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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918127/clinical-laboratory-and-virological-data-from-suspected-zikv-patients-in-an-endemic-arbovirus-area
#1
Tatiana Elias Colombo, Cássia Fernanda Estofolete, Andréia Francesli Negri Reis, Natal Santos da Silva, Morgana Lima Aguiar, Eliana Márcia Sotello Cabrera, Izalco Nuremberg Penha Dos Santos, Fabiana Rodrigues Costa, Lilian Elisa Arão Antônio Cruz, Patrícia Lopes Rombola, Ana Carolina Bernardes Terzian, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira
BACKGROUND: The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between the diseases caused by ZIKV, dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult. Brazilian authorities largely rely on clinical and epidemiological data for the epidemiological and clinical classifications of most ZIKV cases. OBJECTIVE: To report the laboratory and clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with Zika fever based only on clinical and epidemiological data...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917186/compounds-isolated-from-eriobotrya-deflexa-leaves-protect-against-ultraviolet-radiation-b-induced-photoaging-in-human-fibroblasts
#2
Chung-Yu Huang, Yi-Tzu Lin, Hsiang-Chun Kuo, Wen-Fei Chiou, Mei-Hsien Lee
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation leads to skin photoaging because of the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and downregulation of type I collagen and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. Eriobotrya deflexa (Hemsl.) Nakai (Rosaceae) is a flowering plant endemic to Taiwan, and its leaves have been used as an expectorant and in antitussive folk remedy. Our previous studies have demonstrated that an E. deflexa leaf extract functions as a free radical scavenger. The current evaluated the antiphotoaging effect of partitioned fractions and specific compounds from the leaves of E...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916985/whole-plastid-transcriptomes-reveal-abundant-rna-editing-sites-and-differential-editing-status-in-phalaenopsis-aphrodite-subsp-formosana
#3
Ting-Chieh Chen, Yu-Chang Liu, Xuewen Wang, Chi-Hsuan Wu, Chih-Hao Huang, Ching-Chun Chang
BACKGROUND: RNA editing is a process of post-transcriptional level of gene regulation by nucleotide modification. Previously, the chloroplast DNA of Taiwan endemic moth orchid, P. aphrodite subsp. formosana was determined, and 44 RNA editing sites were identified from 24 plastid protein-coding transcripts of leaf tissue via RT-PCR and then conventional Sanger sequencing. However, the RNA editing status of whole-plastid transcripts in leaf and other distinct tissue types in moth orchids has not been addressed...
September 16, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916450/capsule-switching-of-neisseria-meningitidis-sequence-type-7-serogroup-a-to-serogroup-x
#4
Xuemeng Ji, Ping-Ping Yao, Le-Yi Zhang, Yi Li, Fang Xu, Ling-Ling Mei, Shui-Rong Zhu, Yan-Jun Zhang, Han-Ping Zhu, Stijn van der Veen
OBJECTIVES: The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis is able to escape the currently available capsule-based vaccines by undergoing capsule switching. In this study, we investigated whether capsule switching has occurred in a recently emerged sequence type (ST) 7 serogroup X isolate in China, for which currently no vaccine is available. METHODS: To identify capsule switching breakpoints, the capsule locus and flanking regions of the ST-7 serogroup X isolate and three endemic ST-7 serogroup A isolates were sequenced and compared...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916210/modelling-multi-site-transmission-of-the-human-papillomavirus-and-its-impact-on-vaccination-effectiveness
#5
P Lemieux-Mellouki, M Drolet, M Jit, G Gingras, M Brisson
OBJECTIVE: Previous HPV models have only included genital transmission, when evidence suggests that transmission between several anatomical sites occurs. We compared model predictions of population-level HPV vaccination effectiveness against genital HPV16 infection in women, using a 1) uni-site (genital site), and a 2) multi-site model (genital and one extragenital site). METHODS: We developed a uni-site and a multi-site deterministic HPV transmission model, assuming natural immunity was either site-specific or systemic...
August 25, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915920/current-situation-of-h9n2-subtype-avian-influenza-in-china
#6
REVIEW
Min Gu, Lijun Xu, Xiaoquan Wang, Xiufan Liu
In China, H9N2 subtype avian influenza outbreak is firstly reported in Guangdong province in 1992. Subsequently, the disease spreads into vast majority regions nationwide and has currently become endemic there. Over vicennial genetic evolution, the viral pathogenicity and transmissibility have showed an increasing trend as year goes by, posing serious threat to poultry industry. In addition, H9N2 has demonstrated significance to public health as it could not only directly infect mankind, but also donate partial or even whole cassette of internal genes to generate novel human-lethal reassortants like H5N1, H7N9, H10N8 and H5N6 viruses...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915877/vole-abundance-and-reindeer-carcasses-determine-breeding-activity-of-arctic-foxes-in-low-arctic-yamal-russia
#7
Dorothee Ehrich, Maite Cerezo, Anna Y Rodnikova, Natalya A Sokolova, Eva Fuglei, Victor G Shtro, Aleksandr A Sokolov
BACKGROUND: High latitude ecosystems are at present changing rapidly under the influence of climate warming, and specialized Arctic species at the southern margin of the Arctic may be particularly affected. The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), a small mammalian predator endemic to northern tundra areas, is able to exploit different resources in the context of varying tundra ecosystems. Although generally widespread, it is critically endangered in subarctic Fennoscandia, where a fading out of the characteristic lemming cycles and competition with abundant red foxes have been identified as main threats...
September 16, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915301/the-work-of-us-public-health-service-officers-in-puerto-rico-1898-1919
#8
Jose G Rigau-Pérez
The history of the US Public Health Service (PHS) is usually presented in terms of diseases or discoveries; this article examines twenty years' activity in one location. When the United States invaded Puerto Rico in 1898, the Marine Hospital Service (now PHS) took responsibility for foreign quarantine, inspection of immigrants, and medical care for merchant seamen. Its officers evaluated the sanitary conditions of port cities, helped reorganize local disease surveillance and control, and investigated endemic diseases (e...
September 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915255/scrambled-eggs-a-highly-sensitive-molecular-diagnostic-workflow-for-fasciola-species-specific-detection-from-faecal-samples
#9
Nichola Eliza Davies Calvani, Peter Andrew Windsor, Russell David Bush, Jan Šlapeta
BACKGROUND: Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915243/rapid-actionable-diagnosis-of-urban-epidemic-leptospirosis-using-a-pathogenic-leptospira-lipl32-based-real-time-pcr-assay
#10
Irina N Riediger, Robyn A Stoddard, Guilherme S Ribeiro, Sueli M Nakatani, Suzana D R Moreira, Irene Skraba, Alexander W Biondo, Mitermayer G Reis, Alex R Hoffmaster, Joseph M Vinetz, Albert I Ko, Elsio A Wunder
BACKGROUND: With a conservatively estimated 1 million cases of leptospirosis worldwide and a 5-10% fatality rate, the rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis leading to effective clinical and public health decision making is of high importance, and yet remains a challenge. METHODOLOGY: Based on parallel, population-based studies in two leptospirosis-endemic regions in Brazil, a real-time PCR assay which detects lipL32, a gene specifically present in pathogenic Leptospira, was assessed for the diagnostic effectiveness and accuracy...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914200/development-of-peptide-vaccines-in-dengue
#11
Kavita Reginald, Yanqi Chan, Magdalena Plebanski, Chit Laa Poh
Dengue is one of the most important arboviral infection worldwide, infecting up to 390 million people and causing 25,000 deaths annually. Although a licensed dengue vaccine is available, it is not efficacious against dengue serotypes that infect people living in South East Asia, where dengue is an endemic disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient dengue vaccine for this region. Data from different clinical trials indicate that a successful dengue vaccine must elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cell mediated immunity...
September 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913828/diet-and-body-shape-changes-of-p%C3%A4-roko-kelloggella-disalvoi-gobiidae-from-intertidal-pools-of-easter-island
#12
J Vera-Duarte, C A Bustos, M F Landaeta
This study assesses seasonal variation in the morphology and diet of juveniles and adults of the Easter Island endemic goby Kelloggella disalvoi from intertidal pools during September-October 2015 (spring) and June-July 2016 (winter), utilizing geometric morphometric and gut-content analyses. A set of 16 landmarks was digitized in 128 individuals. Shape changes related to size changes (i.e. allometry) were low (18·6%) and were seasonally similar. Body shape changes were mainly dorsoventral (44·2% of variance) and comprised posteroventral displacement of the premaxilla and bending of the body...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913146/fetomaternal-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-hepatitis-e-infection-still-an-important-fetomaternal-killer-with-an-unresolved-mystery-of-increased-virulence-in-pregnancy
#13
Namrata Kumar, Vinita Das, Anjoo Agarwal, Amita Pandey, Smriti Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis is a prevalent infection in developing countries. While hepatitis B and C are deepening their roots in the developed world, hepatitis A and E are common in the developing world. The uniqueness of hepatitis is in its transformation from a relatively self-limiting disease in the non-pregnant state, to a highly virulent disease during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, for a period of six months from June 2016 to November 2016 [probably during an endemic peak of hepatitis E virus (HEV)] to observe the clinical outcomes in HEV-infected pregnant women...
June 2017: Turk J Obstet Gynecol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912964/is-the-south-african-triage-scale-valid-for-use-in-afghanistan-haiti-and-sierra-leone
#14
Mohammed Dalwai, Pola Valles, Michele Twomey, Yvonne Nzomukunda, Prince Jonjo, Manoj Sasikumar, Masood Nasim, Abdul Razaaq, Olivia Gayraud, Pierre Ronald Jecrois, Lee Wallis, Katie Tayler-Smith
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) in four Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-supported emergency departments (ED, two trauma-only sites, one mixed site (both medical and trauma cases) and one paediatric-only site) in Afghanistan, Haiti and Sierra Leone. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted between June 2013 and June 2014. Validity was assessed by comparing patients' SATS ratings with their final ED outcome (ie, hospital admission, death or discharge)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912555/new-taxa-of-freshwater-mussels-unionidae-from-a-species-rich-but-overlooked-evolutionary-hotspot-in-southeast-asia
#15
Ivan N Bolotov, Ilya V Vikhrev, Alexander V Kondakov, Ekaterina S Konopleva, Mikhail Yu Gofarov, Olga V Aksenova, Sakboworn Tumpeesuwan
Southeast Asia harbors a unique and diverse freshwater fauna of Mesozoic origin, which is under severe threat of extinction because of rapid economic development and urbanization. The largest freshwater basins of the region are certainly the primary evolutionary hotspots and they attract the most attention as key biodiversity areas for conservation. In contrast, medium-sized rivers are considered low-importance areas with secondary biodiversity, whose faunas originated via founder events from larger basins during the Pleistocene, although such a scenario has never been tested by using a phylogenetic approach...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912431/phylogeography-of-the-sand-dollar-genus-encope-implications-regarding-the-central-american-isthmus-and-rates-of-molecular-evolution
#16
Simon E Coppard, H A Lessios
Vicariant events have been widely used to calibrate rates of molecular evolution, the completion of the Central American Isthmus more extensively than any other. Recent studies have claimed that rather than the generally accepted date of ~3 million years ago (Ma), the Isthmus was effectively complete by the middle Miocene, 13 Ma. We present a fossil calibrated phylogeny of the new world sand dollar genus Encope, based on one nuclear and four mitochondrial genes, calibrated with fossils at multiple nodes. Present day distributions of Encope are likely the result of multiple range contractions and extinction events...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912184/inflammatory-cardiomyopathic-syndromes
#17
REVIEW
Barry H Trachtenberg, Joshua M Hare
Inflammatory activation occurs in nearly all forms of myocardial injury. In contrast, inflammatory cardiomyopathies refer to a diverse group of disorders in which inflammation of the heart (or myocarditis) is the proximate cause of myocardial dysfunction, causing injury that can range from a fully recoverable syndrome to one that leads to chronic remodeling and dilated cardiomyopathy. The most common cause of inflammatory cardiomyopathies in developed countries is lymphocytic myocarditis most commonly caused by a viral pathogenesis...
September 15, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911765/prevalence-of-hepatitis-d-virus-infection-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Alexander J Stockdale, Mas Chaponda, Apostolos Beloukas, Richard Odame Phillips, Philippa C Matthews, Athanasios Papadimitropoulos, Simon King, Laura Bonnett, Anna Maria Geretti
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D virus (also known as hepatitis delta virus) can establish a persistent infection in people with chronic hepatitis B, leading to accelerated progression of liver disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, where HBsAg prevalence is higher than 8%, hepatitis D virus might represent an important additive cause of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish the prevalence of hepatitis D virus among HBsAg-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We systematically reviewed studies of hepatitis D virus prevalence among HBsAg-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911750/effect-of-counselling-on-health-care-seeking-behaviours-and-rabies-vaccination-adherence-after-dog-bites-in-haiti-2014-15-a-retrospective-follow-up-survey
#19
Melissa Dominique Etheart, Maxwell Kligerman, Pierre Dilius Augustin, Jesse D Blanton, Benjamin Monroe, Ludder Fleurinord, Max Millien, Kelly Crowdis, Natael Fenelon, Ryan MacLaren Wallace
BACKGROUND: Haiti has an integrated bite case management (IBCM) programme to counsel animal-bite victims on the risk of rabies and appropriate treatment, as well as the Haiti Animal Rabies Surveillance Program (HARSP) to examine the animals. We assessed the usefulness of the IBCM programme to promote best practices for rabies prophylaxis after exposure in a low-income rabies-endemic setting. METHODS: We did a retrospective follow-up survey of randomly selected bite victims who were counselled by Haiti's IBCM programme between May 15, 2014, and Sept 15, 2015...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911515/chronic-chagas-heart-disease%C3%A2-management-from-etiology-to-cardiomyopathy-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Edimar Alcides Bocchi, Reinaldo Bulgarelli Bestetti, Mauricio Ibrahim Scanavacca, Edecio Cunha Neto, Victor Sarli Issa
Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection is endemic in Latin America and is becoming a worldwide health burden. It may lead to heterogeneous phenotypes. Early diagnosis of T. cruzi infection is crucial. Several biomarkers have been reported in Chagas heart disease (ChHD), but most are nonspecific for T. cruzi infection. Prognosis of ChHD patients is worse compared with other etiologies, with sudden cardiac death as an important mode of death. Most ChHD patients display diffuse myocarditis with fibrosis and hypertrophy...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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