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Panobinostat HIV

Janka Petravic, Thomas A Rasmussen, Sharon R Lewin, Stephen J Kent, Miles P Davenport
Antiretroviral-free HIV remission requires substantial reduction of the number of latently infected cells and enhanced immune control of viremia. Latency-reversing agents (LRA) aim to eliminate latently infected cells by increasing the rate of reactivation of HIV transcription, which exposes these cells to killing by the immune system. As LRA are explored in clinical trials, it becomes increasingly important to assess the effect of increased HIV reactivation rate on the decline of latently infected cells, and estimate LRA efficacy in increasing virus reactivation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
Carolina Garrido, Adam M Spivak, Natalia Soriano-Sarabia, Mary Ann Checkley, Edward Barker, Jonathan Karn, Vicente Planelles, David M Margolis
In an effort to clear persistent HIV infection and achieve a durable therapy-free remission of HIV disease, extensive pre-clinical studies and early pilot clinical trials are underway to develop and test agents that can reverse latent HIV infection and present viral antigen to the immune system for clearance. It is, therefore, critical to understand the impact of latency-reversing agents (LRAs) on the function of immune effectors needed to clear infected cells. We assessed the impact of LRAs on the function of natural killer (NK) cells, the main effector cells of the innate immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Kirston Barton, Bonnie Hiener, Anni Winckelmann, Thomas Aagaard Rasmussen, Wei Shao, Karen Byth, Robert Lanfear, Ajantha Solomon, James McMahon, Sean Harrington, Maria Buzon, Mathias Lichterfeld, Paul W Denton, Rikke Olesen, Lars Østergaard, Martin Tolstrup, Sharon R Lewin, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard, Sarah Palmer
The 'shock and kill' approach to cure human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) includes transcriptional induction of latent HIV-1 proviruses using latency-reversing agents (LRAs) with targeted immunotherapy to purge infected cells. The administration of LRAs (panobinostat or vorinostat) to HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy induces a significant increase in cell-associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV-1 RNA from CD4(+) T cells. However, it is important to discern whether the increases in CA-US HIV-1 RNA are due to limited or broad activation of HIV-1 proviruses...
September 8, 2016: Nature Communications
Perry Tsai, Guoxin Wu, Caroline E Baker, William O Thayer, Rae Ann Spagnuolo, Rosa Sanchez, Stephanie Barrett, Bonnie Howell, David Margolis, Daria J Hazuda, Nancie M Archin, J Victor Garcia
BACKGROUND: The latent reservoir in resting CD4(+) T cells presents a major barrier to HIV cure. Latency-reversing agents are therefore being developed with the ultimate goal of disrupting the latent state, resulting in induction of HIV expression and clearance of infected cells. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have received a significant amount of attention for their potential as latency-reversing agents. RESULTS: Here, we have investigated the in vitro and systemic in vivo effect of panobinostat, a clinically relevant HDACi, on HIV latency...
2016: Retrovirology
Tara Hurst, Matthew Pace, Aris Katzourakis, Rodney Phillips, Paul Klenerman, John Frater, Gkikas Magiorkinis
BACKGROUND: While antiretroviral therapies have improved life expectancy and reduced viral loads in HIV-1-positive individuals, the cessation of treatment results in a rebound of viral replication. This suggests that a reservoir of latently-infected cells remains within these patients, the identity of which is ill-defined and therefore difficult to target therapeutically. Current strategies are aimed at using drugs such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to induce the expression of latent HIV-1 proviruses in order to activate and ultimately eradicate this reservoir of infected cells...
February 6, 2016: Retrovirology
Riddhima Banga, Francesco Andrea Procopio, Matthias Cavassini, Matthieu Perreau
UNLABELLED: The existence of long-lived HIV-1-infected resting memory CD4 T cells is thought to be the primary obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. In the search for novel therapeutic approaches that may reverse HIV-1 latency, inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACis) have been tested to reactivate HIV-1 replication with the objective of rendering HIV-1-infected cells susceptible to elimination either by HIV-specific CD8 T cells or through virus-mediated cytopathicity. In the present study, we evaluated the efficiency of HDACis to reactivate HIV-1 replication from resting memory CD4 T cells isolated from aviremic long-term-treated HIV-1-infected subjects...
February 2016: Journal of Virology
Marta Martínez-Bonet, Maria Isabel Clemente, Maria Jesús Serramía, Eduardo Muñoz, Santiago Moreno, Maria Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández
Viral reactivation from latently infected cells has become a promising therapeutic approach to eradicate HIV. Due to the complexity of the viral latency, combinations of efficient and available drugs targeting different pathways of latency are needed. In this work, we evaluated the effect of various combinations of bryostatin-1 (BRY) and novel histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) on HIV-reactivation and on cellular phenotype. The lymphocyte (J89GFP) or monocyte/macrophage (THP89GFP) latently infected cell lines were treated with BRY, panobinostat (PNB) and romidepsin (RMD) either alone or in combination...
November 13, 2015: Scientific Reports
Lars Pache, Miriam S Dutra, Adam M Spivak, John M Marlett, Jeffrey P Murry, Young Hwang, Ana M Maestre, Lara Manganaro, Mitchell Vamos, Peter Teriete, Laura J Martins, Renate König, Viviana Simon, Alberto Bosque, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Nicholas D P Cosford, Frederic D Bushman, John A T Young, Vicente Planelles, Sumit K Chanda
Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is able to suppress HIV-1 replication to undetectable levels. However, the persistence of latent viral reservoirs allows for a rebound of viral load upon cessation of therapy. Thus, therapeutic strategies to eradicate the viral latent reservoir are critically needed. Employing a targeted RNAi screen, we identified the ubiquitin ligase BIRC2 (cIAP1), a repressor of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway, as a potent negative regulator of LTR-dependent HIV-1 transcription. Depletion of BIRC2 through treatment with small molecule antagonists known as Smac mimetics enhanced HIV-1 transcription, leading to a reversal of latency in a JLat latency model system...
September 9, 2015: Cell Host & Microbe
Roger Badia, Judith Grau, Eva Riveira-Muñoz, Ester Ballana, Giuseppe Giannini, José A Esté
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unable to cure HIV infection. The ability of HIV to establish a subset of latent infected CD4(+) T cells, which remain undetectable to the immune system, becomes a major roadblock to achieve viral eradication. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been shown to potently induce the reactivation of latent HIV. Here, we show that a new thiol-based HDACi, the thioacetate-ω(γ-lactam carboxamide) derivative ST7612AA1, is a potent inducer of HIV reactivation. We evaluated HIV reactivation activity of ST7612AA1 compared to panobinostat (PNB), romidepsin (RMD) and vorinostat (VOR) in cell culture models of HIV-1 latency, in latently infected primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes and in PBMCs from HIV(+) patients...
November 2015: Antiviral Research
L R Gray, D Cowley, C Welsh, H K Lu, B J Brew, S R Lewin, S L Wesselingh, P R Gorry, M J Churchill
Latency-reversing agents (LRAs), including histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), are being investigated as a strategy to eliminate latency in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The effectiveness of LRAs in activating latent infection in HIV strains derived from the central nervous system (CNS) is unknown. Here we show that CNS-derived HIV-1 strains possess polymorphisms within and surrounding the Sp transcription factor motifs in the long terminal repeat (LTR). These polymorphisms result in decreased ability of the transcription factor specificity protein 1 to bind CNS-derived LTRs, reducing the transcriptional activity of CNS-derived viruses...
April 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Rikke Olesen, Selena Vigano, Thomas A Rasmussen, Ole S Søgaard, Zhengyu Ouyang, Maria Buzon, Arman Bashirova, Mary Carrington, Sarah Palmer, Christel R Brinkmann, Xu G Yu, Lars Østergaard, Martin Tolstrup, Mathias Lichterfeld
UNLABELLED: The pharmaceutical reactivation of dormant HIV-1 proviruses by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) represents a possible strategy to reduce the reservoir of HIV-1-infected cells in individuals treated with suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the effects of such latency-reversing agents on the viral reservoir size are likely to be influenced by host immune responses. Here, we analyzed the immune factors associated with changes in proviral HIV-1 DNA levels during treatment with the potent HDACi panobinostat in a human clinical trial involving 15 cART-treated HIV-1-infected patients...
October 2015: Journal of Virology
Adam M Spivak, Alberto Bosque, Alfred H Balch, David Smyth, Laura Martins, Vicente Planelles
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) latent reservoir in resting CD4(+) T cells represents a major barrier to viral eradication. Small compounds capable of latency reversal have not demonstrated uniform responses across in vitro HIV-1 latency cell models. Characterizing compounds that demonstrate latency-reversing activity in resting CD4(+) T cells from aviremic patients ex vivo will help inform pilot clinical trials aimed at HIV-1 eradication. We have optimized a rapid ex vivo assay using resting CD4(+) T cells from aviremic HIV-1(+) patients to evaluate both the bioactivity and latency-reversing potential of candidate latency-reversing agents (LRAs)...
October 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Thomas A Rasmussen, Martin Tolstrup, Holger Jon Møller, Christel R Brinkmann, Rikke Olesen, Christian Erikstrup, Alex L Laursen, Lars Østergaard, Ole S Søgaard
In a substudy of a clinical trial, we assessed whether activation of latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat had detrimental effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Adults infected with HIV received oral panobinostat 20 mg 3 times per week every other week for 8 weeks. In cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we assayed panobinostat concentration, HIV RNA, and the level of neuroinflammatory or degenerative biomarkers in 11 individuals before and during study therapy...
January 2015: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Anne Sofie Høgh Kølbæk Kjær, Christel Rothe Brinkmann, Charles A Dinarello, Rikke Olesen, Lars Østergaard, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup, Thomas Aagaard Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat on HIV-associated inflammation. DESIGN: Sub-study of a single-arm, phase I/II clinical trial. METHODS: HIV-infected adults on suppressive antiretroviral therapy received oral panobinostat 20 mg three times per week, every other week, for 8 weeks, that is, four cycles of treatment. Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinase 9, soluble CD40 ligand and interleukin-6 were determined using human ELISA kits...
June 19, 2015: AIDS
Grant R Campbell, Rachel S Bruckman, Yen-Lin Chu, Stephen A Spector
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are being evaluated in a "shock-and-kill" therapeutic approach to reverse human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) latency from CD4(+) T cells. Using this approach, HDACi have induced HIV RNA synthesis in latently infected cells from some patients. The hope is that the increase in viral production will lead to killing of the infected cell either by the virus itself or by the patient's immune system, a "sterilizing cure." Although administered within the context of combination antiretroviral therapy, the infection of bystander cells remains a concern...
February 20, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Akinori Sato, Takako Asano, Makoto Isono, Keiichi Ito, Tomohiko Asano
There is currently no curative treatment for advanced renal cancer. Enhancing histone acetylation is a promising epigenetic-based therapy for cancer; however, in solid tumors, the efficacy of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors alone is limited. The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir is also a CYP3A4 inhibitor and we hypothesized that combining ritonavir with the HDAC inhibitor panobinostat, one of the substrates of CYP3A4, may effectively eliminate renal cancer cells by enhancing the activity of panobinostat...
November 2014: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Richard Brad Jones, Rachel O'Connor, Stefanie Mueller, Maria Foley, Gregory L Szeto, Dan Karel, Mathias Lichterfeld, Colin Kovacs, Mario A Ostrowski, Alicja Trocha, Darrell J Irvine, Bruce D Walker
Resting memory CD4+ T-cells harboring latent HIV proviruses represent a critical barrier to viral eradication. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), such as suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA), romidepsin, and panobinostat have been shown to induce HIV expression in these resting cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the low levels of viral gene expression induced by a candidate HDACi may be insufficient to cause the death of infected cells by viral cytopathic effects, necessitating their elimination by immune effectors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL)...
August 2014: PLoS Pathogens
Datsen George Wei, Vicki Chiang, Elizabeth Fyne, Mini Balakrishnan, Tiffany Barnes, Michael Graupe, Joseph Hesselgesser, Alivelu Irrinki, Jeffrey P Murry, George Stepan, Kirsten M Stray, Angela Tsai, Helen Yu, Jonathan Spindler, Mary Kearney, Celsa A Spina, Deborah McMahon, Jacob Lalezari, Derek Sloan, John Mellors, Romas Geleziunas, Tomas Cihlar
Persistent latent reservoir of replication-competent proviruses in memory CD4 T cells is a major obstacle to curing HIV infection. Pharmacological activation of HIV expression in latently infected cells is being explored as one of the strategies to deplete the latent HIV reservoir. In this study, we characterized the ability of romidepsin (RMD), a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphomas, to activate the expression of latent HIV. In an in vitro T-cell model of HIV latency, RMD was the most potent inducer of HIV (EC50 = 4...
April 2014: PLoS Pathogens
Fiona Wightman, Hao K Lu, Ajantha E Solomon, Suha Saleh, Andrew N Harman, Anthony L Cunningham, Lachlan Gray, Melissa Churchill, Paul U Cameron, Anthony E Dear, Sharon R Lewin
OBJECTIVES: To compare the potency, toxicity and mechanism of action of multiple histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) in activating HIV production from latency. DESIGN: In-vitro analysis of HDACi in a primary T-cell model of HIV latency and latently infected cell lines. METHODS: Latently infected chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19)-treated CD4⁺ T cells and the latently infected cell lines ACH2 and J-Lat were treated with a panel of HDACi, including entinostat, vorinostat, panonbinostat and MCT3...
November 28, 2013: AIDS
Sarah A Watters, Petra Mlcochova, Ravindra K Gupta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been a shift towards HIV-1 eradication research in the last three years, yet much is still unknown about the precise role that macrophages will play in any such strategy. This review attempts to summarize the latest data on this subject. RECENT FINDINGS: A new generation of histone deacetylase inhibitors, ITF2357, belinostat, givinostat, panobinostat, and the cancer drug JQ1, have been shown to induce viral reactivation in a monocyte cell line...
December 2013: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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