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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147721/osteomimicry-how-the-seed-grows-in-the-soil
#1
REVIEW
Nadia Rucci, Anna Teti
Metastasis is defined as a very inefficient process, since less than 0.01% of cancer cells injected into the circulation will engraft in a distant organ, where they must acquire the ability to survive and proliferate inside a "foreign" environment. In bone metastases, the interaction with the host organ is much more favoured if tumour cells gain "osteomimicry", that is the ability to resemble a resident bone cell (i.e. the osteoblast), thus intruding in the physiology of the bone. This is accomplished by the expression of osteoblast markers (e...
November 16, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146302/mechanisms-involved-in-bone-resorption-regulated-by-vitamin-d
#2
REVIEW
Yuko Nakamichi, Nobuyuki Udagawa, Tatsuo Suda, Naoyuki Takahashi
Active forms of vitamin D enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in osteoblast-lineage cells consisting of osteoblasts and osteocytes. This pro-resorptive activity was evident basically with higher concentrations of active vitamin D than those expected in physiological conditions. Nevertheless, vitamin D compounds have been used in Japan for treating osteoporosis to increase bone mineral density (BMD). Of note, the increase in BMD by long-term treatment with pharmacological (=near-physiological) doses of vitamin D compounds was caused by the suppression of bone resorption...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137139/deduction-of-novel-genes-potentially-involved-in-osteoblasts-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-using-next-generation-sequencing-and-bioinformatic-approaches
#3
Yi-Jen Chen, Wei-An Chang, Ya-Ling Hsu, Chia-Hsin Chen, Po-Lin Kuo
The role of osteoblasts in peri-articular bone loss and bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has gained much attention, and microRNAs are hypothesized to play critical roles in the regulation of osteoblast function in RA. The aim of this study is to explore novel microRNAs differentially expressed in RA osteoblasts and to identify genes potentially involved in the dysregulated bone homeostasis in RA. RNAs were extracted from cultured normal and RA osteoblasts for sequencing. Using the next generation sequencing and bioinformatics approaches, we identified 35 differentially expressed microRNAs and 13 differentially expressed genes with potential microRNA-mRNA interactions in RA osteoblasts...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134773/design-and-biological-functionality-of-a-novel-hybrid-ti-6al-4v-hydrogel-system-for-reconstruction-of-bone-defects
#4
Alok Kumar, K C Nune, R D K Misra
We have designed a unique injectable bioactive hydrogel comprising of alginate, gelatin, and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and loaded with osteoblasts, with the ability to infiltrate into three-dimensional Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds with interconnected porous architecture, fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM). A two-step crosslinking process using the EDC/NHS and CaCl2 was adopted and found to be effective in the fabrication of cell-loaded hydrogel/Ti-6Al-4V scaffold system. This hybrid Ti-6Al-4V scaffold/hydrogel system was designed for the reconstruction of bone defects, which are difficult to heal in the absence of suitable support materials...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131149/three-dimensional-map-of-nonhematopoietic-bone-and-bone-marrow-cells-and-molecules
#5
Daniel L Coutu, Konstantinos D Kokkaliaris, Leo Kunz, Timm Schroeder
The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment contains many types of cells and molecules with roles in hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, angiogenesis and metabolism. The spatial distribution of the different bone and BM cell types remains elusive, owing to technical challenges associated with bone imaging. To map nonhematopoietic cells and structures in bone and BM, we performed multicolor 3D imaging of osteoblastic, vascular, perivascular, neuronal and marrow stromal cells, and extracellular-matrix proteins in whole mouse femurs...
November 13, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130392/a-novel-hybrid-multichannel-biphasic-calcium-phosphate-granule-based-composite-scaffold-for-cartilage-tissue-regeneration
#6
Albert Jung, Preeti Makkar, Jhaleh Amirian, Byong-Taek Lee
The objective of the present study was to develop a novel hybrid multichannel biphasic calcium phosphate granule (MCG)-based composite system for cartilage regeneration. First, hyaluronic acid-gelatin (HG) hydrogel was coated onto MCG matrix (MCG-HG). Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres was separately prepared and modified with polydopamine subsequent to BMP-7 loading (B). The surface-modified microspheres were finally embedded into MCG-HG scaffold to develop the novel hybrid (MCG-HG-PLGA-PD-B) composite system...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127064/multifunctional-ph-sensitive-3d-scaffolds-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-bone-infection
#7
Mónica Cicuéndez, Juan C Doadrio, Ana Hernández, M Teresa Portolés, Isabel Izquierdo-Barba, María Vallet-Regí
Multifunctional-therapeutic three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds have been prepared. These biomaterials are able to destroy the S. aureus bacterial biofilm and to allow bone regeneration at the same time. The present study is focused on the design of pH sensitive 3D hierarchical meso-macroporous 3D scaffolds based on MGHA nanocomposite formed by a mesostructured glassy network with embedded hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, whose mesopores have been loaded with levofloxacin (Levo) as antibacterial agent. These 3D platforms exhibit controlled and pH-dependent Levo release, sustained over time at physiological pH (7...
November 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126984/osteopontin-as-a-novel-substrate-for-the-proprotein-convertase-5-6-pcsk5-in-bone
#8
Betty Hoac, Delia Susan-Resiga, Rachid Essalmani, Edwige Marcinkiweicz, Nabil G Seidah, Marc D McKee
Seven proprotein convertases cleave the basic amino acid consensus sequence K/R-Xn-K/R↓ (where n=0, 2, 4 or 6 variable amino acids) to activate precursor proteins. Despite similarities in substrate specificity, basic amino acid-specific proprotein convertases have a distinct tissue distribution allowing for enzymatic actions on tissue-resident substrates. Proprotein convertase 5/6 (PC5/6) has two splice variants - soluble PC5/6A and membrane-bound PC5/6B - and is expressed during mouse development in many tissues including bone and tooth, but little is known about the substrates for PC5/6 therein...
November 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125885/mir-376c-inhibits-osteoblastogenesis-by-targeting-wnt3-and-arf-gef-1-facilitated-augmentation-of-beta-catenin-transactivation
#9
Jyoti Kureel, Aijaz A John, Ravi Prakash, Divya Singh
Wnt signaling pathway plays important role in all aspects of skeletal development which include chondrogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis. Induction of the Wnt signaling pathway promotes bone formation while inactivation of the pathway leads to bone related disorders like osteoporosis. Wnt signaling thus has become a desired target to treat osteogenic disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent an important category of elements that interact with Wnt signaling molecules to regulate osteogenesis...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123118/substrate-microarchitecture-shapes-the-paracrine-crosstalk-of-stem-cells-with-endothelial-cells-and-osteoblasts
#10
Francisco Martín-Saavedra, Lara Crespo, Clara Escudero-Duch, Laura Saldaña, Enrique Gómez-Barrena, Nuria Vilaboa
We examined the hypothesis that substrate microarchitecture regulates the crosstalk between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and cell types involved in bone regeneration. Compared with polyester flat substrates having uniformly distributed homogenous pores (2D), three-dimensional polystyrene substrates with randomly oriented and interconnected pores of heterogeneous size (3D) stimulated the stromal secretion of IGF-1 while lessened the production of VEGFR-1, MCP-1 and IL-6. The medium conditioned by hMSC cultured in 3D substrates stimulated tube formation by human endothelial cells (hEC) to a higher extent than medium from 2D cultures...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122983/restricted-cell-functions-on-micropillars-are-alleviated-by-surface-nanocoating-with-amino-groups
#11
Caroline Moerke, Susanne Staehlke, Henrike Rebl, Birgit Finke, J Barbara Nebe
The topographical and chemical surface features of biomaterials are sensed by the cells, affecting their physiology at the interface. On titanium we recently discovered an attempted caveolae-mediated phagocytosis of the sharp-edged microstructures by osteoblasts. This active, energy-consuming process resulted in decreased osteoblastic cell functions, e.g. extracellular matrix proteins. However, chemical modification with plasma polymerized allylamine (PPAAm) was able to amplify osteoblast adhesion and spreading, resulting in better implant osseointegration in vivo In the present in vitro study we analyzed whether this plasma polymer nanocoating is able to attenuate the microtopography-induced changes of osteoblast physiology...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109339/effects-of-surface-microtopography-of-titanium-disks-on-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-osteoblast-like-cells-isolated-from-rat-calvariae
#12
Satoshi Yokose, Perry R Klokkevold, Henry H Takei, Hiroshi Kadokura, Tetsuya Kikui, Yasushi Hibino, Hirotaka Shigeta, Hiroshi Nakajima, Hiroshi Kawazu
The surface topography of implant fixture is an important factor affecting the osseointegration. We herein demonstrated the effects of surface microtopography of titanium disks on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells isolated from rat calvariae. Titanium disks with machine surface (MS), rough surface (R1) and rough surface combined with small cavities (R2) were used in an in vitro culture system. Rough surfaces (R1 and R2 disks) induced stronger osteoblast proliferation and differentiation (BGP and sclerostin mRNA expressions and calcium content) than the smooth surface (MS disk)...
November 3, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108957/matrix-vesicles-from-chondrocytes-and-osteoblasts-their-biogenesis-properties-functions-and-biomimetic-models
#13
REVIEW
Massimo Bottini, Saida Mebarek, Karen L Anderson, Agnieszka Strzelecka-Kiliszek, Lukasz Bozycki, Ana Maria Sper Simão, Maytê Bolean, Pietro Ciancaglini, Joanna Bandorowicz Pikula, Slawomir Pikula, David Magne, Niels Volkmann, Dorit Hanein, José Luis Millán, Rene Buchet
BACKGROUND: Matrix vesicles (MVs) are released from hypertrophic chondrocytes and from mature osteoblasts, the cells responsible for endochondral and membranous ossification. Under pathological conditions, they can also be released from cells of non-skeletal tissues such as vascular smooth muscle cells. MVs are extracellular vesicles of approximately 100-300nm diameter harboring the biochemical machinery needed to induce mineralization. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: The review comprehensively delineates our current knowledge of MV biology and highlights open questions aiming to stimulate further research...
November 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107125/degradation-of-extracellular-matrix-regulates-osteoblast-migration-a-microfluidic-based-study
#14
N Movilla, C Borau, C Valero, J M García-Aznar
Bone regeneration is strongly dependent on the capacity of cells to move in a 3D microenvironment, where a large cascade of signals is activated. To improve the understanding of this complex process and to advance in the knowledge of the role of each specific signal, it is fundamental to analyze the impact of each factor independently. Microfluidic-based cell culture is an appropriate technology to achieve this objective, because it allows recreating realistic 3D local microenvironments by taking into account the extracellular matrix, cells and chemical gradients in an independent or combined scenario...
October 26, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104478/extracorporeal-shockwave-therapy-enhances-expression-of-pdia-3-which-is-a-key-factor-of-the-1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-3-rapid-membrane-signaling-pathway-in-treatment-of-early-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee
#15
Shan-Ling Hsu, Jai-Hong Cheng, Ching-Jen Wang, Jih-Yang Ko, Chih-Hsiang Hsu
The goal of our research was demonstrated that multiple molecules in microenvironments of the early osteoarthritis (OA) joint tissue may be actively responded to extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) treatment, which potentially regulated biological function of chondrocytes and synovial cells in early OA knee. We demonstrated that shockwave treatment induced the expression of protein-disulfide isomerase-associated 3 (Pdia-3) which was a significant mediator of the 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) rapid signaling pathway, using two-dimensional electrophoresis, histological analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104472/emmprin-inhibits-bfgf-induced-il-6-secretion-in-an-osteoblastic-cell-line-mc3t3-e1
#16
Akari Saiki, Mitsuru Motoyoshi, Keiko Motozawa, Teinosuke Okamura, Kousuke Ueki, Noriyoshi Shimizu, Masatake Asano
Background: Electrolytically-generated acid functional water (FW) is obtained by electrolyzing low concentrations of saline. Although it has been widely used in clinical practice with various purposes, the underlying mechanisms of action involved have not been fully elucidated so far. We used the human cervical cancer-derived fibroblastic cell line (HeLa), to examine the cytokine secretion profile following FW treatment in the present study. Results: FW stimulation significantly induced the secretion of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN)...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101870/enhanced-biological-properties-of-biomimetic-apatite-fabricated-polycaprolactone-chitosan-nanofibrous-bio-composite-for-tendon-and-ligament-regeneration
#17
Geng Wu, Xuefeng Deng, Jinqi Song, Feiqiang Chen
The development of tailored nanofibrous scaffolds for tendon and ligament tissue engineering has been a goal of clinical research for current researchers. Here, we establish a formation of novel nanofibrous matrix with significant mechanical and biological properties by electro-spinning process. The fine fibrous morphology of the nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HAp) dispersed in the polycaprolactone/chitosan (HAp-PCL/CS) nanofibrous matrix was exhibited by microscopic (SEM and TEM) techniques. The favorable mechanical properties (load and modulus) were achieved...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098360/established-models-and-new-paradigms-for-hypoxia-driven-cancer-associated-bone-disease
#18
REVIEW
Thomas R Cox, Janine T Erler, Robin M H Rumney
The five-year survival rate for primary bone cancers is ~ 70% while almost all cases of secondary metastatic bone cancer are terminal. Hypoxia, the deficiency of oxygen which occurs as the rate of tumour growth exceeds the supply of vascularisation, is a key promoter of tumour progression. Hypoxia-driven effects in the primary tumour are wide ranging including changes in gene expression, dysregulation of signalling pathways, resistance to chemotherapy, neovascularisation, increased tumour cell proliferation and migration...
November 2, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093986/static-magnetic-fields-promote-osteoblastic-cementoblastic-differentiation-in-osteoblasts-cementoblasts-and-periodontal-ligament-cells
#19
Eun-Cheol Kim, Jaesuh Park, Il Keun Kwon, Suk-Won Lee, Su-Jung Park, Su-Jin Ahn
Purpose: Although static magnetic fields (SMFs) have been used in dental prostheses and osseointegrated implants, their biological effects on osteoblastic and cementoblastic differentiation in cells involved in periodontal regeneration remain unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of SMFs (15 mT) on the osteoblastic and cementoblastic differentiation of human osteoblasts, periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), and cementoblasts, and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying these effects...
October 2017: Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090300/heterogeneous-and-self-organizing-mineralization-of-bone-matrix-promoted-by-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticles
#20
G Campi, F Cristofaro, G Pani, M Fratini, B Pascucci, P A Corsetto, B Weinhausen, A Cedola, A M Rizzo, L Visai, G Rea
The mineralization process is crucial to the load-bearing characteristics of the bone extracellular matrix. In this work, we have studied the spatiotemporal dynamics of mineral deposition by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiating toward osteoblasts promoted by the presence of exogenous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. At the molecular level, the added nanoparticles positively modulated the expression of bone-specific markers and enhanced calcified matrix deposition during osteogenic differentiation...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
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