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clinical infectious disease

Nibal R Chamoun, Rony Zeenny, Hanine Mansour
Background Pharmacists' involvement in patient care has improved the quality of care and reduced medication errors. However, this has required a lot of work that could not have been accomplished without documentation of interventions. Several means of documenting errors have been proposed in the literature but without a consistent comprehensive process. Recently, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) recognized that pharmacy practice lacks a consistent process for direct patient care and discussed several options for a pharmaceutical care plan, essentially encompassing medication therapy assessment, development and implementation of a pharmaceutical care plan and finally evaluation of the outcome...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Ricardo Ferrer, Rafael Zaragoza, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Pedro Llinares, Santiago Grau, Francisco Álvarez-Lerma, Guillermo Quindós, Miguel Salavert, Rafael Huarte
BACKGROUND: Although the management of invasive fungal infection (IFI) has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding the approach to invasive fungal infection in non-neutropenic medical ward patients. AIMS: To identify the essential clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations with a high level of consensus necessary for the management of IFI in non-neutropenic medical ward patients. METHODS: A prospective, Spanish questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists (intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases) in IFI and belonging to six scientific national societies...
October 18, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Aaron S Kesselheim, Wesley Eddings, Tara Raj, Eric G Campbell, Jessica M Franklin, Kathryn M Ross, Lisa A Fulchino, Jerry Avorn, Joshua J Gagne
BACKGROUND: Generic drugs are cost-effective versions of brand-name drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) following proof of pharmaceutical equivalence and bioequivalence. Generic drugs are widely prescribed by physicians, although there is disagreement over the clinical comparability of generic drugs to brand-name drugs within the physician community. The objective of this survey was to assess physicians' perceptions of generic drugs and the generic drug approval process...
2016: PloS One
Xin Yao, Lian-Lian Bian, Wei-Wei Lu, Jing-Xin Li, Qun-Ying Mao, Yi-Ping Wang, Fan Gao, Xing Wu, Qiang Ye, Xiu-Ling Li, Feng-Cai Zhu, Zhenglun Liang
Herpangina (HA) and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) are common infectious diseases caused by human enteroviruses and frequently occurr in young children. Previous published studies have mainly focused on HFMD, while the HA epidemiological and etiological characteristics in mainland China have not been described. From June, 2013 to March, 2014, HA and HFMD patients were monitored in participants from clinical trial of EV-A71 vaccine conducted during 2012-2013. A total of 95 HA patients and 161 HFMD patients were defined...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Russell Byrum, Lauren Keith, Christopher Bartos, Marisa St Claire, Matthew G Lackemeyer, Michael R Holbrook, Krisztina Janosko, Jason Barr, Daniela Pusl, Laura Bollinger, Jiro Wada, Linda Coe, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling, Jens H Kuhn, Margaret R Lentz
Medical imaging using animal models for human diseases has been utilized for decades; however, until recently, medical imaging of diseases induced by high-consequence pathogens has not been possible. In 2014, the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick opened an Animal Biosafety Level 4 (ABSL-4) facility to assess the clinical course and pathology of infectious diseases in experimentally infected animals. Multiple imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single photon emission computed tomography are available to researchers for these evaluations...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Christian Weber, Mikael Koutero, Marie-Agnes Dillies, Hugo Varet, Cesar Lopez-Camarillo, Jean Yves Coppée, Chung-Chau Hon, Nancy Guillén
Amoebiasis is a human infectious disease due to the amoeba parasite Entamoeba histolytica. The disease appears in only 20% of the infections. Diversity in phenotypes may occur within the same infectious strain in the gut; for instance, parasites can be commensal (in the intestinal lumen) or pathogenic (inside the tissue). The degree of pathogenesis of clinical isolates varies greatly. These findings raise the hypothesis that genetic derivation may account for amoebic diverse phenotypes. The main goal of this study was to analyse gene expression changes of a single virulent amoebic strain in different environmental contexts where it exhibit different degrees of virulence, namely isolated from humans and maintained through animal liver passages, in contact with the human colon and short or prolonged in vitro culture...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Athanasios Tragiannidis, Ioannis Kyriakidis, Ilse Zündorf, Andreas H Groll
Macromolecular immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins directed against molecules or cells involved in inflammation and immunity represent a recent and important addition to our therapeutic armamentarium. Tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and clinical utilization of its antagonists has revolutionized treatment of juvenile rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and plaque psoriasis. Clinical utility has also been demonstrated for use against steroid-refractory graft-vs-host disease and other immune-mediated conditions...
October 21, 2016: Mycoses
Maria Pia Bondioni, Vassilios Lougaris, Giuseppe Di Gaetano, Tiziana Lorenzini, Annarosa Soresina, Francesco Laffranchi, Diego Gatta, Alessandro Plebani
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of early detection of pulmonary fungal infections by lung CT scan in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). METHODS: A retrospective study on 14 patients affected with CGD for a total of 18 infectious episodes was performed. Revision of clinical data and CT scan analysis before and after treatment was performed. RESULTS: The presence of lung nodules <30 mm was evaluated in 18 infectious episodes in 14 patients...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
N S Häring
With the increasing number of asylum seekers in recent months, European dermatologists have been confronted with rising numbers of patients with formerly rare skin diseases and unusual infectious skin diseases that were previously scarcely observed at our latitude. Thorough examination of the patients medical history, including the routes of travel and the country of origin of the patients, detailed clinical and laboratory examinations, and - if necessary - referral to a special treatment center allow rapid and targeted treatment...
October 20, 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Kazuhiko Umazume, Jun Suzuki, Yoshihiko Usui, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi, Hiroshi Goto
Purpose. Endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) is a rare ocular disease caused by bacterial or fungal infection of intraocular spaces by hematogenous spread of pathogens from distant infectious loci in the body. We investigated the clinical characteristics and management of eyes with EE in ten consecutive patients. Methods. Ten patients (10 eyes) with EE treated at Tokyo Medical University Hospital in 2014 were reviewed. We retrospectively studied the causative organisms, systemic complications, pre/postoperative mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and status of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD)...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Guigang Li, Jingmin Guo, Rong Liu, Weikun Hu, Lingjuan Xu, Juan Wang, Subo Cai, Hong Zhang, Yingting Zhu
Background: To explore the prevalence of lacrimal duct obstruction in patients with infectious keratitis, and the necessity of lacrimal duct dredge in the treatment of human infectious keratitis. Methodology/Principle Findings: The design is prospective, non-control case series. Thirty-one eyes from twenty-eight continuous patients with infectious keratitis were included in this study. The presence/absence of lacrimal duct obstruction was determined by the lacrimal duct irrigation test. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was made based on clinical manifestations, cornea scraping microscopic examination and bacterial/fungus culture...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Makoto Miura, Akiko Kuwahara, Akinori Tomozawa, Naoki Omae, Motohiro Yamamori, Kaori Kadoyama, Toshiyuki Sakaeda
Objectives: A retrospective examination was conducted to identify risk factors for in-hospital mortality of elderly patients (65 years or older) treated with the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination antibiotic, ampicillin/sulbactam (ABPC/SBT). Methods: Clinical data from 96 patients who were hospitalized with infectious diseases and treated with ABPC/SBT (9 g/day or 12 g/day) were analyzed. Risk factors examined included demographic and clinical laboratory parameters. Parameter values prior to treatment and changes after treatment were compared between survivors and non-survivors...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
David F Tough, Paul P Tak, Alexander Tarakhovsky, Rab K Prinjha
Immune-mediated diseases are clinically heterogeneous but they share genetic and pathogenic mechanisms. These diseases may develop from the interplay of genetic factors and environmental or lifestyle factors. Exposure to such factors, including infectious agents, is associated with coordinated changes in gene transcription owing to epigenetic alterations. A growing understanding of how epigenetic mechanisms control gene expression patterns and cell function has been aided by the development of small-molecule inhibitors that target these processes...
October 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Y Yang, Y D Du
Tick-borne encephalitis, also called forest encephalitis, is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus. Central nervous system lesion is the major clinical symptom of tick-borne encephalitis, as an acute infectious disease, the case fatality rate is as high as 10%-20%. Virology experts consider it as a key and difficult point in recent years. This paper summarizes the progress in research of epidemiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, outcome, diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne encephalitis to provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of tick-borne encephalitis...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Michele Trotta, Beatrice Borchi, Lorenzo Zammarchi, Gaetana Sterrantino, Michela Brogi, Seble Tekle Kiros, Chiara Lorini, Guglielmo Bonaccorsi, Maria Grazia Colao, Alessandro Bartoloni
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate immunoglobulin M indirect-fluorescent antibody test (IgM IFAT) for the diagnosis of acute or chronic Toxoplasma infection in pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant women with suspected acute toxoplasmosis referred to the Tuscany Reference Center for Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy during the period 1998-2012 were retrospectively enrolled. All women were tested with a panel of serological tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG avidity and IgM IFAT...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
R C Oey, H R van Buuren, R A de Man
Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity - ascites - is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Ascites can originate from hepatic, malignant, cardiac, renal, and infectious diseases. This review discusses the current recommended diagnostic approach towards the patient with ascites and summarises future diagnostic targets.
October 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Michele Carron
Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has assumed an important role in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF). NIV, compared with standard medical therapy, improves survival and reduces complications in selected patients with ARF. NIV represents the first-line intervention for some forms of ARF, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The use of NIV is also well supported for immunocompromised patients who are at high risk for infectious complications from endotracheal intubation...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Kenichi Morikawa, Tomoe Shimazaki, Rei Takeda, Takaaki Izumi, Machiko Umumura, Naoya Sakamoto
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health threat around the world. Despite the availability of an effective hepatitis B vaccine, the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be as high as 240 million worldwide. Global mortality due to HBV-related liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be as high as 1 million deaths per year. HBV is transmitted via blood and body fluids, and is much more infectious than both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Akimune Kaga, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hiroki Miyabayashi, Takaya Metoki, Setsuko Kitaoka, Satoru Kumaki
Neonatal toxic shock syndrome-like exanthematous disease (NTED) is a newly recognized neonatal infectious disease, caused by the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). TSST-1 is mainly produced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the immune responses to TSST-1 are known to cause toxic shock syndrome, a life-threatening infectious disease. The clinical symptoms of NTED are skin rash, fever, and thrombocytopenia, but severe thrombocytopenia is rare in term infants with NTED. Although the cause of NTED is the same as that of toxic shock syndrome, the clinical symptoms of NTED are milder than toxic shock syndrome...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
M Ivaskiene, A P Matusevicius, A Grigonis, G Zamokas, L Babickaite
In the field of veterinary dermatology dermatophytosis is one of the most frequently occurring infectious diseases, therefore its treatment should be effective, convenient, safe and inexpensive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of newly developed topical formulations in the treatment of cats with dermatophytosis. Evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of terbinafine and econazole formulations administered topically twice a day was performed in 40 cats. Cats, suffering from the most widely spread Microsporum canis-induced dermatophytosis and treated with terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream, recovered within 20...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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