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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936233/malaria-in-hiv-infected-children-receiving-hiv-protease-inhibitor-compared-with-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-based-antiretroviral-therapy-impaact-p1068s-substudy-to-p1060
#1
Charlotte V Hobbs, Erin E Gabriel, Portia Kamthunzi, Gerald Tegha, Jean Tauzie, Elizabeth Petzold, Linda Barlow-Mosha, Benjamin H Chi, Yonghua Li, Tiina Ilmet, Brian Kirmse, Jillian Neal, Sunil Parikh, Nagamah Deygoo, Patrick Jean Philippe, Lynne Mofenson, William Prescott, Jingyang Chen, Philippa Musoke, Paul Palumbo, Patrick E Duffy, William Borkowsky
BACKGROUND: HIV and malaria geographically overlap. HIV protease inhibitors kill malaria parasites in vitro and in vivo, but further evaluation in clinical studies is needed. METHODS: Thirty-one children from Malawi aged 4-62 months were followed every 3 months and at intercurrent illness visits for ≤47 months (September 2009-December 2011). We compared malaria parasite carriage by blood smear microscopy (BS) and confirmed clinical malaria incidence (CCM, or positive BS with malaria symptoms) in children initiated on HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) with zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine (NVP), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV-rtv), a protease inhibitor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936190/two-isoforms-of-yersinia-pestis-plasminogen-activator-pla-intraspecies-distribution-intrinsic-disorder-propensity-and-contribution-to-virulence
#2
Svetlana V Dentovskaya, Mikhail E Platonov, Tat'yana E Svetoch, Pavel Kh Kopylov, Tat'yana I Kombarova, Sergey A Ivanov, Rima Z Shaikhutdinova, Lyubov' V Kolombet, Sadhana Chauhan, Vitaly G Ablamunits, Vladimir L Motin, Vladimir N Uversky, Andrey P Anisimov
It has been shown previously that several endemic Y. pestis isolates with limited virulence contained the I259 isoform of the outer membrane protease Pla, while the epidemic highly virulent strains possessed only the T259 Pla isoform. Our sequence analysis of the pla gene from 118 Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains revealed that the I259 isoform was present exclusively in the endemic strains providing a convictive evidence of more ancestral origin of this isoform. Analysis of the effects of the I259T polymorphism on the intrinsic disorder propensity of Pla revealed that the I259T mutation slightly increases the intrinsic disorder propensity of the C-terminal tail of Pla and makes this protein slightly more prone for disorder-based protein-protein interactions, suggesting that the T259 Pla could be functionally more active than the I259 Pla...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935961/emerging-infectious-disease-implications-of-invasive-mammalian-species-the-greater-white-toothed-shrew-crocidura-russula-is-associated-with-a-novel-serovar-of-pathogenic-leptospira-in-ireland
#3
Jarlath E Nally, Zbigniew Arent, Darrell O Bayles, Richard L Hornsby, Colm Gilmore, Siobhan Regan, Allan D McDevitt, Jon Yearsley, Séamus Fanning, Barry J McMahon
The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent from the British Isles. Whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in potentially naive populations...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935946/the-economics-of-a-successful-raccoon-rabies-elimination-program-on-long-island-new-york
#4
Julie L Elser, Laura L Bigler, Aaron M Anderson, Joanne L Maki, Donald H Lein, Stephanie A Shwiff
Raccoon rabies is endemic in the eastern U.S.; however, an epizootic had not been confirmed on Long Island, New York until 2004. An oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program was initiated soon after the first rabies-positive raccoon was discovered, and continued until raccoon rabies was eliminated from the vaccination zone. The cost-effectiveness and economic impact of this rabies control program were unknown. A public health surveillance data set was evaluated following the ORV program on Long Island, and is used here as a case study in the health economics of rabies prevention and control efforts...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934943/stable-c-n-isotopes-in-2100-year-b-p-human-bone-collagen-indicate-rare-dietary-dominance-of-c4-plants-in-ne-italy
#5
Zita Laffranchi, Antonio Delgado Huertas, Sylvia A Jiménez Brobeil, Arsenio Granados Torres, Jose A Riquelme Cantal
C4 plants (e.g. maize, millet), part of our current diet, are only endemic of reduced areas in South-Europe due to their need of warm climates. Since the first vestiges of agriculture in Europe remains of C4 plants were recorded but their overall proportion in the human diet remains unknown. Therefore, isotopic (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) composition of bone collagen from the skeletal remains (human and animals) of a Celtic population, Cenomani Gauls, from Verona (3(rd) to 1(st) century BC) in the NE Italy provide a new perspective on this matter...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934850/erratum-endemic-indian-clones-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-harbouring-new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-1-on-a-hybrid-plasmid-replicon-type-a-case-of-changing-new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-plasmid-landscapes-in-india
#6
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.188314.].
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934844/severe-unresolving-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-following-artemisinin-combination-therapy-emergence-of-drug-resistance-in-saudi-arabia
#7
I A Al-Zaydani, A Al-Hakami, A Kumar, S A Abdalla, M Otaif, Rma Thiqa, H Ahmed, K Alnahili
A 5-year-old female child presented with fever of 1-week duration after visiting a malaria endemic zone without antimalarial prophylaxis. The patient presented with respiratory distress, decreased level of consciousness and high-grade fever. An elevated parasitaemia reaching 800,000/μl was observed. Antimalarial therapy was initiated with artesunate being administered intravenous (IV) along with IV clindamycin. Contrary to the expectations, there was no resolution of fever. Following a week of unresolved fever, the drug therapy was revised and altered to IV quinine dihydrochloride and IV clindamycin...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933440/modern-role-of-clinical-ultrasound-in-liver-abscess-and-echinococcosis
#8
REVIEW
Rita Barosa, João Pinto, Ana Caldeira, Eduardo Pereira
In the Western world, liver abscesses are predominantly of pyogenic origin and can present a wide range of ultrasonographic features, from a solid mass to a cystic cavity. Amoebic abscesses are endemic in tropical areas and typically round single lesions. Echinococcal cyst is diagnosed by ultrasound (US). Serology is particularly useful when pathognomonic US features are absent. Treatment is determined based on the WHO ultrasonographic classification, and puncture, aspiration, injection, re-aspiration (PAIR) is a US-guided therapeutic option...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933236/purification-and-antigenic-detection-of-o-specific-polysaccharides-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-paratyphi-a-isolate-from-pakistan-an-emerging-threat
#9
Zainab Rahmat, Aamir Ali, Yasra Sarwar, Muhammad Salman, Abdul Haque
BACKGROUND: Paratyphoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A is becoming a serious health problem in Asian countries particularly Pakistan, China and India and situation is aggravated by current unavailability of a licensed vaccine. This study was designed to purify the O-specific polysaccharides (OSP) produced by an isolate of Salmonella Paratyphi A from Pakistan and detect antigenicity of extracted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and purified OSP pioneerly in South Asian region as candidate for conjugate vaccine preparation...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933195/cr1-exon-variants-are-associated-with-lowered-cr1-expression-and-increased-susceptibility-to-sle-in-a-plasmodium-falciparum-endemic-population
#10
Aditya K Panda, Balachandran Ravindran, Bidyut K Das
BACKGROUND: Complement receptor 1 (CR1) plays an important role in immune complex clearance by opsonisation and possibly protects subjects from development of autoantibodies. Lower CR1 expression has been associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In contrast, subjects displaying lower CR1 expression are protected against severe manifestations of falciparum malaria. This study is the first of its kind to investigate the association of CR1 variants with development of SLE in a P...
2016: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933048/clay-components-in-soil-dictate-environmental-stability-and-bioavailability-of-cervid-prions-in-mice
#11
A Christy Wyckoff, Sarah Kane, Krista Lockwood, Jeff Seligman, Brady Michel, Dana Hill, Aimee Ortega, Mihnea R Mangalea, Glenn C Telling, Michael W Miller, Kurt Vercauteren, Mark D Zabel
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) affects cervids and is the only known prion disease to affect free-ranging wildlife populations. CWD spread continues unabated, and exact mechanisms of its seemingly facile spread among deer and elk across landscapes in North America remain elusive. Here we confirm that naturally contaminated soil contains infectious CWD prions that can be transmitted to susceptible model organisms. We show that smectite clay content of soil potentiates prion binding capacity of different soil types from CWD endemic and non-endemic areas, likely contributing to environmental stability of bound prions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932926/a-dataset-of-fishes-in-and-around-inle-lake-an-ancient-lake-of-myanmar-with-dna-barcoding-photo-images-and-ct-3d-models
#12
Yuichi Kano, Prachya Musikasinthorn, Akihisa Iwata, Sein Tun, Lkc Yun, Seint Seint Win, Shoko Matsui, Ryoichi Tabata, Takeshi Yamasaki, Katsutoshi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Inle (Inlay) Lake, an ancient lake of Southeast Asia, is located at the eastern part of Myanmar, surrounded by the Shan Mountains. Detailed information on fish fauna in and around the lake has long been unknown, although its outstanding endemism was reported a century ago. NEW INFORMATION: Based on the fish specimens collected from markets, rivers, swamps, ponds and ditches around Inle Lake as well as from the lake itself from 2014 to 2016, we recorded a total of 948 occurrence data (2120 individuals), belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 39 genera and 49 species...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932903/porifera-of-greece-an-updated-checklist
#13
Eleni Voultsiadou, Vasilis Gerovasileiou, Nicolas Bailly
BACKGROUND: The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932165/lymphangioma-like-kaposi-sarcoma-in-transplant-associated-iatrogenic-immunosuppression-a-case-report
#14
B C Garden, O N Kramer, I K Aronson, M Braniecki
Lymphangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma (LLKS) is a rare histologic presentation of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), with only 28 cases reported in the literature. LLKS has been described in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in endemic African-type as well as classic indolent KS. We present the 1st reported case of LLKS in a transplant-associated iatrogenic immunosuppressed patient.
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931934/assessing-the-impact-of-tailored-biosecurity-advice-on-farmer-behaviour-and-pathogen-presence-in-beef-herds-in-england-and-wales
#15
J M Cardwell, S Van Winden, W Beauvais, A Mastin, W A De Glanville, J Hardstaff, R E Booth, J Fishwick, D U Pfeiffer
The term 'biosecurity' encompasses many measures farmers can take to reduce the risk of pathogen incursion or spread. As the best strategy will vary between settings, veterinarians play an important role in assessing risk and providing advice, but effectiveness requires farmer acceptance and implementation. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of specifically-tailored biosecurity advice packages in reducing endemic pathogen presence on UK beef suckler farms. One hundred and sixteen farms recruited by 10 veterinary practices were followed for three years...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931229/a-national-health-facility-survey-of-malaria-infection-among-febrile-patients-in-kenya-2014
#16
Sophie Githinji, Abdisalan M Noor, Josephine Malinga, Peter M Macharia, Rebecca Kiptui, Ahmeddin Omar, Kiambo Njagi, Ejersa Waqo, Robert W Snow
BACKGROUND: The use of malaria infection prevalence among febrile patients at clinics has a potential to be a valuable epidemiological surveillance tool. However, routine data are incomplete and not all fevers are tested. This study was designed to screen all fevers for malaria infection in Kenya to explore the epidemiology of fever test positivity rates. METHODS: Random sampling was used within five malaria epidemiological zones of Kenya (i.e., high lake endemic, moderate coast endemic, highland epidemic, seasonal low transmission and low risk zones)...
December 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930668/oral-cholera-vaccination-delivery-cost-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-an-analysis-based-on-systematic-review
#17
Vittal Mogasale, Enusa Ramani, Hyeseung Wee, Jerome H Kim
BACKGROUND: Use of the oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is a vital short-term strategy to control cholera in endemic areas with poor water and sanitation infrastructure. Identifying, estimating, and categorizing the delivery costs of OCV campaigns are useful in analyzing cost-effectiveness, understanding vaccine affordability, and in planning and decision making by program managers and policy makers. OBJECTIVES: To review and re-estimate oral cholera vaccination program costs and propose a new standardized categorization that can help in collation, analysis, and comparison of delivery costs across countries...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929744/surveillance-of-poliomyelitis-in-northern-italy-results-of-acute-flaccid-paralysis-surveillance-and-environmental-surveillance-2012-2015
#18
Laura Pellegrinelli, Laura Bubba, Valeria Primache, Elena Pariani, Andrea Battistone, Roberto Delogu, Fiore Stefano, Sandro Binda
Although in the last years poliovirus (PV) transmission has been reported at the lowest levels ever recorded, the spread of virus from endemic countries endures; the high levels of immigration flows across the Mediterranean Sea jeopardize Italy for PV reintroduction. The World Health Organization (WHO) strategic plan for global poliomyelitis (polio) eradication indicates the nationwide surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) as the gold standard for detecting cases of polio. In addition, the Environmental Surveillance (ES), seeking the presence of PV and Non-Polio Enterovirus (NPEV) in sewage, is recognized as a powerful tool to confirm PV circulation in absence of AFP cases, especially in polio-free countries...
December 8, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929451/the-self-regulation-model-of-illness-comparison-between-zika-and-dengue-and-its-application-to-predict-mosquito-prevention-behaviours-in-malaysia-a-dengue-endemic-country
#19
Li Ping Wong, Haridah Alias, Nasrin Aghamohammadi, I-Ching Sam, Sazaly AbuBakar
Perceptions about illnesses may influence self-care and preventive health behaviours. Illness perceptions of the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were investigated under the framework of the Self-Regulation Model of Illness. Illness perception differences between ZIKV and dengue fever were also examined. Lastly, associations between illness perceptions of ZIKV with mosquito prevention practices were studied. Samples were drawn from landline telephone numbers using computer-assisted telephone interviewing in Malaysia...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929232/the-pretravel-consultation
#20
Christopher Sanford, Adam McConnell, Justin Osborn
Key components of the pretravel consultation include intake questions regarding the traveler's anticipated itinerary and medical history; immunizations; malaria prophylaxis; and personal protection measures against arthropod bites, traveler's diarrhea, and injury. Most vaccinations that are appropriate for international travelers are included in the routine domestic immunization schedule; only a few travel-specific vaccines must also be discussed. The most common vaccine-preventable illnesses in international travelers are influenza and hepatitis A...
October 15, 2016: American Family Physician
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