSD and chronic medical conditions (cardiovascular disease [CVD], hypertension, obesity, diabetes). We obtained data from Latino (n = 3,224) and non-Latino white (n = 4,180) respondents from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys...
August 2017: Journal of Latina/o Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944098/the-role-of-vitamin-k-status-in-cardiovascular-health-evidence-from-observational-and-clinical-studies
#4
REVIEW
A J van Ballegooijen, J W Beulens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin required for the activation of several vitamin K-dependent proteins to confer functioning. A growing body of evidence supports that vitamin K has beneficial effects on bone and cardiovascular health. This review summarizes key evidence on vitamin K status as measured by circulating measures and cardiovascular outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall, observational studies indicate that low vitamin K status as measured by high dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix gla protein concentrations plays a potential role in cardiovascular disease development, particularly in high-risk and chronic kidney disease populations...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944059/biodegradable-porous-silk-microtubes-for-tissue-vascularization
#5
V E Bosio, J Brown, M J Rodriguez, David L Kaplan
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality around the globe, and microvasculature replacements to help stem these diseases are not available. Additionally, some vascular surgeries needing small diameter vascular grafts present different performance requirements. In this work silk fibroin scaffolds based on silk/polyethylene oxide blends were developed as microtubes for vasculature needs and for different tissue regeneration times, mechanical properties and structural designs. Systems with 13, 14 and 15% silk alone or blended with 1 or 2% of polyethylene oxide (PEO) were used to generate porous microtubes using gel-spinning...
2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943594/effect-of-rosuvastatin-on-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-and-endothelial-function-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-dyslipidemia
#6
Kyong Yeun Jung, Kyoung Min Kim, Sun Kyoung Han, Han Mi Yun, Tae Jung Oh, Sung Hee Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Soo Lim
BACKGROUND: Quality and quantity of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may be associated with cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effect of rosuvastatin on cholesterol efflux (CE) for HDL function and vascular health.Methods and Results:We enrolled 30 dyslipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 20 healthy subjects as controls. Vascular health was assessed on flow-medicated dilation (FMD), nitroglycerin-induced dilatation of the brachial artery and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT)...
September 22, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943378/predicted-burden-could-replace-predicted-risk-in-preventive-strategies-for-cardiovascular-disease
#7
G R Lagerweij, G A de Wit, K G M Moons, W M M Verschuren, J Boer, H Koffijberg
OBJECTIVES: To explore the extent of the differences in definitions of composite endpoints and assess how these differences influence estimates of CVD burden. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: s: Data from a Dutch cohort study (n=19484) were used to calculate 10-year risks according to four CVD risk prediction models: ATP-III, Framingham (FRS), Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) and SCORE. Health loss was estimated based on the impact of event types included in the corresponding composite endpoints...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943267/the-effect-of-physical-activity-on-mortality-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-130%C3%A2-000-people-from-17-high-income-middle-income-and-low-income-countries-the-pure-study
#8
Scott A Lear, Weihong Hu, Sumathy Rangarajan, Danijela Gasevic, Darryl Leong, Romaina Iqbal, Amparo Casanova, Sumathi Swaminathan, R M Anjana, Rajesh Kumar, Annika Rosengren, Li Wei, Wang Yang, Wang Chuangshi, Liu Huaxing, Sanjeev Nair, Rafael Diaz, Hany Swidon, Rajeev Gupta, Noushin Mohammadifard, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Aytekin Oguz, Katarzyna Zatonska, Pamela Seron, Alvaro Avezum, Paul Poirier, Koon Teo, Salim Yusuf
BACKGROUND: Physical activity has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease (CVD) in high-income countries, where physical activity is mainly recreational, but it is not known if this is also observed in lower-income countries, where physical activity is mainly non-recreational. We examined whether different amounts and types of physical activity are associated with lower mortality and CVD in countries at different economic levels. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we recruited participants from 17 countries (Canada, Sweden, United Arab Emirates, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Poland, Turkey, Malaysia, South Africa, China, Colombia, Iran, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe)...
September 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943262/effectiveness-of-a-patient-education-programme-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-results-from-the-odin-cohort-study-using-propensity-score-matching
#9
Nelly Agrinier, Matthieu Schockmel, Nathalie Thilly, Hervé Laborde-Castérot, Patrick Jourdain, François Alla, Christophe Leclercq, François Dany, Justine Druelle, Emilie Drouet, Geneviève Mulak, Yves Juillière
BACKGROUND: Patient education programmes (PEP) are recommended for patients with heart failure but have not been specifically assessed in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). AIM: To assess the effectiveness of a structured PEP in reducing all-cause mortality in patients with HFpEF. METHODS: Patients with HFpEF were selected from the ODIN cohort, designed to assess PEP effectiveness in patients with HF whatever their ejection fraction, included from 2007 to 2010, and followed up until 2013...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943248/the-medial-preoptic-area-modulates-autonomic-function-under-resting-and-stress-conditions
#10
Aline Fassini, América A Scopinho, Fernando H F Alves, Eduardo A T Fortaleza, Fernando M A Corrêa
The medial preoptic area (mPOA) participates in the temperature and cardiovascular control. The mPOA receives inputs from limbic structures and sends projections to hypothalamus and brainstem. Moreover, stress elicits pronounced neuronal activation in mPOA, suggesting its involvement in central neural pathway mediating stress responses. In the present study, we report the effect of acute mPOA neurotransmission inhibition using cobalt chloride (CoCl2-nonselective synapse blocker) on the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), body and tail temperature (Tbody and Ttail, respectively), as well as on the HR component of baroreflex...
September 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942598/radiation-exposure-of-cardiac-sonographers-working-in-an-academic-noninvasive-cardiovascular-imaging-laboratory
#11
Michael R Velez, Maryellen H Orsinelli, David A Orsinelli
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Exposure to workplace radiation among cardiac sonographers has been felt to be low, and patient-related sources have been considered negligible. Sonographers may be exposed to radiation from patient emitted sources as well as external sources in interventional laboratories. This study quantified radiation exposure to cardiac sonographers. METHODS: Cardiac sonographers, vascular imaging technologists, exercise physiologists, noninvasive nursing staff, and CT/MRI technologists were provided body dosimeter badges...
September 24, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942095/changes-in-truncal-obesity-and-fat-distribution-predict-arterial-health
#12
Frank E Corrigan, Heval Mohamed Kelli, Devinder S Dhindsa, Robert E Heinl, Ibhar Al Mheid, Muhammad Hammadah, Salim S Hayek, Salman Sher, Danny J Eapen, Greg S Martin, Arshed A Quyyumi
BACKGROUND: Truncal obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk. Although vascular health is influenced by weight, it is not known whether changes in fat distribution modulate arterial function. OBJECTIVE: We assessed how changes in truncal (android) fat at 1 year affect arterial stiffness and endothelial function. METHODS: We recruited 711 healthy volunteers (235 males, age 48 ± 11 years) into the Emory Predictive Health Study; 498 returned at 1 year...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942003/inhalation-exposure-to-three-dimensional-printer-emissions-stimulates-acute-hypertension-and-microvascular-dysfunction
#13
A B Stefaniak, R F LeBouf, M G Duling, J Yi, A B Abukabda, C R McBride, T R Nurkiewicz
Fused deposition modeling (FDM™), or three-dimensional (3D) printing has become routine in industrial, occupational and domestic environments. We have recently reported that 3D printing emissions (3DPE) are complex mixtures, with a large ultrafine particulate matter component. We and others have reported that inhalation of xenobiotic particles in this size range is associated with an array of cardiovascular dysfunctions. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3DPE aerosols via nose-only exposure for ~3h. Twenty-four hours later, intravital microscopy was performed to assess microvascular function in the spinotrapezius muscle...
September 20, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941998/vitamin-d3-supplementation-decreases-a-unique-circulating-monocyte-cholesterol-pool-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#14
Amy E Riek, Jisu Oh, Isra Darwech, Veronica Worthy, Xiaobo Lin, Richard E Ostlund, Rong M Zhang, Carlos Bernal-Mizrachi
Cross-sectional studies indicate consistent associations between low 25(OH)D concentration and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but results of randomized control trials (RCTs) are mixed. However, the majority of the RCTs do not focus on type 2 diabetics, potentially obscuring the effects of vitamin D in this population. In vitro 1,25(OH)2D3 downregulates macrophage cholesterol deposition, but the in vivo effects are unknown. To explore potential mechanisms of the effects of vitamin D on CVD risk in patients with type 2 diabetes, we isolated monocytes in a subset of 26 patients from our RCT of diabetics with baseline serum 25(OH)D <25ng/mL randomized to vitamin D3 4000 IU/day or placebo for 4 months...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941721/experience-with-integrating-pharmacist-documenters-on-cardiac-arrest-teams-to-improve-quality
#15
Mojdeh S Heavner, Ginger E Rouse, Steven M Lemieux, Kent A Owusu, David Pritchard, Marina Yazdi, Lorraine A Lee
OBJECTIVES: To determine if adding a clinical pharmacist to the cardiac arrest team in a documenter role improves completeness of documentation and quality of advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS). SETTING: A 1541-bed, tertiary care, academic medical center with an integrated clinical pharmacy practice model. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: In 2012, we identified documentation of resuscitation activities during cardiac arrest events and compliance with published ACLS guidelines as opportunities for systematic quality improvement at our tertiary care academic medical center...
September 20, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941609/association-of-apolipoproteins-b-and-a-1-with-markers-of-vascular-health-or-cardiovascular-events
#16
Yiming M Zhu, Subodh Verma, Marinda Fung, Matthew J McQueen, Todd J Anderson, Eva M Lonn
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein B (apoB) and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) are markers of lipoprotein metabolism. Although their relationship to cardiovascular disease has been well documented, little is known regarding their correlation to measures of vascular structure and function. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between apoA-1, apoB, and measures of vascular function, as well their relationship to adverse cardiovascular events. Moreover, we evaluated whether apoB or the apoB/apoA-1 ratio was more closely related to vascular markers than was low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C)...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940460/smoking-plasma-cotinine-and-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-the-hordaland-health-study
#17
H Zuo, O Nygård, S E Vollset, P M Ueland, A Ulvik, Ø Midttun, K Meyer, J Igland, G Sulo, G S Tell
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has been identified as a major modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease and mortality. However, findings on the relationship between smoking and atrial fibrillation (AF) have been inconsistent. Furthermore, findings from previous studies were based on self-reported smoking. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of smoking status and plasma cotinine levels, a marker of nicotine exposure, with risk of incident AF in the Hordaland Health Study...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940292/different-patients-different-outcomes-a-case-control-study-of-spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection-versus-acute-coronary-syndrome
#18
Heath Adams, Elizabeth Paratz, Jithendra Somaratne, Jamie Layland, Andrew Burns, Sonny Palmer, Andrew MacIsaac, Robert Whitbourn
INTRODUCTION: There is progressive interest worldwide in spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). To identify a SCAD cohort and compare risk factors, presentation, and management outcomes compared to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) matched controls. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed from 2000 to 2015. Clinical data included a neuropsychiatric history, with management and clinical outcomes assessed at 12 months. Patients were matched on a 1:3 case-control basis according to type of ACS...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939957/effect-of-hepatitis-c-treatment-with-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-r%C3%A2-%C3%A2-dasabuvir-on-renal-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-extrahepatic-manifestations-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-phase-3-clinical-trials
#19
Darshan A Mehta, Eric Cohen, Mariem Charafeddine, Daniel E Cohen, Yanjun Bao, Yuri Sanchez Gonzalez, Tram T Tran
INTRODUCTION: We analyzed phase 3 trial data of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir (3D) ± ribavirin (RBV) in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients to investigate the impact of 3D ± RBV on renal, cardiovascular and metabolic extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), including persistency 52 weeks post treatment and differential impact by EHM disease severity. METHODS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), fasting triglyceride and fasting glucose values from clinical trials were used to assess renal, cardiovascular and metabolic EHMs, respectively...
September 22, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939716/resistant-hypertension-time-updated-blood-pressure-values-and-renal-outcome-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Francesca Viazzi, Pamela Piscitelli, Antonio Ceriello, Paola Fioretto, Carlo Giorda, Pietro Guida, Giuseppina Russo, Salvatore De Cosmo, Roberto Pontremoli
BACKGROUND: Apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and entails worse cardiovascular prognosis. The impact of aTRH and long-term achievement of recommended blood pressure (BP) values on renal outcome remains largely unknown. We assessed the role of aTRH and BP on the development of chronic kidney disease in patients with T2D and hypertension in real-life clinical practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical records from a total of 29 923 patients with T2D and hypertension, with normal baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and regular visits during a 4-year follow-up, were retrieved and analyzed...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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