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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738242/specialized-metabolites-from-the-aerial-parts-of-centaurea-polyclada-dc
#1
Serdar Demir, Canan Karaalp, Erdal Bedir
The genus Centaurea L. (Asteraceae) is represented by 200 taxa in the flora of Turkey and several Centaurea species are used as herbal remedies against different conditions. Previous phytochemical investigations on this genus generally revealed the isolation of sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoid derivatives. In our continuous search on Centaurea genus, a phytochemical study was performed on Centaurea polyclada DC., an endemic of West Anatolia. Previously undescribed two sesquiterpene-amino acid conjugates, an elemane and an eudesmane derivative were isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea polyclada, together with eight known compounds; two elemane derivatives, three flavonoids, a lignan, a phenolic glucoside and a phenylpropanoid glucoside...
July 21, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738098/somatization-disorder-and-somatoform-symptoms-in-systematically-studied-survivors-of-10-disasters
#2
Gus Zhang, Carol S North
BACKGROUND: There is little agreement about the association of somatization with exposure to disaster trauma in the existing literature. METHODS: Pre-disaster and post-disaster psychiatric disorders, somatization disorder, and individual somatoform (medically unexplained) symptoms were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews in 811 directly exposed survivors of 10 disasters. RESULTS: Only 1 individual met criteria for post-disaster somatization disorder; there were no incident cases...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738085/a-bayesian-spatio-temporal-model-for-forecasting-anaplasma-species-seroprevalence-in-domestic-dogs-within-the-contiguous-united-states
#3
Yan Liu, Stella C Watson, Jenna R Gettings, Robert B Lund, Shila K Nordone, Michael J Yabsley, Christopher S McMahan
This paper forecasts the 2016 canine Anaplasma spp. seroprevalence in the United States from eight climate, geographic and societal factors. The forecast's construction and an assessment of its performance are described. The forecast is based on a spatial-temporal conditional autoregressive model fitted to over 11 million Anaplasma spp. seroprevalence test results for dogs conducted in the 48 contiguous United States during 2011-2015. The forecast uses county-level data on eight predictive factors, including annual temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, county elevation, forestation coverage, surface water coverage, population density and median household income...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737806/whole-blood-fe-isotopic-signature-in-a-sub-saharan-african-population
#4
Justin C Cikomola, María R Flórez, Marta Costas-Rodríguez, Yulia Anoshkina, Karl Vandepoele, Philippe B Katchunga, Antoine S Kishabongo, Marijn M Speeckaert, Frank Vanhaecke, Joris R Delanghe
The Fe isotopic composition of an individual's whole blood has recently been shown to be an interesting clinical indicator of Fe status. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of several endemic characteristics of a representative population of the South Kivu province, an Fe-rich volcanic African region, on the whole blood Fe isotopic composition. Both diabetes mellitus and the ferroportin Q248H mutation are very common in Africa and are strongly associated with impairments in Fe metabolism. Fe isotopic analysis of whole blood samples was carried out using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (after chromatographic isolation of the target element)...
July 24, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737135/a-flotation-sieving-method-to-detect-echinococcus-multilocularis-and-toxocara-spp-eggs-in-soil-by-real-time-pcr
#5
Gérald Umhang, Matthieu Bastien, Camille Renault, Marine Faisse, Christophe Caillot, Jean-Marc Boucher, Vanessa Hormaz, Marie-Lazarine Poulle, Franck Boué
Soil can be a source of human infection by many zoonotic helminth species including Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara spp. The prevention of alveolar echinococcosis could be greatly improved through the identification of at-risk areas. Yet very few data are available about the detection of E. multilocularis in soil, while more studies have been reported for Toxocara spp. Identification of soil contamination by E. multilocularis eggs requires the use of specific methods. This study describes the development of a method for the detection of E...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737119/passive-surveillance-of-united-kingdom-bats-for-lyssaviruses-2005-2015
#6
E L Wise, D A Marston, A C Banyard, H Goharriz, D Selden, N Maclaren, T Goddard, N Johnson, L M McElhinney, A Brouwer, J N Aegerter, G C Smith, D L Horton, A C Breed, A R Fooks
Passive surveillance for lyssaviruses in UK bats has been ongoing since 1987 and has identified 13 cases of EBLV-2 from a single species; Myotis daubentonii. No other lyssavirus species has been detected. Between 2005 and 2015, 10 656 bats were submitted, representing 18 species, creating a spatially and temporally uneven sample of British bat fauna. Uniquely, three UK cases originate from a roost at Stokesay Castle in Shropshire, England, where daily checks for grounded and dead bats are undertaken and bat carcasses have been submitted for testing since 2007...
July 24, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736699/from-galapagos-doves-to-passerines-spillover-of-haemoproteus-multipigmentatus
#7
Maricruz Jaramillo, Sage Rohrer, Patricia G Parker
Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus) multipigmentatus, a haemosporidian parasite thought to be specific to columbiform birds, was detected in passeriform birds on Santiago Island in the Galapagos archipelago. We surveyed birds along an altitudinal gradient on the islands of Santa Cruz, Isabela and Santiago between June 2013 and July 2015. Molecular screening of 2254 individuals from 25 species of endemic and introduced birds revealed clusters of passerine birds positive for H. multipigmentatus on Santiago Island that coincide with captures of Galapagos doves at sampled sites...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736665/airway-compliance-measured-by-anatomic-optical-coherence-tomography
#8
Ruofei Bu, Santosh Balakrishnan, Nicusor Iftimia, Hillel Price, Carlton Zdanski, Amy L Oldenburg
Quantification of airway compliance can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive airway disorders by detecting regions vulnerable to collapse. Here we evaluate the ability of a swept-source anatomic optical coherence tomography (SSaOCT) system to quantify airway cross-sectional compliance (CC) by measuring changes in the luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) under physiologically relevant pressures of 10-40 cmH2O. The accuracy and precision of CC measurements are determined using simulations of non-uniform rotation distortion (NURD) endemic to endoscopic scanning, and experiments performed in a simplified tube phantom and ex vivo porcine tracheas...
April 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736196/serological-and-molecular-epidemiological-outcomes-after-two-decades-of-universal-infant-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-vaccination-in-nunavut-canada
#9
Chris Huynh, Gerald Y Minuk, Julia Uhanova, Maureen Baikie, Thomas Wong, Carla Osiowy
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection within the Canadian Arctic is considered endemic (>2% prevalence). Within the Arctic region of Nunavut, a vaccination program targeted at newborn infants was initiated approximately 20years ago, along with interim grade school catch-up programs, with the result that individuals born after 1980 are presumed vaccinated. This study investigates the effectiveness of these programs and is the first seroepidemiological survey to determine HBV prevalence in Nunavut in the post-vaccination era...
July 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736193/relapsing-fever-causative-agent-in-southern-iran-is-a-closely-related-species-to-east-african-borreliae
#10
Saied Reza Naddaf, Behnaz Ghazinezhad, Elham Kazemirad, Sally Jane Cutler
We obtained two blood samples from relapsing fever patients residing in Jask County, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran in 2013. Sequencing of a partial fragment of glpQ from two samples, and further characterization of one of them by analyzing flaB gene, and 16S-23S spacer (IGS) revealed the greatest sequence identity with East African borreliae, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia microti from Iran. Phylogenetic analyses of glpQ, flaB, and concatenated sequences (glpQ, flab, and IGS) clustered these sequences amongst East African Relapsing fever borreliae and B...
July 17, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735968/epidemiology-and-clinical-features-of-green-pit-viper-trimeresurus-trigonocephalus-envenoming-in-sri-lanka
#11
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, P E A N Ranathunga, S A M Kularatne
Green pit viper is a venomous endemic snake in Sri Lanka. But little is known regarding its envenoming in the country. This study was carried out in order to find out epidemiology and clinical profile of its bites. A series of 17 patients with Sri Lankan Green pit viper (Trimeresurus trigonocephalus) bites was prospectively studied over 4 years. The mean age was 36 ½ years (range 12-61 years) and comprised 14 (82%) males. Except one case, all bites occurred during day time (0600 h-1800h) due to inadvertent provocation...
July 20, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735239/effects-of-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-in-pejerrey-odontesthes-humensis-embryonic-development
#12
Yuri Dornelles Zebral, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Bruna de Castro Knopp, Luize Real Lansini, Bruna Zafalon-Silva, Adalto Bianchini, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo
Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are the major pesticides used worldwide. Among them, the Roundup formulations are the most popular. Some aspects of GBH toxicity are well known, such as induction of oxidative stress. However, embryotoxicity is scarcely known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to different Roundup Transorb R concentrations (0.36, 1.80, 3.62 and 5.43 mg glyphosate a.e./L) on Odontesthes humensis embryonic development. Embryos were sampled at three exposure times (48, 72 and 96 h)...
July 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734898/anopheles-vectors-in-mainland-china-while-approaching-malaria-elimination
#13
REVIEW
Shaosen Zhang, Shaohua Guo, Xinyu Feng, Aneta Afelt, Roger Frutos, Shuisen Zhou, Sylvie Manguin
China is approaching malaria elimination; however, well-documented information on malaria vectors is still missing, which could hinder the development of appropriate surveillance strategies and WHO certification. This review summarizes the nationwide distribution of malaria vectors, their bionomic characteristics, control measures, and related studies. After several years of effort, the area of distribution of the principal malaria vectors was reduced, in particular for Anopheles lesteri (synonym: An. anthropophagus) and Anopheles dirus s...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734514/malaria-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Lauren M Cohee, Miriam K Laufer
Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, leading to an estimated 438,000 deaths in 2015. Malaria is also an important health threat to travelers to endemic countries and should be considered in evaluation of any traveler returning from a malaria-endemic area who develops fever. Considering the diagnosis of malaria in patients with potential exposure is critical. Prompt provision of effective treatment limits the complications of malaria and can be life-saving. Understanding Plasmodium species variation, epidemiology, and drug-resistance patterns in the geographic area where infection was acquired is important for determining treatment choices...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733861/an-infant-with-acute-gastroenteritis-caused-by-a-secondary-infection-with-a-rotarix-derived-strain
#15
Naomi Sakon, Ryohei Miyamoto, Jun Komano
Rotavirus vaccines have been successful in controlling severe diarrhea and have decreased deaths of young children globally. Rotarix and RotaTeq are the two currently available live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines. The vaccine virus can grow in a recipient's gut and spread from the vaccinee to naïve individuals. The potential for the emergence of revertant viruses is a concern with live-attenuated vaccines. We identified a previously healthy infant with severe acute gastroenteritis that was positive for rotavirus in a non-endemic season...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733842/human-dirofilaria-repens-infections-diagnosed-in-slovakia-in-the-last-10-years-2007-2017
#16
Martina Miterpáková, Daniela Antolová, František Ondriska, Viliam Gál
Human dirofilariosis is currently considered to be an emerging zoonosis of Central Europe with climate change and globalization playing a key role in its spreading. Additionally, the occurrence of Dirofilaria spp. is strongly subject to a certain number of microfilaremic dogs and the presence of the mosquito vectors. Both conditions are fulfilled in Slovakia. The first human case of autochthonous dirofilariosis in Slovakia was diagnosed in 2007, 2 years after the infection had been observed in the Slovak dog population...
July 21, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733592/machine-learning-model-analysis-of-breeding-habitats-for-the-black-necked-crane-in-central-asian-uplands-under-anthropogenic-pressures
#17
Xuesong Han, Yumin Guo, Chunrong Mi, Falk Huettmann, Lijia Wen
The black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis) is the only alpine crane species and is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau. The breeding habitats of this species are poorly understood, which greatly hampers practical research and conservation work. Using machine learning methods and the best-available data from our 7,000-kilometer mega-transect survey and open access data, we built the first species distribution model (SDM) to analyze the black-necked crane's breeding habitats. Our model showed that current conservation gaps account for 26...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732790/performance-of-the-%C3%AE-lacta-test-for-rapid-detection-of-expanded-spectrum-cephalosporin-nonsusceptible-enterobacteriaceae
#18
Georgia Vrioni, Vasiliki Mamali, Olympia Zarkotou, Evaggelia Voulgari, Evaggelia Dimitroulia, Katerina Themeli-Digalaki, Spyros Pournaras, Athanassios Tsakris
OBJECTIVES: To study the performance of the rapid chromogenic βLACTA test for the rapid detection of expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) nonsusceptibility among Enterobacteriaceae, in a region endemic for potent β-lactamases. METHODS: The βLACTA test was applied prospectively on 235 consecutive Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates and163 previously characterized ESC-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae producing a range of β-lactamases. RESULTS: βLACTA exhibited excellent sensitivity (96...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732456/introduced-rats-and-an-endemic-roundworm-does-rattus-rattus-contribute-to-baylisascaris-procyonis-transmission-in-california
#19
Sara B Weinstein
The introduced black rat, Rattus rattus, occurs throughout the native range of the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, and might incorporate into its life cycle if rats consume parasite eggs, acquire viable infections, and are eaten by raccoons. Although rats forage at raccoon latrines, their role in B. procyonis transmission remains unknown. Here I tested the potential for rats to amplify B. procyonis transmission in California by surveying wild rodents for B. procyonis and conducting scavenger trials using motion activated cameras...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732006/drivers-for-rift-valley-fever-emergence-in-mayotte-a-bayesian-modelling-approach
#20
Raphaëlle Métras, Guillaume Fournié, Laure Dommergues, Anton Camacho, Lisa Cavalerie, Philippe Mérot, Matt J Keeling, Catherine Cêtre-Sossah, Eric Cardinale, W John Edmunds
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a major zoonotic and arboviral hemorrhagic fever. The conditions leading to RVF epidemics are still unclear, and the relative role of climatic and anthropogenic factors may vary between ecosystems. Here, we estimate the most likely scenario that led to RVF emergence on the island of Mayotte, following the 2006-2007 African epidemic. We developed the first mathematical model for RVF that accounts for climate, animal imports and livestock susceptibility, which is fitted to a 12-years dataset...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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