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Y-M Weng, C-R Ke, J-Z Kong, H Chen, J-J Hong, D-S Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5) on the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of Mc3T3-E1 osteoblast as well as the effects of ATG5 on apoptosis of osteoblasts under the conditions of non-oxidative stress and oxidative stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ATG5 overexpressing and silencing cell lines were established in this experiment with lentiviral vector and transcription activator-like effect or nuclease (Talen) technique, respectively, using Mc3T3-E1 cells...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Song Xu, Fan Yang, Renwang Liu, Xiongfei Li, Haiyang Fan, Jinghao Liu, Sen Wei, Gang Chen, Jun Chen, Yurong Da
Bone remodeling can be interrupted by tumor cells which leads to an inappropriate balance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. As the progenitors of osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to exhibit an abnormal osteogenic differentiation potential in some cancer‑related bone lesions. However, the evidence is very limited in terms of the biological alterations of MSCs in the bone metastasis of non‑small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). We investigated the expression and function of miR‑139‑5p in MSC osteogenic differentiation in vitro in normal and NSCLC-exposed condition...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Jordi Guillem-Marti, Gerard Boix-Lemonche, Dencho Gugutkov, Maria-Pau Ginebra, George Altankov, Jose M Manero
AIM: To develop a nanofiber (NF)-based biomimetic coating on titanium (Ti) that mimics the complex spatiotemporal organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM). MATERIALS & METHODS: Recombinant cell attachment site (CAS) of fibronectin type III8-10 domain was co-electrospun with polylactic acid (PLA) and covalently bound on polished Ti discs. Osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells were used to evaluate their complex bioactivity. RESULTS: A significant increase of cell spreading was found on CAS/PLA hybrid NFs, followed by control pure PLA NFs and bare Ti discs...
March 22, 2018: Nanomedicine
Antonio Merolli, Stephanie Fung, N Sanjeeva Murthy, E Thomas Pashuck, Yong Mao, Xiaohuan Wu, Joseph A M Steele, Daniel Martin, Prabhas V Moghe, Timothy Bromage, Joachim Kohn
Osteoclasts are large multinucleated giant cells that actively resorb bone during the physiological bone turnover (BTO), which is the continuous cycle of bone resorption (by osteoclasts) followed by new bone formation (by osteoblasts). Osteoclasts secrete chemotactic signals to recruit cells for regeneration of vasculature and bone. We hypothesize that a biomaterial that attracts osteoclasts and re-establishes BTO will induce a better healing response than currently used bone graft materials. While the majority of bone regeneration efforts have focused on maximizing bone deposition, the novelty in this approach is the focus on stimulating osteoclastic resorption as the starter for BTO and its concurrent new vascularized bone formation...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Bongjun Kim, Hong-Hee Kim, Zang Hee Lee
Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting women and has a high incidence of bone metastasis, causing osteolytic lesions. The elevated expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in cancer activates osteoclasts, leading to bone destruction. We previously reported that α-tocopheryl succinate (αTP-suc) inhibited interleukin-1-induced RANKL expression in osteoblasts. Here, we examined the effect of αTP-suc on osteolytic bone metastasis in breast cancer...
February 2018: Journal of Bone Metabolism
Sarath Chandra Veerla, Da Reum Kim, Sung Yun Yang
Background: Controlled drug delivery system is highly important for not only prolonged the efficacy of drug but also cellular development for tissue engineering. A number of biopolymer composites and nanostructured carriers behave been used for the controlled drug delivery of therapeutics. Recently, in vitro microfluidic devices that mimic the human body have been developed for drug-delivery applications. Methods: A microfluidic channel was fabricated via a two-step process: (i) polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and curing agent were poured with a 10:2 mass ratio onto an acrylic mold with two steel pipes, and (ii) calcium alginate beads were synthesized using sodium alginate and calcium chloride solutions...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Eva Svandova, Barbora Vesela, Abigail S Tucker, Eva Matalova
Caspases are well known proteases in the context of inflammation and apoptosis. Recently, novel roles of pro-apoptotic caspases have been reported, including findings related to the development of hard tissues. To further investigate these emerging functions of pro-apoptotic caspases, the in vivo localisation of key pro-apoptotic caspases (-3,-6,-7,-8, and -9) was assessed, concentrating on the development of two neighbouring hard tissues, cells participating in odontogenesis (represented by the first mouse molar) and intramembranous osteogenesis (mandibular/alveolar bone)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Masanari Seike, Yoshiki Omatsu, Hitomi Watanabe, Gen Kondoh, Takashi Nagasawa
Bone marrow is the tissue filling the space between bone surfaces. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained by special microenvironments known as niches within bone marrow cavities. Mesenchymal cells, termed CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)-abundant reticular (CAR) cells or leptin receptor-positive (LepR+ ) cells, are a major cellular component of HSC niches that gives rise to osteoblasts in bone marrow. However, it remains unclear how osteogenesis is prevented in most CAR/LepR+ cells to maintain HSC niches and marrow cavities...
March 21, 2018: Genes & Development
Peng Zhang, Liang Wang, Sheng Wang, Binchen Shan, Zhiqiang Zhou, Hui Zhang, Fan Yang, Xiao Wang, Ye Yuan, Youjia Xu
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a global health issue. Although a lack of estrogen is considered the major reason for postmenopausal osteoporosis, other factors might also contribute the etiology of the disease. In previous reports, we and others proposed that iron accumulation after menopause accelerates osteoporosis, and here we genetically modified the expression of an endogenous hormone, hepcidin, to modulate iron status in a mouse model. Our results show that hepcidin levels negatively correlate with bone loss in both knockout and overexpression (with ovariectomy) murine models...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Hyunhee Ahn, Ravi R Patel, Anthony J Hoyt, Angela S P Lin, F Brennan Torstrick, Robert E Guldberg, Carl P Frick, R Dana Carpenter, Christopher M Yakacki, Nick J Willett
Poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) is a novel aromatic polymer with higher strength and stiffness than polyetheretherketone (PEEK), the gold standard material for polymeric load-bearing orthopaedic implants. The amorphous structure of PPP makes it relatively straightforward to manufacture different architectures, while maintaining mechanical properties. PPP is promising as a potential orthopaedic material; however, the biocompatibility and osseointegration have not been well investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate biological and mechanical behavior of PPP, with or without porosity, in comparison to PEEK...
March 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Yu-Show Fu, Chia-Hui Lu, Kuo-An Chu, Chang-Ching Yeh, Tung-Lin Chiang, Tsui-Ling Ko, Mei-Miao Chiu, Cheng-Fong Chen
We examined the effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) in Wharton's jelly on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis by using in vitro and in vivo experiments. Two months after OVX, the rats gained weight and had a decreased serum estradiol level . Both micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histochemical analyses revealed a marked decrease in the bone volume (BV) and collagen content within the head, neck, and distal condyle of the femur, indicating that the osteoporosis animal model was successfully established 2 mo after bilateral OVX...
January 2018: Cell Transplantation
L X Zhang, Y M Balani, Sophia Trinh, Henry M Kronenberg, Yiming Mu
Objective: To investigate the distinct effects of intermittent and continuous administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). Methods: Six weeks old mice with C57/BL6J background and SOX9-creERT/Td-tomato/Osteocalcin-GFP genotype were divided into 6 groups: intermittent administration and withdraw group (subcutaneous injection with PTH 500 μg·kg-1 ·d-1 ), continuous administration and withdraw group (subcutaneous implantation of PTH pump, 80 μg·kg-1 ·d-1, with a rate of 0...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Wing Lee Chan, Magdalena Steiner, Tomasz Witkos, Johannes Egerer, Björn Busse, Shuji Mizumoto, Jan M Pestka, Haikuo Zhang, Ingrid Hausser, Layal Abo Khayal, Claus-Eric Ott, Mateusz Kolanczyk, Bettina Willie, Thorsten Schinke, Chiara Paganini, Antonio Rossi, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Michael Amling, Petra Knaus, Danny Chan, Martin Lowe, Stefan Mundlos, Uwe Kornak
Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO) is characterized by skin laxity and early-onset osteoporosis. GORAB, the responsible disease gene, encodes a small Golgi protein of poorly characterized function. To circumvent neonatal lethality of the GorabNull full knockout, Gorab was conditionally inactivated in mesenchymal progenitor cells (Prx1-cre), pre-osteoblasts (Runx2-cre), and late osteoblasts/osteocytes (Dmp1-cre), respectively. While in all three lines a reduction in trabecular bone density was evident, only GorabPrx1 and GorabRunx2 mutants showed dramatically thinned, porous cortical bone and spontaneous fractures...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Ji-Young Song, Seong-Gon Kim, Na-Rae Park, Je-Yong Choi
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway by 4-hexylresorcinol (4HR), which was activated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in osteoblasts, and new bone formation by 4HR-incorporated porcine bone in an animal model. STUDY DESIGN: For the confirmation of successful incorporation of 4HR into porcine bone, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analysis were performed...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Lucie Matouskova, Michal Ackermann, Jana Horakova, Lukas Capek, Petr Henys, Jiri Safka
The study investigates the potential for producing medical components via Selective Laser Melting technology (SLM). The material tested consisted of the biocompatible titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. The research involved the testing of laboratory specimens produced using SLM technology both in vitro and for surface roughness. The aim of the research was to clarify whether SLM technology affects the cytocompatibility of implants and, thus, whether SLM implants provide suitable candidates for medical use following zero or minimum post-fabrication treatment...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Dong-Uk Yang, Muhammad Hanif Siddiqi, Sungeun Ahn, Sera Kang, Hae-Yong Noh, Deok-Chun Yang
Osteoporosis is a widespread musculoskeletal deformity that affects thousands of older people every year, leading to bone abnormalities and ultimately increasing the risk of bone fractures in both genders. It is considered a lethal disease causing death in thousands of people at the late stage of life. Dendropanax morbifera Leveille is a subtropical broad-leaved prevalent species in Korea. Extracts of the leaves, stems, roots, and seeds of D. morbifera have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases such as diabetes, atherogenesis, skin disorders, and headaches...
March 20, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Shu-Mei Chen, Yi-Jen Peng, Chih-Chien Wang, Sui-Lung Su, Donald M Salter, Herng-Sheng Lee
Glucocorticoid therapy, especially at higher doses, is associated with significant adverse side effects including osteoporosis. Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, has diverse effects on bone tissue regulation. As glucocorticoids stimulate leptin synthesis and secretion directly in adipose tissue we hypothesised that dexamethasone (DEX) induced osteoporosis may, in part, be mediated by an osteoblast dependent leptin-leptin receptor pathway. Human bone cells expressed leptin and leptin receptors (Ob-Ra and Ob-Rb)...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Xingxing Shi, Kai Zhou, Fei Huang, Juan Zhang, Chen Wang
Background: As a potentially bioactive material, the widespread application of nanosized hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP) in the field of bone regeneration has increased the risk of human exposure. However, our understanding of the interaction between nano-HAP and stem cells implicated in bone repair remains incomplete. Methods: Here, we characterized the adhesion and cellular internalization of HAP nanoparticles (HANPs) with different sizes (20 nm np20 and 80 nm np80) and highlighted the involved pathway in their uptake using human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSCs)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Quanwei Zhang, Qi Wang, Jishang Gong, Jiaxing Du, Yong Zhang, Xingxu Zhao
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) recapitulates many of the activities of insulin and promotes differentiation of myoblasts and osteoblasts, which likely contribute to genetic variations of growth potential. However, little is known about the functions and signaling properties of IGF2 variants in yaks. The over-expression vector and knockdown sequence of yak IGF2 were transfected into yak fibroblasts, and the effects were detected by a series of assays. IGF2 expression in yak muscle tissues was significantly lower than that of other tissues...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Klemen Čamernik, Ariana Barlič, Matej Drobnič, Janja Marc, Matjaž Jeras, Janja Zupan
The musculoskeletal system includes tissues that have remarkable regenerative capabilities. Bone and muscle sustain micro-damage throughout the lifetime, yet they continue to provide the body with the support that is needed for everyday activities. Our current understanding is that the regenerative capacity of the musculoskeletal system can be attributed to the mesenchymal stem/ stromal cells (MSCs) that reside within its different anatomical compartments. These MSCs can replenish various tissues with progenitor cells to form functional cells, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, and others...
March 20, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
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