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Yaron Bar-Lavie, Khetam Hussein, Ami Mayo, Daniel King, Zipi Kra-Oz, Michal Paul
INTRODUCTION: Data regarding the characteristics and results of the treatment of patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) with influenza in Israel are limited. AIMS: We evaluated the characteristics and outcomes of patients treated at Rambam Medical Center at the adult department of critical care medicine for influenza between the years 2009-2014. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Patients were detected by laboratory reports and data were extracted from electronic medical records...
September 2017: Harefuah
Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low
A specter is haunting the world, the specter of obesity. During the last decade, this pandemia has skyrocketed threatening children, adolescents and lower income families worldwide. Although driven by an increase in the consumption of ultraprocessed edibles of poor nutritional value, the obesogenic changes in contemporary human lifestyle affect people differently, revealing that some individuals are more prone to develop increased adiposity. During the last years, we performed a variety of genetic, evolutionary, biochemical and behavioral experiments that allowed us to understand how a group of neurons present in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus regulate the expression of the proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene and induce satiety...
September 2017: FEBS Letters
Raúl Aguilera Eguía, Paula Jessica Jorquera Pino, Claudia Jaqueline Salgado, Cherie Flores
Introducción: actualmente la obesidad es considerada un problema de salud pública, y en la mayor parte de los países ha evolucionado como una pandemia, presentando un incremento en su prevalencia y severidad.Objetivo:resumir las revisiones sistemáticas Cochrane y no Cochrane que evalúen el efecto de la suplementación de calcio en la disminución de grasa corporal en personas obesas.Materiales y métodos: se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos Medline (1980-septiembre 2015), Metabuscador TripDatabase y Epistemonikos (hasta septiembre 2015), Cochrane BVS (hasta septiembre 2015), se buscó de forma manual en revistas relacionadas con el tema de interés, en actas de congresos, se realizó seguimiento de referencias relevantes y se contactó con expertos en el área...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Mariana Reggeti, Emilse Romero, Antonio Eblen-Zajjur
BACKGROUND: There is a risk for an avian influenza AH5N1 virus pandemia. AIM: To estimate the magnitude and impact of an AH5N1 pandemic in areas of Latin-America in order to design interventions and to reduce morbidity-mortality. METHODS: The InfluSim program was used to simulate a highly pathogenic AH5N1 aviar virus epidemic outbreak with human to human transmission in Valencia, Venezuela. We estimated the day of maximal number of cases, number of moderately and severely ill patients, exposed individuals, deaths and associated costs for 5 different interventions: absence of any intervention; implementation of antiviral treatment; reduction of 20% in population general contacts; closure of 20% of educational institutions; and reduction of 50% in massive public gatherings...
June 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Francisca Marina de Souza Freire Furtado, José Anderson Galdino Santos, Stedile Loredanna, Eunice Araújo, Ana Alayde Werba Saldanha, Josevânia da Silva
In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test...
June 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
T Staudinger
Technical developments as well as the experiences during the 2009 influenza pandemia have led to an increased and safer use of extracorporeal gas exchange. Indications are expanding as new systems with the main goal of CO2 elimination have entered the market, thus, broadening the range of systems in addition to classic "high flow" extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), although evidence for many suggested indications is sparse or lacking. However, recent research has shed light into the pathophysiology and interaction between the organism and the extracorporeal systems...
July 5, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Markus Reinholz, Cecilia Hermans, Thomas Ruzicka, Andreas Dietrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2016: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
P Malmborg, H Hildebrand
Two decades ago, paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) drew only modest interest from the international paediatric community. Since then, dramatically globally increasing incidence rates have made childhood-onset IBD a priority for most paediatric gastroenterologists. The emerging pandemia of paediatric IBD has fuelled a quest to identify the recent changes in early life exposures that could explain the increasing risk for IBD amongst today's children. Treatment of children with IBD should aim for symptom control but should also target restoration of growth and prevention of pubertal delay...
March 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
V López-Miranda, M L Soto-Montenegro, J A Uranga-Ocio, G Vera, E Herradón, C González, C Blas, M Martínez-Villaluenga, A E López-Pérez, M Desco, R Abalo
BACKGROUND: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor-enhancer widely used as a food additive. However, its safe dietary concentration and its toxicity, including its possible implication in the recent metabolic syndrome pandemia, is still a controversial issue. Therefore, a deep knowledge of its effects upon regular dietary use is needed. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to MSG on feeding behavior, abdominal fat, gastrointestinal motility, and cardiovascular function in rats...
November 2015: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Bernard C Rossier, Michael E Baker, Romain A Studer
Transcription and translation require a high concentration of potassium across the entire tree of life. The conservation of a high intracellular potassium was an absolute requirement for the evolution of life on Earth. This was achieved by the interplay of P- and V-ATPases that can set up electrochemical gradients across the cell membrane, an energetically costly process requiring the synthesis of ATP by F-ATPases. In animals, the control of an extracellular compartment was achieved by the emergence of multicellular organisms able to produce tight epithelial barriers creating a stable extracellular milieu...
January 2015: Physiological Reviews
Christiane Becker, Mónica Orozco, Noel W Solomons, Klaus Schümann
The change from a mainly vegetarian fare to meat consumption went along with brain growth and increased insulin resistance to improve brain's glucose supply. Meat consumption increased iron bioavailability and, thus, physical and mental fitness. The "predation-release-hypothesis" proposes that group coordination, arms and fire abolished the survival advantage of lean individuals from predation. The "thrifty gene-hypothesis", in contrast, proposes that surviving repeated episodes of starvation increased efficiency of food utilization in the offspring; they learned to utilize every available calorie...
April 2015: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
A Oberbach, N Schlichting, M Heinrich, Y Kullnick, S Lehmann, V Adams, J-W Stolzenburg, J Neuhaus
BACKGROUND: Obesity with its multiple comorbidities has become a global pandemia. We here report on the pathophysiological aspects of obesity-associated urinary bladder dysfunctions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our results are based on multiple in vitro and in vivo studies including a high fat diet (HFD) rat animal model of which the details are given in the cited publications. RESULTS: In cultured human detrusor muscle cells, obesity-related pathophysiological mechanisms were directly induced by the saturated free fatty acid palmitate...
December 2014: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Leyda Sánchez, Lourdes García-Fragoso
UNLABELLED: Healthcare associated influenza is a serious public health problem that contributes to patient morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine the seasonal influenza vaccination rate and reasons for its acceptance among healthcare workers in a hospital located at the metropolitan area of Puerto Rico. METHODS: Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were distributed to 120 volunteer healthcare workers and ancillary staff. RESULTS: Immunization rates for the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1), seasonal vaccines 2009 and 2010 seasonal influenza vaccine were 50%, 53% and 65%, respectively...
2013: Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico
Patrizia Burra
The liver and its pleotropic functions play a fundamental role in regulating metabolism, and is also an inevitable target of multiple metabolic disorders. The numerous and constant relationships and feedback mechanisms between the liver and all endocrine organs is reflected by the fact that an alteration of one oftentimes results in the malfunction of the other. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism are frequently associated with hepatic alterations, and thyroid diseases must be excluded in transaminase elevation of unknown cause...
August 2013: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
V N Titov
Virchow's cellular pathology indirectly points at structural units between cells and organs in vivo and at universal mechanisms underlying the condition of health or disease. In order to substantiate similarity of pathogeneses of atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity we suggest a phylogenetic theory which includes: 1) consideration of physiological and pathological processes in vivo from the viewpoint of biological functions and biological reactions. 2) Phylogenesis of metabolic regulation at the levels of: a) cells (autocrine), b) paracrine cell communities, i...
April 2013: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
Katarina Hjelm, Karin Bard
The study explored beliefs about health and illness in Latin American migrants diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in Sweden, and investigated the influence on health-related behavior including self-care and care-seeking behavior. Migrants are particularly affected in the diabetes pandemia. Beliefs about health and illness determine health-related behaviour and health but no studies have been found on Latin American migrants with DM. An explorative study design with focus-group interviews of nine persons aged 36-77 years from a diabetes clinic was used...
2013: Open Nursing Journal
Giovanni Tarantino, Antonella Scalera, Carmine Finelli
Spleen has been considered a neglected organ so far, even though is strictly linked to liver. The spleen plays an important role in the modulation of the immune system and in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance via the clearance of circulating apoptotic cells, the differentiation and activation of T and B cells and production of antibodies in the white pulp. Moreover, splenic macrophages are able to remove bacteria from the blood and protect from sepsis during systemic infections. We review the spleen function and its assessment in humans starting from the description of spleen diseases, ranging from the congenital asplenia to secondary hyposplenism...
June 21, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
G Messina, V De Luca, An Viggiano, A Ascione, T Iannaccone, S Chieffi, M Monda
The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the industrialized world, so that the World Health Organization considers obesity as a "pandemia" in rich populations. The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance and body weight. This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight. Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity...
2013: Neurology Research International
Florin Mihălţan
Tobacco use is a real and hard to beat pandemia, caused mainly by well organized, very persistent and extremly aggressive efforts of the tobacco industry. There is nothing to much for industry, and the ones that stand and fight against this pandemia must be very aware of the unethical and unfair methods used by the enemy.
October 2012: Pneumologia: Revista Societății Române de Pneumologie
M Muscaritoli, S Lucia, A Molfino
Alteration of muscle mass and function is often observed in critically ill patients and its etiology is multifactorial. Besides the effects of acute disease on muscle metabolism, intensive care stay may per se contribute to muscle derangements. Recently, the concept of sarcopenia has been completely revisited, and indicates the loss of muscle mass and function. Although sarcopenia is generally observed and diagnosed in older adults it may be present in different clinical settings, including critical illness...
July 2013: Minerva Anestesiologica
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