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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775761/the-bone-anabolic-effects-of-irisin-are-through-preferential-stimulation-of-aerobic-glycolysis
#1
Dingdong Zhang, ChuHyun Bae, Junghak Lee, Jiho Lee, Zeyu Jin, Myeongmo Kang, Young Suk Cho, Jeong-Han Kim, Weontae Lee, Sung-Kil Lim
Irisin, a recently identified hormone secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, exhibits anabolic effects on the skeleton primarily through the stimulation of bone formation. However, the mechanism underlying the irisin-stimulated anabolic response remains largely unknown. To uncover the underlying mechanism, we biosynthesized recombinant irisin (r-irisin) using an Escherichia coli expression system and used it to treat several osteoblast cell types. Our synthesized r-irisin could promote proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts as evidenced by enhanced expression of osteoblast-specific transcriptional factors, including Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), Oster (Osx), as well as early osteoblastic differentiation markers such as alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1a1)...
May 15, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775627/acquisition-of-tumorigenic-potential-and-therapeutic-resistance-in-cd133-subpopulation-of-prostate-cancer-cells-exhibiting-stem-cell-like-characteristics
#2
Rajnee Kanwal, Sanjeev Shukla, Ethan Walker, Sanjay Gupta
The role of CD133 (Prominin-1) as a cancer stem cell marker may be useful for therapeutic approaches and prognostication in prostate cancer patients. We investigated the stem-cell-related function and biological features of a subpopulation of CD133+ cells isolated from established primary human prostate cancer cell lines. The CD133+ cells sorted from human prostate cancer 22Rv1 exhibited high clonogenic and tumorigenic capabilities, sphere forming capacity and serially reinitiated transplantable tumors in NOD-SCID mice...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775615/extracellular-matrix-protein-dmp1-suppresses-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Shufan Zhang, Huixuan Wan, Peng Wang, Mengmeng Liu, Gongchen Li, Chunxue Zhang, Yao Sun
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are self-renewing and multipotent stem cells which was investigated for diverse clinical applications. However, complex mechanism of MSCs fate determination is still not fully disclosed. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins contribute to maintain MSCs stemness by providing extracellular microenvironment. Increasing evidences show that ECM proteins could also regulate the fate of MSCs directly. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an ECM protein enrich in bone tissue and terminal cells, which well-known in promoting osteoblasts and osteocytes maturation, and facilitate mineralization...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775452/the-effects-of-a-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-on-the-proliferation-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#4
Yukun Yin, Ping Chen, Qiang Yu, Yan Peng, ZeHao Zhu, Jing Tian
BACKGROUND A low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been confirmed to play an important role in promoting the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) possess some attractive characteristics for clinical application compared to BMSCs, such as abundant stem cells from lipoaspirates, faster growth, less discomfort and morbidity during surgery. ASCs can become adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, neurocytes, and other cell types...
May 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774066/caveolae-mediated-mesenchymal-stem-cell-labelling-by-pss-coated-plga-pfob-nano-contrast-agent-for-mri
#5
Hieu Vu Quang, Chi-Chih Chang, Ping Song, Ellen-Margrethe Hauge, Jørgen Kjems
Rationale: Non-invasive tracking of transplanted cells is critical in evaluating delivery, migration and prognosis of cell therapies. Methods: We formulated a nano-contrast agent consisting of a perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) core within a shell of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) followed by a coat of polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) for 19 F MRI. The nano-contrast agent (PSS-NP) was characterised by DLS and the uptake efficiency of the nano-contrast agent (PSS-NP) was tested using flow cytometry, in vitro MRI and confocal microscopy...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773402/hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose-hpmc-crosslinked-chitosan-ch-based-scaffolds-containing-bioactive-glass-bg-and-zinc-oxide-zno-for-alveolar-bone-repair
#6
Rabia Zeeshan, Zeeshan Mutahir, Haffsah Iqbal, Moazzam Ali, Farasat Iqbal, Kashif Ijaz, Faiza Sharif, Asma Tufail Shah, Aqif Anwar Chaudhry, Muhammad Yar, Shifang Luan, Ather Farooq Khan, Ihtesham-Ur-Rehman
The success of a dental implant relies on the presence of an optimal alveolar ridge. The aim of this study was to fabricate HPMC crosslinked chitosan based scaffolds for alveolar bone repair. Our results indicated that HPMC crosslinked CH/BG foams presented better morphological structure (132-90.5 μm) and mechanical responses (0.451 MPa with 100 mg BG) as confirmed by SEM analysis and fatigue testing respectively. Cytotoxicity analysis at day 2, 4 and 8 demonstrated that all composites were non-toxic and supported cellular viability...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772722/ethnobotany-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-effects-of-plants-in-genus-cynanchum-linn-asclepiadaceae
#7
REVIEW
Lu Han, Xiuping Zhou, Mengmeng Yang, Li Zhou, Xinxin Deng, Shijie Wei, Wenping Wang, Zhizhong Wang, Xue Qiao, Changcai Bai
Genus Cynanchum L. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae, which comprise more than 200 species distributed worldwide. In Chinese medical practice, numerous drugs (such as tablets and powders) containing different parts of plants of this genus are used to treat snake bites, bruises, osteoblasts, rheumatoid arthritis and tumors. A search for original articles published on the cynanchum genus was performed by using several resources, including Flora of China Official Website and various scientific databases, such as PubMed, SciFinder, the Web of Science, Science Direct, and China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI)...
May 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772510/dkk1-and-kremen-expression-predicts-the-osteoblastic-response-to-bone-metastasis
#8
Katrina L Clines, Gregory A Clines
Bone metastasis is a complication of advanced breast and prostate cancer. Tumor-secreted Dickkopf homolog 1 (DKK1), an inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling and osteoblast differentiation, was proposed to regulate the osteoblastic response to metastatic cancer in bone. The objectives of this study were to compare DKK1 expression with the in vivo osteoblastic response in a panel of breast and prostate cancer cell lines, and to discover mechanisms that regulate cancer DKK1 expression. DKK1 expression was highest in MDA-MB-231 and PC3 cells that produce osteolytic lesions, and hence a suppressed osteoblastic response, in animal models of bone metastasis...
May 14, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772348/biosafety-stability-and-osteogenic-activity-of-novel-implants-made-of-zr-70-ni-16-cu-6-al-8-bulk-metallic-glass-for-biomedical-application
#9
Hiroto Ida, Masahiro Seiryu, Nobuo Takeshita, Masanari Iwasaki, Yoshihiko Yokoyama, Yusuke Tsutsumi, Etsuko Ikeda, Satoshi Sasaki, Shunro Miyashita, Shutaro Sasaki, Tomohiro Fukunaga, Toru Deguchi, Teruko Takano-Yamamoto
Superior mechanical and chemical properties of Zr70 Ni16 Cu6 Al8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) demonstrate its promise as a novel biomaterial for fabrication of implants. The aim of the present study was to validate mechanical, chemical, and biological properties of Zr70 Ni16 Cu6 Al8 BMG through comparison with titanium (Ti). Our data indicated higher tensile strength, lower Young's modulus, and reduced metal ion release of Zr70 Ni16 Cu6 Al8 BMG compared with Ti. Biosafety of bone marrow mesenchymal cells on Zr70 Ni16 Cu6 Al8 BMG was comparable to that of Ti...
May 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771602/irisin-promotes-proliferation-but-inhibits-differentiation-in-osteoclast-precursor-cells
#10
Yaxian Ma, Xiaoyong Qiao, Rujun Zeng, Ran Cheng, Jun Zhang, Yunyao Luo, Ying Nie, Ying Hu, Zhilan Yang, Jing Zhang, Lin Liu, Wenming Xu, Charles C Xu, Liangzhi Xu
The receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation has a critical role in the process of bone metabolism. Overactivation of osteoclastogenesis may result in a series of diseases. Irisin, a novel myokine, which was first reported in 2012, has been proposed to mediate the beneficial metabolic effects of exercise. Studies have demonstrated that irisin targets osteoblasts by promoting osteoblast proliferation and differentiation; however, the underlying mechanism regarding the effect of irisin on osteoclasts remains elusive...
May 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771446/simvastatin-induces-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mscs-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-to-promote-fracture-healing
#11
M Zhang, Y-Q Bian, H-M Tao, X-F Yang, W-D Mu
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether Simvastatin could facilitate osteogenic differentiation of rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by modulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, thus promoting fracture healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow specimens and their purity was identified. The third generation of MSCs was cultured in osteoinduction medium containing simvastatin of gradient concentration, and the highest dose of simvastatin that did not cause cell proliferation was determined by the result of the CCK8 assay...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771444/low-level-laser-irradiation-promotes-the-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-into-osteoblasts-through-the-apn-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#12
R-F Zhang, Q Wang, A-A Zhang, J-G Xu, L-D Zhai, X-M Yang, X-T Liu
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between adiponectin (APN) pathway and Wnt pathway was explored through BMSCs, and the effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and its mechanism were further studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected, and mesenchymal stem cells were separately cultured and purified. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to analyze cell proliferation...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770951/requirement-of-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-for-effect-of-fluoride-on-osteoblastic-differentiation
#13
Jingmin Zhang, Ningning Jiang, Haolan Yu, Xiuhua Yu, Fengyang Guo, Zhitao Zhao, Hui Xu
Research focused on transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling in osteoblast is gradually increasing, whereas literature is rare in terms of fluorosis. This work aimed to investigate how TGFβ signaling participated in regulation of the osteoblast by different doses of fluoride treatment. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were developed into osteoblastic cells and exposed to 1, 4, and 16 mg/L F- with and without 10 ng/mL of TGFβ. Cell viability and differentiation state of osteoblast under different settings were measured by means of cell counting kit and analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as formation of mineral nodules...
May 16, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770592/particles-of-vaterite-a-metastable-caco-3-polymorph-exhibit-high-biocompatibility-for-human-osteoblasts-and-endothelial-cells-and-may-serve-as-a-biomaterial-for-rapid-bone-regeneration
#14
Romina Schröder, Laura Besch, Hannah Pohlit, Martin Panthöfer, Wilfried Roth, Holger Frey, Wolfgang Tremel, Ronald E Unger
We have previously described a promising alternative to conventional synthetic bone biomaterials using vaterite, a metastable CaCO3 polymorph, that increases the local Ca2+ concentration in vitro and leads to an over-saturation of phosphate, the primary bone mineral. This stimulates a natural bone-like mineralization in a short period of time. In this study, sterile and endotoxin-free vaterite particles were synthesized in a nearly quantitative yield. The 500-1000 nm vaterite particles did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects as measured by MTT, LDH or crystal violet assays on the human osteoblast cell line (MG-63) exposed to concentrations up to 500 μg/ml vaterite up to 72 hr...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770568/injection-of-synthetic-mesenchymal-stem-cell-mitigates-osteoporosis-in-rats-after-ovariectomy
#15
Miaoda Shen, Ronghuan Wu, Rilong Jin, Jun Pan, Fang Guo, Zhuoyang Li, Xiangjin Lin, Sanzhong Xu
Osteoporosis is a severe skeletal disorder. Patients have a low bone mineral density and bone structural deterioration. Mounting lines of evidence suggest that inappropriate apoptosis of osteoblasts/osteocytes leads to maladaptive bone remodelling in osteoporosis. It has been suggested that transplantation of stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells, may alter the trajectory of bone remoulding and mitigate osteoporosis in animal models. However, stem cells needed to be carefully stored and characterized before usage...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769725/mxra8-is-a-receptor-for-multiple-arthritogenic-alphaviruses
#16
Rong Zhang, Arthur S Kim, Julie M Fox, Sharmila Nair, Katherine Basore, William B Klimstra, Rebecca Rimkunas, Rachel H Fong, Hueylie Lin, Subhajit Poddar, James E Crowe, Benjamin J Doranz, Daved H Fremont, Michael S Diamond
Arthritogenic alphaviruses comprise a group of enveloped RNA viruses that are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes and cause debilitating acute and chronic musculoskeletal disease 1 . The host factors required for alphavirus entry remain poorly characterized 2 . Here we use a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9-based screen to identify the cell adhesion molecule Mxra8 as an entry mediator for multiple emerging arthritogenic alphaviruses, including chikungunya, Ross River, Mayaro and O'nyong nyong viruses. Gene editing of mouse Mxra8 or human MXRA8 resulted in reduced levels of viral infection of cells and, reciprocally, ectopic expression of these genes resulted in increased infection...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769195/osteocyte-driven-downregulation-of-snail-restrains-effects-of-drd2-inhibitors-on-mammary-tumor-cells
#17
Shengzhi Liu, Yao Fan, Andy Chen, Aydin Jalali, Kazumasa Minami, Kazuhiko Ogawa, Harikrishna Nakshatri, Bai-Yan Li, Hiroki Yokota
While bone is a frequent target of breast cancer-associated metastasis, little is known about the effects of tumor-bone interactions on the efficacy of tumor-suppressing agents. Here we examined the effect of two FDA-approved dopamine modulators, Fluphenazine (FP) and Trifluoperazine (TFP), on mammary tumor cells, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. These agents suppressed proliferation and migration of mammary tumor cells chiefly by antagonizing dopamine receptor D2 and reduced bone resorption by downregulating nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (Nfatc1)...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768924/enhanced-cell-growth-on-3d-graphene-scaffolds-implanted-with-nitrogen-ions
#18
Mengli Zhao, Ye Cao, Huanhuan Gong, Yanqiu Sun, Jianhua Deng, Dejun Li, Rongxin Wan, Hanqing Gu
One of the key challenges in engineering tissues for cell-based therapies is developing biocompatible scaffold materials to direct cell behavior. In this paper, the cytocompatibilities of a flexible three-dimensional graphene scaffold (3D-G) and the same scaffold implanted with nitrogen ions (N+ /3D-G) are compared using an in vitro assay based on 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The N+ /3D-G samples were prepared from low-temperature hydrothermally synthesized flexible 3D-G by ion implantation and were found to display improved adhesion and proliferation of rat osteoblast and mouse fibroblast cells...
May 16, 2018: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768878/nano-nets-covered-composite-nanofibers-with-enhanced-biocompatibility-and-mechanical-properties-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#19
Arjun Prasad Tiwari, Mahesh Kumar Joshi, Chan Hee Park, Cheol Sang Kim
Enhancing the biocompatibility profiles including cell attachment, growth, and viability and mechanical properties of designed synthetic scaffolds have an essential role in tissue engineering applications. Polymer blending is one of the most effective methods for providing new anticipated biomaterials for tissue scaffolds. Here, the blend solution of the different mass weight ratio of polycaprolactone (PCL) to human serum albumin (HSA) was subjected to fabricate nanocomposite spider-web-like membranes using electrospinning process...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768259/precise-intradermal-injection-of-nanofat-derived-stromal-cells-combined-with-platelet-rich-fibrin-improves-the-efficacy-of-facial-skin-rejuvenation
#20
Zhi-Jie Liang, Xiang Lu, De-Quan Li, Yi-Dan Liang, Dan-Dan Zhu, Fang-Xiao Wu, Xiao-Lin Yi, Ning He, Yan-Qing Huang, Chao Tang, Hong-Mian Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The rejuvenation properties of nanofat grafting have been described in recent years. However, it is not clear whether the clinical efficacy of the procedure is attributable to stem cells or linked to other components of adipose tissue. In this study we isolated nanofat-derived stem cells (NFSCs) to observe their biological characteristics and evaluate the efficacy of precise intradermal injection of nanofat combined with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in patients undergoing facial rejuvenation treatment...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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