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clinical infectious disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820984/identification-of-m-tuberculosis-antigens-in-the-sera-of-tuberculosis-patients-using-biomimetic-affinity-chromatography-in-conjunction-with-esi-cid-ms-ms
#1
Guorong Ma, Jinting Pan, Jincheng Han, Lina Gao, Shulin Zhang, Rongxiu Li
The profiling of abnormally-expressed proteins in host cells using mass spectrometry (MS) analysis is a classical approach for screening disease-associated biomarkers in clinical diagnosis. However, few pathogen-specific antigens can currently be detected in serum using this proteomic approach, since these are very low-abundant proteins that are easily masked by host high-abundant proteins. Identification of pathogen-specific antigens in the sera of tuberculosis patients is crucial for the clinical diagnosis of this infectious disease, especially in immune-compromised patients...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820685/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-hiv-infected-immigrants
#2
María Pérez-Rueda, Michele Hernández-Cabrera, Adela Francés-Urmeneta, Alfonso Angel-Moreno, Elena Pisos-Álamo, Nieves Jaén-Sánchez, Cristina Carranza-Rodríguez, Jose-Luis Pérez-Arellano
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) includes a group of potentially serious inflammatory processes that may be present in HIV-infected patients after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Paradoxical IRIS is a worsening of symptoms, after an overwhelming response to a previously diagnosed opportunistic infection (OI); unmasking IRIS reveals a previously occult OI. The main objective of the study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and outcome data of HIV-infected immigrants, stratified according to high- or low-income countries of origin, who developed IRIS and to compare them with native-born Spanish patients...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820346/attitudes-and-potential-barriers-towards-hepatitis-c-treatment-in-patients-with-and-without-hiv-coinfection
#3
P R Allyn, S M O'Malley, J Ferguson, C H Tseng, K W Chew, D Bhattacharya
This study aimed to assess attitudes and potential barriers towards treatment in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, comparing those with and without HIV coinfection. A cross-sectional survey of 82 HCV-infected adults with and without HIV was conducted in greater Los Angeles between November 2013 and July 2015. Overall, there were 53 (64.6%) with HIV coinfection, 20 (25.0%) with self-reported cirrhosis, and 22 (26.8%) with a history of prior HCV treatment. Of all, 93.2% wanted HCV treatment, but 45...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819692/molecular-characterization-of-atypical-antigenic-variants-of-canine-rabies-virus-reveals-its-reintroduction-by-wildlife-vectors-in-southeastern-mexico
#4
Fabiola Garcés-Ayala, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Joanna M Ortiz-Alcántara, Elizabeth González-Durán, Sandra I Pérez-Agüeros, Alfonso Méndez-Tenorio, Belem Torres-Longoria, Irma López-Martínez, Lucía Hernández-Rivas, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, José Ernesto Ramírez-González
Rabies is an infectious viral disease that is practically always fatal following the onset of clinical signs. In Mexico, the last case of human rabies transmitted by dogs was reported in 2006 and canine rabies has declined significantly due to vaccination campaigns implemented in the country. Here we report on the molecular characterization of six rabies virus strains found in Yucatan and Chiapas, remarkably, four of them showed an atypical reaction pattern when antigenic characterization with a reduced panel of eight monoclonal antibodies was performed...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819541/mortality-among-5-17-year-old-children-in-kenya
#5
Bonface Ombaba Osano, Fred Were, Shanaaz Mathews
INTRODUCTION: Global mortality trends have changed over time and are expected to continue changing with a reduction in communicable diseases and an increase of non-communicable disease. Increased survival of children beyond five years may change mortality patterns for these children. There are few studies in Africa that explore the causes of mortality in children over five years. The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate and clinical profiles of children aged 5-17 years who died in six Kenyan hospitals in 2013...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818549/integration-of-dpc-and-clinical-microbiological-data-in-japan-reveals-importance-of-confirming-a-negative-follow-up-blood-culture-in-patients-with-mrsa-bacteremia
#6
Naoki Miyamoto, Koji Yahara, Rie Horita, Tomomi Yano, Naotaka Tashiro, Daiichi Morii, Atsuko Tsutsui, Kenichiro Yaita, Keigo Shibayama, Hiroshi Watanabe
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is one of the commonest and most life-threatening of all infectious diseases. The morbidity and mortality rates associated with MRSA bacteremia are higher than those associated with bacteremia caused by other pathogens. A common guideline in MRSA bacteremia treatment is to confirm bacteremia clearance through additional blood cultures 2-4 days after initial positive cultures and as needed thereafter. However, no study has presented statistical evidence of how and to what extent confirming a negative follow-up blood culture impacts clinical outcome...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818095/frequency-distribution-and-immunologic-nature-of-infusion-reactions-in-subjects-receiving-pegloticase-for-chronic-refractory-gout
#7
Leonard H Calabrese, Arthur Kavanaugh, Anthony E Yeo, Peter E Lipsky
BACKGROUND: To assess frequency and distribution of infusion reactions (IRs) in responders and nonresponders in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of intravenous pegloticase and the utility of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/Food and Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network (NIAID/FAAN) criteria for identifying anaphylaxis in subjects experiencing IRs. METHODS: IRs from two RCTs of pegloticase were evaluated and categorized as anaphylaxis, hypersensitivity, or other...
August 17, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817647/caprine-brucellosis-a-historically-neglected-disease-with-significant-impact-on-public-health
#8
REVIEW
Carlos A Rossetti, Angela M Arenas-Gamboa, Estefanía Maurizio
Caprine brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the gram-negative cocci-bacillus Brucella melitensis. Middle- to late-term abortion, stillbirths, and the delivery of weak offspring are the characteristic clinical signs of the disease that is associated with an extensive negative impact in a flock's productivity. B. melitensis is also the most virulent Brucella species for humans, responsible for a severely debilitating and disabling illness that results in high morbidity with intermittent fever, chills, sweats, weakness, myalgia, abortion, osteoarticular complications, endocarditis, depression, anorexia, and low mortality...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816552/the-role-of-biopsy-in-lacrimal-gland-inflammation-a-clinicopathologic-study
#9
Panitee Luemsamran, Jack Rootman, Valerie A White, Nariman Nassiri, Manraj K S Heran
PURPOSE: To determine the causes of lacrimal gland inflammation based on histopathology and systemic evaluation. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series study. From the University of British Columbia Orbit Clinic between January 1976 and December 2008, we reviewed the medical records of 60 patients who presented with inflammatory features of the lacrimal gland (i.e., erythema, edema, or tenderness) in which the diagnoses were not possible clinically and on imaging alone...
August 17, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814733/enhancing-immune-responses-to-cancer-vaccines-using-multi-site-injections
#10
Robert C Mould, Amanda W K AuYeung, Jacob P van Vloten, Leonardo Susta, Anthony J Mutsaers, James J Petrik, Geoffrey A Wood, Sarah K Wootton, Khalil Karimi, Byram W Bridle
For a vaccine to be effective it must induce a sufficiently robust and specific immune response. Multi-site injection protocols can increase the titers of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies. Hypothetically, spreading a vaccine dose across multiple lymphatic drainage regions could also potentiate T cell responses. We used a replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-vectored cancer vaccine targeting the melanoma-associated antigen dopachrome tautomerase. Clinically, high numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells are a positive prognostic indicator...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814374/from-bench-laboratory-to-bed-hospital-home-how-to-explore-effective-natural-and-synthetic-pak1-blockers-longevity-promoters-for-cancer-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Hiroshi Maruta, Mok-Ryeon Ahn
PAK family kinases are RAC/CDC42-activated kinases that were first found in a soil amoeba 4 decades ago, and 2 decades later, were discovered in mammals as well. Since then at least 6 members of this family have been identified in mammals. One of them called PAK1 has been best studied so far, mainly because it is essential not only for malignant cell growth and metastasis, but also for many other diseases/disorders such as diabetes (type 2), AD (Alzheimer's disease), hypertension, and a variety of inflammatory or infectious diseases, which definitely shorten our lifespan...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812527/cytokine-concentrations-measured-by-multiplex-assays-in-canine-peripheral-blood-samples
#12
Kristen R Richter, Amirah N Nasr, Angela M Mexas
Cytokines are known to play important roles in a wide range of pathologic conditions spanning all organ systems in every species studied. As our knowledge of the physiology of individual cytokines expands and our ability to measure multiple cytokines in smaller biological samples increases, we gain more insight into the significance and function of each cytokine and the importance of cytokine networks. Previous studies that reported measurements of cytokine concentrations from serum or plasma in dogs with infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, endocrine, and neoplastic diseases yield an appreciation for the complexity of cytokine control and potential applications for cytokine measurements in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of a variety of disease conditions...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812136/clinical-outcomes-of-y90-radioembolization-for-recurrent-hepatocellular-carcinoma-following-curative-resection
#13
Rehan Ali, Ahsun Riaz, Ahmed Gabr, Nadine Abouchaleh, Ronald Mora, Ali Al Asadi, Juan Carlos Caicedo, Michael Abecassis, Nitin Katariya, Haripriya Maddur, Laura Kulik, Robert J Lewandowski, Riad Salem
PURPOSE: To assess safety/efficacy of yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y90) in patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following curative surgical resection. METHODS: With IRB approval, we searched our prospectively acquired database for patients that were treated with Y90 for recurrent disease following resection. Baseline characteristics and bilirubin toxicities following Y90 were evaluated. Intention-to-treat overall survival (OS) and time-to-progression (TTP) from Y90 were assessed...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811246/microbial-metagenomics-mock-scenario-based-sample-simulation-m3s3
#14
Yair Motro, Jacob Moran-Gilad
OBJECTIVES: Shotgun sequencing in increasingly applied in clinical microbiology for unbiased culture-independent diagnosis. While software solutions for metagenomics proliferate, integration of metagenomics in clinical care, requires method standardisation and validation. Virtual metagenomics samples could underpin validation by substituting real samples and thus we sought to develop a novel solution for simulation of metagenomics samples based on user-defined clinical scenarios. METHODS: We designed the Microbial Metagenomics Mock Scenario-based Sample Simulation (M3S3) workflow, which allows users to generate virtual samples from raw reads or assemblies...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811074/management-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-set-gesitra-seimc-reipi-recommendations
#15
REVIEW
J M Aguado, J T Silva, M Fernández-Ruiz, E Cordero, J Fortún, C Gudiol, L Martínez-Martínez, E Vidal, L Almenar, B Almirante, R Cantón, J Carratalá, J J Caston, E Cercenado, C Cervera, J M Cisneros, M G Crespo-Leiro, V Cuervas-Mons, J Elizalde-Fernández, M C Fariñas, J Gavaldà, M J Goyanes, B Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, D Hernández, O Len, R López-Andujar, F López-Medrano, P Martín-Dávila, M Montejo, A Moreno, A Oliver, A Pascual, E Pérez-Nadales, A Román-Broto, R San-Juan, D Serón, A Solé-Jover, M Valerio, P Muñoz, J Torre-Cisneros
Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are especially at risk of developing infections by multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), as they are frequently exposed to antibiotics and the healthcare setting, and are regulary subject to invasive procedures. Nevertheless, no recommendations concerning prevention and treatment are available. A panel of experts revised the available evidence; this document summarizes their recommendations: (1) it is important to characterize the isolate's phenotypic and genotypic resistance profile; (2) overall, donor colonization should not constitute a contraindication to transplantation, although active infected kidney and lung grafts should be avoided; (3) recipient colonization is associated with an increased risk of infection, but is not a contraindication to transplantation; (4) different surgical prophylaxis regimens are not recommended for patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant GNB; (5) timely detection of carriers, contact isolation precautions, hand hygiene compliance and antibiotic control policies are important preventive measures; (6) there is not sufficient data to recommend intestinal decolonization; (7) colonized lung transplant recipients could benefit from prophylactic inhaled antibiotics, specially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; (8) colonized SOT recipients should receive an empirical treatment which includes active antibiotics, and directed therapy should be adjusted according to susceptibility study results and the severity of the infection...
July 26, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809644/-endoprosthesis-infections-guidelines-for-antibiotic-therapy-common-guidelines-of-the-czech-society-for-orthopaedics-and-traumatology-and-the-society-for-infectious-diseases-of-the-czech-medical-association-of-j-e-purkyn%C3%A4
#16
D Musil, M Balejová, M Horníková, A Chrdle, N Mallátová, O Nyč, V Chmelík, J Gallo, D Jahoda, J Stehlík
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study aims to articulate regional guidelines for curative and suppressive antibiotic therapy of total joint replacement infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS When developing the standard, used as source materials were the published foreign guidelines for antibiotic therapy of prosthetic joint infections, the analysis of resistance of bacterial strains conducted in the Hospital in České Budějovice, a.s. and the assessment of strain resistance for the Czech Republic published by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net)...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808771/multicentre-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial-to-compare-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-ambulatory-treatment-of-mild-acute-diverticulitis-without-antibiotics-with-the-standard-treatment-with-antibiotics
#17
Laura Mora Lopez, Neus Ruiz-Edo, Sheila Serra Pla, Anna Pallisera Llovera, Salvador Navarro Soto, Xavier Serra-Aracil
PURPOSE: Acute diverticulitis (AD) is a highly prevalent disease in Spain. Its chronic-recurrent appearance and high rate of relapse mean that it has a major epidemiological and economic impact on our health system. In spite of this, it has not been studied in any great depth. Reassessing its etiopathology, recent studies have observed that it is an inflammatory disease-not, as classic theories had postulated, an infectious one. In the light of these findings, the suitability of antibiotics for its treatment has been reconsidered...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807812/evaluation-and-clinical-validation-of-two-field-deployable-reverse-transcription-insulated-isothermal-pcr-assays-for-the-detection-of-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#18
Yun Young Go, Yeon-Sook Kim, Shinhye Cheon, Sangwoo Nam, Keun Bon Ku, Meehyein Kim, Nam Hyuk Cho, Hyun Park, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Yu-Chun Lin, Yun-Long Tsai, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an emerging zoonotic viral respiratory disease that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. In 2015, the largest MERS outbreak outside of the Middle East region occurred in the Republic of Korea. The rapid nosocomial transmission of MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Korean healthcare settings highlighted the importance and urgent need for a rapid and reliable on-site diagnostic assay to implement effective control and preventive measures. Here, we describe the evaluation and validation of two newly developed reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) methods targeting the ORF1a and upE genes of MERS-CoV...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806468/an-overview-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#19
Ysabella M Esteban, Jill L O de Jong, Melissa S Tesher
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory response associated with aberrant activation of lymphocytes and macrophages that results in hypercytokinemia. It is classically divided into two types: (1) primary or familial HLH and (2) secondary HLH. Familial HLH is generally an autosomal recessive condition, whereas secondary HLH is usually associated with infectious diseases, autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases (where it is more commonly known as macrophage activation syndrome), malignancy, immunosuppression, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, organ transplantation, HIV infection, and metabolic diseases...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806151/establishment-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-chgilz
#20
Zhiyuan He, Yongqiang Wang
The chicken glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (chGILZ) participates in the inflammation of avian immunosuppressive diseases. We aimed to establish a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against chGILZ and to investigate its distribution in clinical diagnosis. A gene cloned from chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell was inserted into the expression vector pET-28a and pGEX-6p-1. The recombinant expression vectors were transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Then the recombinant proteins His-chGILZ and GST-chGILZ were successfully expressed and purified...
August 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
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