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Chengyuan Lin, Jin Bai, Mulan He, Anderson O L Wong
In this study, structural analysis of grass carp prolactin (PRL) gene was performed and the signaling mechanisms for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) regulation of PRL promoter activity were investigated. In αT3-1 cells, PRL promoter activity could be induced by oPACAP38 which was blocked by PACAP antagonist but not the VIP antagonist. The stimulatory effect of oPACAP38 was mimicked by activation of AC/cAMP and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel (VSCC) signaling, or induction of Ca2+ entry...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mariana Takaku, Andre Carnevali da Silva, Nathalie Izumi Iritsu, Pedro Thadeu Galvao Vianna, Yara Marcondes Machado Castiglia
Parecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, is used to improve analgesia in postoperative procedures. Here we evaluated whether pretreatment with a single dose of parecoxib affects the function, cell injury, and inflammatory response of the kidney of rats subjected to acute hemorrhage. Inflammatory response was determined according to serum and renal tissue cytokine levels (IL-1 α , IL-1 β , IL-6, IL-10, and TNF- α ). Forty-four adult Wistar rats anesthetized with sevoflurane were randomized into four groups: placebo/no hemorrhage (Plc/NH); parecoxib/no hemorrhage (Pcx/NH); placebo/hemorrhage (Plc/H); and parecoxib/hemorrhage (Pcx/H)...
2018: Pain Research and Treatment
Jerry C Madukwe, Elisabeth E Garland-Kuntz, Angeline M Lyon, Alan V Smrcka
Phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes hydrolyze membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) and regulate Ca2+ and protein kinase signaling in virtually all mammalian cell types. Chronic activation of the PLCɛ isoform downstream of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) contributes to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. We have previously shown that PLCε-catalyzed hydrolysis of Golgi-associated phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in cardiac myocytes depends on G protein βγ subunits released upon stimulation with endothelin-1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Richard T Amison, Shirin Jamshidi, Khondaker M Rahman, Clive P Page, Simon C Pitchford
Platelet P2Y1 receptor signaling via RhoGTPases is necessary for platelet-dependent leukocyte recruitment, where no platelet aggregation is observed. We investigated signaling cascades involved in distinct P2Y1 -dependent platelet activities in vitro, using specific inhibitors for phospholipase C (PLC) (U73122, to inhibit the canonical pathway), and RhoGTPases: Rac1 (NSC23766) and RhoA (ROCK inhibitor GSK429286). Human platelet rich plasma (for platelet aggregation) or isolated washed platelets (for chemotaxis assays) was treated with U73122, GSK429286 or NSC23766 prior to stimulation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or the P2Y1 specific agonist MRS2365...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Leena Joseph, A P Das, Anuradha Ravindra, D B Kulkarni, M S Kulkarni
4πβ-γ coincidence method is a powerful and widely used method to determine the absolute activity concentration of radioactive solutions. A new automated liquid scintillator based coincidence system has been designed, developed, tested and established as absolute standard for radioactivity measurements. The automation is achieved using PLC (programmable logic controller) and SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition). Radioactive solution of60 Co was standardized to compare the performance of the automated system with proportional counter based absolute standard maintained in the laboratory...
March 6, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Hiroki Takagi, Yuji Seta, Shinji Kataoka, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Takashi Toyono, Tatsuo Kawamoto
The gustatory cells in taste buds have been identified as paraneuronal; they possess characteristics of both neuronal and epithelial cells. Like neurons, they form synapses, store and release transmitters, and are capable of generating an action potential. Like epithelial cells, taste cells have a limited life span and are regularly replaced throughout life. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell genesis and differentiation. In the present study, to begin to understand these mechanisms, we investigated the role of Mash1-positive cells in regulating adult taste bud cell differentiation through the loss of Mash1-positive cells using the Cre-loxP system...
March 10, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Svetlana S Efimova, Evgeny G Chulkov, Olga S Ostroumova
The effects of local anesthetics (LAs), namely, lidocaine (LDC), prilocaine (PLC), mepivacaine (MPV), bupivacaine (BPV), procaine (PC), and tetracaine (TTC), on the steady-state transmembrane conductance induced by the cis-side addition of the antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotic, nystatin (NYS), in planar lipid bilayers were studied. The addition of TTC to model membranes comprising DOPC and cholesterol (33 mol%) led to a nearly twenty-fold increase in the steady-state NYS-induced membrane conductance...
March 8, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yuchi Zhang, Yan He, Chengyu Liu, Chunming Liu, Sainan Li
Ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ultrafiltration LC/MS) is introduced as an efficient method that can be applied to rapidly screen and identify ligands from the leaves of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Using this method, we identified 13 compounds, including organic acids, flavonoids, and glycosides, as potent neuraminidase inhibitors. A continuous online method, employing pressurized liquid extraction followed by parallel centrifugal partition chromatography and preparative liquid chromatography PLE-(parallel-CPC/PLC), was developed for the efficient, scaled-up production of 12 compounds with high purities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Brady S Moffett, Charissa Kam, Marianne Galati, Lindsay Schmees, Gideon A Stitt, Paula A Revell, Debra L Palazzi
BACKGROUND: Obese pediatric patients often require dose reductions when initiating gentamicin therapy. An appropriate method for calculating ideal body weight for dosing gentamicin in pediatric patients has not been validated. METHODS: A retrospective, population pharmacokinetic study was designed and included non-intensive care pediatric patients who received gentamicin and had serum gentamicin concentrations sampled. Actual body weight, adjusted body weight, and fat-free mass were used to describe the pharmacokinetic variables...
March 6, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
David D Lee, Kristopher P Croome, Kaitlyn R Musto, Jose Melendez, Ghassan Tranesh, Raouf Nakhleh, C Burcin Taner, Justin H Nguyen, Tushar Patel, Denise M Harnois
Background While hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a common indication for liver transplantation (LT), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and combined-Hepatocellular-cholangiocarcioma (cHCC-CC) are historically contraindicated due to their aggressive behavior. Based on recent experiences, some groups have proposed a clinical trial investigating the role of LT for patients with early CC, defined as a single lesion ≤ 2cm. The purpose of this study is to assess the clinicopathologic features and outcomes following LT for patients who were initially diagnosed with HCC and subsequently found to have either ICC or cHCC-CC on explant...
March 7, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Yuxia Zhang, Cui Liu, Jingna Wang, Xingxia Li
To explore genetic pathway cross-talk in neonates with sepsis, an integrated approach was used in this paper. To explore the potential relationships between differently expressed genes between normal uninfected neonates and neonates with sepsis and pathways, genetic profiling and biologic signaling pathway were first integrated. For different pathways, the score was obtained based upon the genetic expression by quantitatively analyzing the pathway cross-talk. The paired pathways with high cross-talk were identified by random forest classification...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Yonglai Zhang, Rui Sha, Kaiguo Wang, Hao Li, Bo Yan, Naibao Zhou
Tetrahydropalmatine exerts numerous pharmacological activities, including analgesic and narcotic effects; anti-arrhythmic, blood pressure lowering and cardioprotective effects; protective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury; inhibition of platelet aggregation; prevention of ulcerative diseases and inhibition of gastric acid secretion; antitumor effects; and beneficial effects on the withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of tetrahydropalmatine against ketamine‑induced learning and memory impairment in mice...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ji-Long Wang, Meng-Yuan Yang, Shuai Xiao, Bo Sun, Yi-Ming Li, Lian-Yue Yang
BACKGROUND: Castor zinc finger 1 (CASZ1) plays critical roles in various biological processes and pathologic conditions, including cancer. However, the prognostic importance and biologic functions of CASZ1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still unclear. METHODS: qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses were used to determine CASZ1 expression in HCC samples and cell lines. The clinical significance of CASZ1 was assessed in two independent study cohorts containing 232 patients with HCC...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Wei Shan Lim, Kenneth Chen, Tsung Wen Chong, Gordon Minru Xiong, William R Birch, Jisheng Pan, Bae Hoon Lee, Pei Shan Er, Abhijit Vijay Salvekar, Subbu S Venkatraman, Yingying Huang
A bilayer swellable drug-eluting ureteric stent (BSDEUS) is engineered and implemented, as a sustained drug delivery platform technology that enhances localized drug delivery to the highly impermeable urothelium, for the treatment of urothelial diseases such as strictures and carcinomas. On deployment, the device swells to co-apt with the ureteric wall and ensure drug availability to these tissues. BSDEUS consists of a stent spray-coated with a polymeric drug containing polylactic acid-co-caprolactone (PLC) layer which is overlaid by a swellable polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) based hydrogel...
February 20, 2018: Biomaterials
M Lenzhofer, M Hohensinn, C Strohmaier, H A Reitsamer
Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) has been developed for all drainage pathways in glaucoma treatment. Besides implants overriding the resistance in the trabecular meshwork (iStent®, iStent Inject® [both Glaukos Germany GmbH, Wiesbaden, Germany], Hydrus Microstent® [Ivantis, Irvine, CA, USA]) and draining to the suprachoroidal space (Cypass Micro Stent® [Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX, USA], iStent Supra® [Glaukos Germany GmbH]), surgeons can further drain aqueous humor into the subconjunctival space with a transscleral MIGS implant (XEN45® [Allergan Plc...
March 2, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Sayuri Suzuki, Annette Lis, Carsten Schmitz, Reinhold Penner, Andrea Fleig
The melastatin-related transient receptor potential member 7 (TRPM7) is a unique fusion protein with both ion channel function and enzymatic α-kinase activity. TRPM7 is essential for cellular systemic magnesium homeostasis and early embryogenesis; it promotes calcium transport during global brain ischemia and emerges as a key player in cancer growth. TRPM7 channels are negatively regulated through G-protein-coupled receptor-stimulation, either by reducing cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or depleting phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2 ) levels in the plasma membrane...
March 2, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Antonia Concetta Elia, Gabriele Magara, Claudio Caruso, Loretta Masoero, Marino Prearo, Paola Arsieni, Barbara Caldaroni, Ambrosius Josef Martin Dörr, Melissa Scoparo, Stefania Salvati, Paola Brizio, Stefania Squadrone, Maria Cesarina Abete
Arsenic (As) is a global contaminant of terrestrial and aquatic environments posing concern for environmental and human health. The effects of subacute concentrations of arsenic trioxide (AsIII ) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV ) were examined using Crandell Rees feline kidney (CRFK), human hepatocellular carcinoma (PLC/PRF/5), and epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC). Whole monolayer with suffering cells (confluence 100%, pyknosis and refractive cells; value scale = 2) led to identification of subacute As concentrations for the three cell lines...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Noriyuki Hatano, Susumu Ohya, Yuji Imaizumi, Robert B Clark, Darrell Belke, Wayne R Giles
KEY POINTS: Fibroblasts isolated from adult rat ventricles consistently respond to (5-100 μM) ATP. ATP, ADP, and UTP all elicit similar dose-dependent increases in [Ca2+ ]i . ATP also activates an outwardly rectifying Cl- current; in contrast, ADP and UTP have much smaller electrophysiological effects. This ATP-dependent Cl- current is markedly reduced when: i) [Ca2+ ]i is buffered with BAPTA, or ii) the intrinsic phospholipase C activity in these fibroblasts is inhibited. PCR analysis suggests that the ATP-induced current is generated by the Ca2+ -activated Cl- current transcript TMEM 16F, also denoted ANO6...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Haichen Zhang, Yunxiao Song, Xiong Zhang, Jun Hu, Suwei Yuan, Jin Ma
OBJECTIVES: The currently implemented healthcare reform in China requires substantial capital investment. Although overtreatment results in serious waste, inappropriate laboratory use is widespread, and overuse of tumour markers (TMs) has attracted increasing attention. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: The respiratory, thoracic surgery and oncology departments of three hospitals in Shanghai from 2014 to 2015. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and primary bronchogenic lung cancer (PLC)...
February 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Wei Wang, Bo Xu, Qixiang Li, Dechun Jiang, Suying Yan
The RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK (RAF/MEK/ERK) signaling cascade serves a prominent role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) proliferation. Sorafenib (BAY 43‑9006) is a potent multikinase inhibitor of RAF kinases and a few receptor tyrosine kinases. Additionally, sorafenib causes apoptosis in a number of human tumor cell lines such as leukemia cell lines. Sorafenib is the first targeted drug to prolong the overall survival of patients with advanced HCC...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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