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clinical infectious disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335189/synergistic-antibacterial-effects-of-nanoparticles-encapsulated-with-scutellaria-baicalensis-and-pure-chlorhexidine-on-oral-bacterial-biofilms
#1
Ken Cham-Fai Leung, Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne, Xuan Li, Ping Chung Leung, Clara Bik San Lau, Chi-Hin Wong, Ka Yan Pang, Chun Wai Wong, Elaine Wat, Lijian Jin
Scutellariabaicalensis (SB) is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases. Our recent study shows potent antibacterial effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine (Nano-CHX). Herein, we explored the synergistic effects of the nanoparticle-encapsulated SB (Nano-SB) and Nano-CHX on oral bacterial biofilms. Loading efficiency of Nano-SB was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, and its releasing profile was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatographyusing baicalin (a flavonoid compound of SB) as the marker...
April 7, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333760/antibiotic-associated-apoptotic-enterocolitis-in-the-absence-of-a-defined-pathogen-the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-depletion
#2
Philipp Wurm, Walter Spindelboeck, Robert Krause, Johannes Plank, Gottfried Fuchs, Mina Bashir, Wolfgang Petritsch, Bettina Halwachs, Cord Langner, Christoph Högenauer, Gregor Gorkiewicz
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic therapy is a major risk factor for the development of diarrhea and colitis with varying severity. Often the origin of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal deterioration remains elusive and no specific infectious agents could be discerned. PATIENTS: We represent three cases of intractable high-volume diarrhea associated with combined antibiotic and steroid therapy in critically ill patients not fitting into established disease entities. Cases presented with severe apoptotic enterocolitis resembling acute intestinal graft-versus-host-disease...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333189/fully-automated-disc-diffusion-for-rapid-antibiotic-susceptibility-test-results-a-proof-of-principle-study
#3
Michael Hombach, Marion Jetter, Nicolas Blöchliger, Natalia Kolesnik-Goldmann, Erik C Böttger
Background: Antibiotic resistance poses a significant threat to patients suffering from infectious diseases. Early readings of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results could be of critical importance to ensure adequate treatment. Disc diffusion is a well-standardized, established and cost-efficient AST procedure; however, its use in the clinical laboratory is hampered by the many manual steps involved, and an incubation time of 16-18 h, which is required to achieve reliable test results...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332214/serum-eye-drops-a-survey-of-international-production-methods
#4
D C Marks, P F van der Meer
BACKGROUND: Serum eye drops (SEDs) are used to treat dry eye syndrome and non-healing corneal lesions when other treatments fail. Despite many clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy of both autologous and allogeneic SEDs, there is no internationally harmonized method for producing SEDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 40-question survey requesting information regarding donor selection, blood collection and processing, infectious disease screening, shelf life and regulatory requirements for the production of autologous and allogeneic SEDs was developed by the Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion Collaborative...
March 23, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331055/reticular-dysgenesis-international-survey-on-clinical-presentation-transplantation-and-outcome
#5
Manfred Hoenig, Chantal Lagresle-Peyrou, Ulrich Pannicke, Luigi D Notarangelo, Fulvio Porta, Andrew R Gennery, Mary Slatter, Morton J Cowan, Polina Stepensky, Hamoud Al-Mousa, Daifulah Al-Zahrani, Sung-Yun Pai, Waleed Al Herz, Hubert B Gaspar, Paul Veys, Koichi Oshima, Kohsuke Imai, Hiromasa Yabe, Lenora M Noroski, Nico M Wulffraat, Karl-Walter Sykora, Pere Soler-Palacin, Hideki Muramatsu, Mariam Al Hilali, Despina Moshous, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Catharina Schuetz, Eva-Maria Jacobsen, Ansgar S Schulz, Klaus Schwarz, Alain Fischer, Wilhelm Friedrich, Marina Cavazzana
Reticular Dysgenesis (RD) is a rare congenital disorder defined clinically by the combination of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), agranulocytosis and sensorineural deafness. Mutations in the gene encoding Adenylate Kinase 2 (AK2) were identified to cause the disorder. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only option to cure this otherwise fatal disease. Retrospective data on clinical presentation, genetics and outcome of HSCT were collected from centers in Europe, Asia and North America for a total of 32 patients born between 1982 and 2011...
March 22, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330886/preclinical-diagnosis-predicting-its-ability-to-improve-control-of-farm-to-farm-foot-and-mouth-disease-transmission-in-cattle
#6
Noel Nelson, David J Paton, Simon Gubbins, Claire Colenutt, Emma Brown, Sophia Hodgson, Jose L Gonzales
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can cause large disruptive epidemics in livestock. Current eradication measures rely on the rapid clinical detection and removal of infected herds. Here, we have evaluated the potential for preclinical diagnosis during reactive surveillance to reduce the risk of between farm transmission. We used data from transmission experiments in cattle where both individual animal samples, such as blood, probang, saliva or nasal swabs, and herd level samples, such as air samples, were taken daily during the course of infection...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330075/a-novel-multiplex-pcr-method-for-the-detection-of-virulence-associated-genes-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-food
#7
Vo Van Giau, Thuy Trang Nguyen, Thi Kim Oanh Nguyen, Thi Thuy Hang Le, Tien Dung Nguyen
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) strains are foodborne infectious agents that cause a number of life-threatening diseases, including hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin 1 (stx1), shiga toxin 2 (stx2), or a combination of both are responsible for most clinical symptoms of these diseases. Hence, various diagnostic methods have been developed so far to detect shiga toxins such as cell culture, ELISA, Rapid Latex Agglutination (RPLA) and hybridization, but due to high costs and labor time in addition to low sensitivity, they have not received much attention...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329653/introducing-public-health-themes-in-clinical-dermatology
#8
Scott A Norton
The ACGME's Core Competencies comprise six domains, which in turn contain dozens of often overlapping milestones. Several competencies explicitly invoke public health topics - but if one wears the right set of lenses, nearly every milestone, nearly every aspect of health and medicine, can be viewed from a public health perspective. Why then is Dermatology generally taught - and practiced - in an Intensive Care manner, where seemingly unlimited diagnostic & therapeutic efforts focus on single individuals, not the community?In this presentation, I argue that topics of public health concern should not be relegated to the minor leagues of GME...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328809/infectious-diseases-prevalence-vaccination-coverage-and-diagnostic-challenges-in-a-population-of-internationally-adopted-children-referred-to-a-tertiary-care-children-s-hospital-from-2009-to-2015
#9
Sara Sollai, Francesca Ghetti, Leila Bianchi, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli, Elena Chiappini
Infectious diseases are common in internationally adopted children (IAC).With the objective to evaluate infectious diseases prevalence in a large cohort of IAC and to explore possible risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) and parasitic infections, clinical and laboratory data at first screening visit of all IAC (<18 years) consecutively referred to our Center in 2009 to 2015 were collected and analyzed.In total, 1612 children (median age: 5.40 years; interquartile range: 3.00-7.90) were enrolled, 123/1612 (7...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327800/trypanosoma-cruzi-i-genotype-among-isolates-from-patients-with-chronic-chagas-disease-followed-at-the-evandro-chagas-national-institute-of-infectious-diseases-fiocruz-brazil
#10
Tatiana da Silva Fonseca de Oliveira, Barbara Neves Dos Santos, Tainah Silva Galdino, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Otilio Machado Pereira Bastos, Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease in humans, mainly in Latin America. Trypanosome stocks were isolated by hemoculture from patients followed at Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ) and studied using different approaches. METHODS: For species and genotype identification, the stocks were analyzed by parasitological techniques, polymerase chain reaction assays targeted to specific DNA sequences, isoenzyme patterns, besides sequencing of a polymorphic locus of TcSC5D gene (one stock)...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326402/total-joint-arthroplasty-in-patients-with-chronic-infectious-liver%C3%A2-disease
#11
Jeremy N Truntzer, Kalpit N Shah, Derek R Jenkins, Lee E Rubin
The opportunity for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in patients with chronic infectious liver disease is rapidly expanding. This is the product of both superior survival of chronic hepatitis patients, evolving implant technologies, and improvement of techniques in TJA. Unfortunately, treating this group of patients is not without significant challenges that can stem from both intrahepatic and extrahepatic clinical manifestations. Moreover, many subclinical changes occur in this cohort that can alter hemostasis, wound healing, and infection risk even in the asymptomatic patient...
June 2016: Arthroplasty Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326082/neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-otherwise-healthy-infants-failure-of-specific-neonatal-immune-responses
#12
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Jacques Fellay
Only a small proportion of newborn infants exposed to a pathogenic microorganism develop overt infection. Susceptibility to infection in preterm infants and infants with known comorbidities has a likely multifactorial origin and can be often attributed to the concurrence of iatrogenic factors, environmental determinants, underlying pathogenic processes, and probably genetic predisposition. Conversely, infection occurring in otherwise healthy full-term newborn infants is unexplained in most cases. Microbial virulence factors and the unique characteristics of the neonatal immune system only partially account for the interindividual variability in the neonatal immune responses to pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326064/contribution-of-ultra-deep-sequencing-in-the-clinical-diagnosis-of-a-new-fungal-pathogen-species-basidiobolus-meristosporus
#13
Emilie Sitterlé, Christophe Rodriguez, Roman Mounier, Julien Calderaro, Françoise Foulet, Michel Develoux, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky, Françoise Botterel
Some cases of fungal infection remained undiagnosed, especially when the pathogens are uncommon, require specific conditions for in vitro growth, or when several microbial species are present in the specimen. Ultra-Deep Sequencing (UDS) could be considered as a precise tool in the identification of involved pathogens in order to upgrade patient treatment. In this study, we report the implementation of UDS technology in medical laboratory during the follow-up of an atypical fungal infection case. Thanks to UDS technology, we document the first case of gastro-intestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB) due to Basidiobolus meristosporus...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325621/-diplopia-an-important-symptom-in-internal-medicine
#14
S Bidot, V Biousse
Diplopia is defined as "double vision" when looking at a single object. Monocular diplopia is related to an ocular disorder and must be differentiated from binocular diplopia which is secondary to ocular misalignment. The examination of the patient with binocular diplopia is often challenging for non-specialists. However, a careful and systematic clinical examination followed by targeted ancillary testing allows the clinician to localize the lesion along the oculomotor pathways. The lesion may involve the brainstem, the ocular motor nerves III, IV or VI, the neuromuscular junction, the extraocular ocular muscles, or the orbit...
March 18, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323753/budget-impact-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-french-clinic-cohort-anrs-gota
#15
Emmanuelle Papot, Roland Landman, Françoise Louni, Charlotte Charpentier, Gilles Peytavin, Agnès Certain, Clémence Fradet, Daniela Rojas Castro, Marie Preau, Cécile Goujard, Patrick Yeni, Yazdan Yazdanpanah
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we first assessed costs associated with the use of ART in an infectious diseases University Hospital Clinic, we secondly evaluated characteristics associated with these costs, and finally simulated the impact on the overall ART budget of switching 1- and 2-line regimens to less costly regimens (as effective and well-tolerated). DESIGN: Cohort analysis including PLHIV ≥ 18 years on ART to estimate ART costs during 2014. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital Clinic in Paris, France, where 4,501 PLHIV consulted in 2014...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323505/pattern-of-uveitis-in-a-referral-hospital-in-bangladesh
#16
Zahedur Rahman, Ziaul Ahsan, Niaz Abdur Rahman, Parthopratim Dutta Majumder
PURPOSE: To report the pattern of uveitis in a tertiary eye care center in Bangladesh. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all uveitis cases visiting uveitis clinic of Bangladesh Eye Hospital between January, 2009 and April, 2015. RESULTS: In total, 652 patients (mean age 32.3 years, female 47.8%) were included in the study. Uveitis was bilateral in 42.6% of cases. Anterior uveitis was the most common (39.2%) case, closely followed by intermediate uveitis (22...
March 21, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323153/application-and-development-of-a-taqman-real-time-pcr-for-detecting-infectious-spleen-and-kidney-necrosis-virus-in-siniperca-chuatsi
#17
Qiang Lin, Xiaozhe Fu, Lihui Liu, Hongru Liang, Huizhi Guo, Shuwen Yin, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Zhibin Huang, Ningqiu Li
Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is one of the major epidemiological agents that had caused great economic loss in Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi). In this study, a specific TaqMan real-time PCR was developed using a pair of primers and a TaqMan probe specific to the ORF007 gene of ISKNV to rapidly detect ISKNV copies in Chinese perch samples. This assay was optimized to produce linearity from 8.75 × 10(8) to 8.75 × 10(1) copies in standard curve with an efficiency of 98% and a R(2) value of 0...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323068/vitamin-d-receptor-expression-and-hepcidin-levels-in-the-protection-or-severity-of-leprosy-a-systematic-review
#18
Ana Laura Grossi de Oliveira, Ana Thereza Chaves, Cristiane Alves Silva Menezes, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, Lilian Lacerda Bueno, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Manoel Otávio da Costa Rocha
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease whose disequilibrium in the host's genetic, immunological and clinical mechanisms lead to distinct manifestations defining the type of immunological response. This review focuses its attention on the influence of the Vitamin D Receptor and hepcidin expressions that can suggest the protection or severity of leprosy.
March 16, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322974/current-modalities-in-cancer-immunotherapy-immunomodulatory-antibodies-cars-and-vaccines
#19
REVIEW
Jason Lohmueller, Olivera J Finn
Successes of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in curing patients with otherwise lethal cancers have validated immunotherapy as a treatment for cancer and have inspired excitement for its broader potential. Most promising is the ability of each approach to eliminate bulky and advanced-stage cancers and to achieve durable cures. Despite this success, to date only a subset of cancer patients and a limited number of cancer types respond to these therapies. A major goal now is to expand the types of cancer and number of patients who can be successfully treated...
March 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320601/coronary-atherosclerosis-in-indigenous-south-american-tsimane-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#20
Hillard Kaplan, Randall C Thompson, Benjamin C Trumble, L Samuel Wann, Adel H Allam, Bret Beheim, Bruno Frohlich, M Linda Sutherland, James D Sutherland, Jonathan Stieglitz, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, David E Michalik, Chris J Rowan, Guido P Lombardi, Ram Bedi, Angela R Garcia, James K Min, Jagat Narula, Caleb E Finch, Michael Gurven, Gregory S Thomas
BACKGROUND: Conventional coronary artery disease risk factors might potentially explain at least 90% of the attributable risk of coronary artery disease. To better understand the association between the pre-industrial lifestyle and low prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors, we examined the Tsimane, a Bolivian population living a subsistence lifestyle of hunting, gathering, fishing, and farming with few cardiovascular risk factors, but high infectious inflammatory burden. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional cohort study including all individuals who self-identified as Tsimane and who were aged 40 years or older...
March 16, 2017: Lancet
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