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Fraser Henderson, Istvan Takacs
BACKGROUND: Troubleshooting of deep brain stimulators (Activa SC/PC/RC Medtronic PLC) sometimes results in a decision to replace a tunneled stretch-coil extension cable. We present a simple technique to accomplish this atraumatically without a tunneling tool. OBJECTIVES: In the treatment of patients with deep brain stimulators, complication avoidance and efficiency of operative time are paramount. We sought to find the most safe, effective, and rapid method for performing the conceptually-simple yet technically-nuanced act of replacing lead extension cables...
October 18, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Dongdong Chai, Hong Jiang, Qifang Li
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we found that the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane up-regulated the transcriptional factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein levels during induction of neurodegeneration in the brain of neonatal rats. Here, we investigated the role of HIF-1α and the underlying signaling pathway in the neurodegenration induced by isoflurane in rodent developing brain. METHODS: Primary hippocampal neurons were exposed to isoflurane (0.4mM) for 12h. Neuron injury was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethyithiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetra-zolium bromide (MTT) test and quantification of lactate dehydrogenaserelease...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Caifeng Jiao, Pei Wang, Runqiang Yang, Lu Tian, Zhenxin Gu
In this study, in order to investigate the role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in nitric oxide-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (NO-cGMP)-induced isoflavone accumulation in soybean sprouts under UV-B radiation, the sprouts were treated with donors and inhibitors of NO and cGMP as well as IP3 inhibitor. Results show that NO, with cGMP as a second messenger, stimulates IP3 accumulation under UV-B radiation. Consistent with the increase in IP3 content, the up-regulation of gene and protein expression of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (exogenous NO donor) and 8-Br-cGMP (cGMP analog) was also observed...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Wei Tuo, Natascha Leleu-Chavain, John Spencer, Supojjanee Sansook, Regis Millet, Philippe Chavatte
Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) and endocannabinoids (ECs) have been shown to alleviate pain and inflammation, regulate motility and appetite, and produce anti-cancer, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective efficacies via cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) or type 2 (CB2), or via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) stimulation. FAEs and ECs are synthesized by a series of endogenous enzymes, including N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), or phospholipase C (PLC), and their metabolism is mediated by several metabolic enzymes, including fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Michael S Zhang, Jon C D Houtman
Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglyceride with well characterized anti-microbial properties. Because of these properties, GML is widely used in food, cosmetics, and personal care products and currently being tested as a therapeutic for menstrual associated toxic shock syndrome, superficial wound infections, and HIV transmission. Recently, we have described that GML potently suppresses select T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling events, leading to reduced human T cell effector functions. However, how soluble host factors present in the blood and at sites of infection affect GML-mediated human T cell suppression is unknown...
2016: PloS One
Bo Zou, Feng Guo, Jinyu Guo
BACKGROUND: While past research has recognized the importance of the dynamic nature of absorptive capacity, there is limited knowledge on how to generate a fair and comprehensive analytical framework. Based on interviews with 24 Chinese firms, this study develops a system-dynamics model that incorporates an important feedback loop among absorptive capacity, technological innovation, and product life cycle (PLC). RESULTS: The simulation results reveal that (1) PLC affects the dynamic process of absorptive capacity; (2) the absorptive capacity of a firm peaks in the growth stage of PLC, and (3) the market demand at different PLC stages is the main driving force in firms' technological innovations...
2016: SpringerPlus
Yanling Zhang, Junyan Wu, Trefor Morgan
OBJECTIVE: Recently, some findings support the (pro) renin-(Pro) renin receptor (P) RR interaction at exceptionally high (pro) renin levels in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of cardiac (P) RR and its downward signals on mean arterial pressure (MAP) in rats with abdominal aortic constriction, following treatment of handle region peptide (HRP) and phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-b3) inhibitor, U73122. DESIGN AND METHOD: Seventy-five SD rats were divided into 5 groups (n=15 each group) as following: sham operated (SO), rats with the aortic ligation (AL), AL rats were given HRP (4 μg kg d, SC), AL rats given U73122 (40 μg kg d, SC) and AL rats given HRP+U73122...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jian Shi, Francesc Miralles, Lutz Birnbaumer, William A Large, Anthony P Albert
In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), stimulation of TRPC1-based SOCs mediate Ca(2+) entry pathways which regulate contractility, proliferation and migration. It is therefore important to understand how these channels are activated. Studies have shown that stimulation of TRPC1-based SOCs requires Gαq/PLCβ1 activities and PKC phosphorylation, but it is unclear how store depletion stimulates this gating pathway. The present work examines this issue by focusing on the role of STIM1, an endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensor...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Shi-Hong Gu, Yun-Chih Hsieh, Pei-Ling Lin
Our previous studies showed that adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is involved in prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in Bombyx mori prothoracic glands (PGs). In the present study, we further investigated the signaling involved in PTTH-stimulated phosphorylation of 4E-BP. We found that 4E-BP phosphorylation stimulated by PTTH was partially reduced in Ca(2+)-free medium, indicating the involvement of Ca(2+). In addition, we found that a potent and specific inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC), U73122, greatly inhibited 4E-BP phosphorylation...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jingying Gao, Tao Bai, Lele Ren, Yaqin Ding, Xiangqin Zhong, Hui Wang, Yangyan Guo, Jie Li, Yunfeng Liu, Yi Zhang
Uncarboxylated osteocalcin, a bone matrix protein, has been proposed to regulate glucose metabolism by increasing insulin secretion, improving insulin sensitivity and stimulating β cell proliferation. Our previous study also indicated that uncarboxylated osteocalcin stimulates insulin secretion by inhibiting voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels. The goal of this study is to further investigate the underlying mechanisms for the regulation of Kv channels and insulin secretion by uncarboxylated osteocalcin. Insulin secretion and Kv channel currents were examined by radioimmunoassay and patch-clamp technique, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Peptides
Nayeli Rivera-Ramírez, Wilber Montejo-López, María-Cristina López-Méndez, Agustín Guerrero-Hernández, Anayansi Molina-Hernández, Ubaldo García-Hernández, José-Antonio Arias-Montaño
The histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is abundantly expressed in the Central Nervous System where it regulates several functions pre and postsynaptically. H3Rs couple to Gαi/o proteins and trigger or modulate several intracellular signaling pathways, including the cAMP/PKA pathway and the opening of N- and P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. In transfected cells, activation of the human H3R of 445 amino acids (hH3R445) results in phospholipase C (PLC) stimulation and release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores...
October 12, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Thomas H Charpentier, Gary L Waldo, Emily G Lowery-Gionta, Krzysztof Krajewski, Brian D Strahl, Thomas L Kash, T Kendall Harden, John Sondek
In contrast to G protein-coupled receptors for which chemical and peptidic inhibitors have been extensively explored, few compounds are available that directly modulate heterotrimeric G proteins. Active Gaq binds its two major classes of effectors, the PLC-b isozymes and RhoGEFs related to Trio, in a strikingly similar fashion: a continuous helix-turn-helix of the effectors engages Gaq within its canonical binding site, consisting of a groove formed between switch II and helix a3. This information was exploited to synthesize peptides that bound active Gaq in vitro with affinities similar to full-length effectors and directly competed with effectors for engagement of Gaq...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Dulcia W N Tan, Soo Ghim Lim, Tina T Wong, Subbu S Venkatraman
Currently, infections following cataract surgery are not as effectively managed with antibiotic eye drops, which suffer from poor bioavailability of drug and low patient compliance. The ideal solution, which can help to overcome the issue of drug wastage and poor bioavailabilty, as well as the need for frequent applications (patient inconvenience), is a drug-eluting intraocular lens (IOL). We describe a novel approach to such a drug-eluting lens by using a peripheral IOL attachment as a drug depot to deliver antibiotics, Levofloxacin (LFX) or Moxifloxacin (MFX)...
2016: PloS One
Kiran M Perkins, Adrian Lawsin, Nabeeh A Hasan, Michael Strong, Alison L Halpin, Rachael R Rodger, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Matthew B Crist, Suzanne Schwartz, Julia Marders, Charles L Daley, Max Salfinger, Joseph F Perz
In the spring of 2015, investigators in Switzerland reported a cluster of six patients with invasive infection with Mycobacterium chimaera, a species of nontuberculous mycobacterium ubiquitous in soil and water. The infected patients had undergone open-heart surgery that used contaminated heater-cooler devices during extracorporeal circulation (1). In July 2015, a Pennsylvania hospital also identified a cluster of invasive nontuberculous mycobacterial infections among open-heart surgery patients. Similar to the Swiss report, a field investigation by the Pennsylvania Department of Health, with assistance from CDC, used both epidemiologic and laboratory evidence to identify an association between invasive Mycobacterium avium complex, including M...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
W Ma, B St-Jacques, U Rudakou, Y N Kim
BACKGROUND: Persistent peripheral sensitization contributes to chronic pain. Plasticity of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) induced by pro-inflammatory mediators contributes to sensitization. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enriched in injured tissues is known not only directly to sensitize DRG neurons, but also to potentiate sensitizing effects of other pain mediators such as capsaicin and its receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). It remains unknown whether PGE2 potentiates TRPV1 activity by stimulating its synthesis, cell surface and axonal trafficking in DRG neurons...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Andrea Nardini, Tadeja Savi, Adriano Losso, Giai Petit, Serena Pacilè, Giuliana Tromba, Stefan Mayr, Patrizia Trifilò, Maria A Lo Gullo, Sebastiano Salleo
Drought-induced xylem embolism is a serious threat to plant survival under future climate scenarios. Hence, accurate quantification of species-specific vulnerability to xylem embolism is a key to predict the impact of climate change on vegetation. Low-cost hydraulic measurements of embolism rate have been suggested to be prone to artefacts, thus requiring validation by direct visualization of the functional status of xylem conduits using nondestructive imaging techniques, such as X-ray microtomography (microCT)...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
Nathaniel B Bone, Zhongyu Liu, Jean-Francois Pittet, Jaroslaw W Zmijewski
Catecholamines, including β-adrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitters, have an essential role in regulating the "fight or flight" reflex and also affects immune cell proinflammatory action. However, little is known about whether catecholamines prevent dysfunction of metabolic pathways associated with inflammatory organ injury, including development of acute lung injury (ALI). We hypothesize that selected catecholamines may reduce metabolic alterations in LPS-stimulated macrophages and in the lungs of mice subjected to endotoxin-induced ALI, a situation characterized by diminished activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Wenyi Liu, Qing Liu, Qihong Huang, Yuqiang Lu, Shanghang Xie, Aihua Lin, Sumei Cao
BACKGROUND: Southern China is an endemic area for primary liver cancer (PLC), but it is unclear if rates have changed in recent decades. We evaluated PLC incidence and estimated the effects of age, period of diagnosis, and birth cohort in Sihui City, Guangdong Province, China. METHODS: Age-standardized rates (ASRs) of PLC were examined for both males and females from 1987 to 2011. Joinpoint regression analysis was conducted to estimate the annual percent changes in PLC incidence...
October 12, 2016: BMC Cancer
Han Joon Kim, Jaemin Jeong, Sunhoo Park, Young-Woo Jin, Seung-Sook Lee, Seung Bum Lee, Dongho Choi
Background/Aims: Cancer is known to be a disease by many factors. However, specific results of reprogramming by pluripotency-related transcription factors remain to be scarcely reported. Here, we verified potential effects of pluripotent-related genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cancer cells. Methods: To better understand reprogramming of cancer cells in different genetic backgrounds, we used four liver cancer cell lines representing different states of p53 (HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7 and PLC)...
October 13, 2016: Gut and Liver
Qiu-Ye Lan, Yao-Jun Zhang, Gong-Cheng Liao, Rui-Fen Zhou, Zhong-Guo Zhou, Yu-Ming Chen, Hui-Lian Zhu
Dietary intake of vitamin A (VA) and carotenes has shown beneficial effects for decreasing the risk of some types of cancer, but findings on the risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) are inconsistent. This case-control study explored the associations between the dietary intake of VA and carotenes and the risk of PLC. We recruited 644 incident PLC patients (diagnosed within one month of each other) and 644 age- and gender-matched controls in Guangzhou, China. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess habitual dietary intake...
October 11, 2016: Nutrients
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