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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103460/-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-107-hiv-infected-patients-admitted-to-the-department-of-infectious-diseases-at-santa-maria-hospital-lisbon-2002-2013
#1
Vilma Grilo, Aida Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains one of the most common opportunistic illnesses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It is currently the most reported AIDS-defining infection in Portugal. The aims of this study were to analyze the features of a human immunodeficiency virus /Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia coinfected population, to compare it with the current literature, and to evaluate comparatively subpopulations of patients based on the previous knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnostic method and discharge results...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099492/priming-cross-protective-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-specific-immunity-using-live-vectored-mosaic-antigens
#2
Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Xin Fang, Suryakant D Waghela, Jocelyn Bray, Leo M Njongmeta, Andy Herring, Karim W Abdelsalam, Christopher Chase, Waithaka Mwangi
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) plays a key role in bovine respiratory disease complex, which can lead to pneumonia, diarrhea and death of calves. Current vaccines are not very effective due, in part, to immunosuppressive traits and failure to induce broad protection. There are diverse BVDV strains and thus, current vaccines contain representative genotype 1 and 2 viruses (BVDV-1 & 2) to broaden coverage. BVDV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines are superior to killed virus vaccines, but they are susceptible to neutralization and complement-mediated destruction triggered by passively acquired antibodies, thus limiting their efficacy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099113/rage-deficiency-predisposes-mice-to-virus-induced-paucigranulocytic-asthma
#3
Jaisy Arikkatt, Md Ashik Ullah, Kirsty Renfree Short, Vivan Zhang, Wan Jun Gan, Zhixuan Loh, Rhiannon B Werder, Jennifer Simpson, Peter D Sly, Stuart B Mazzone, Kirsten M Spann, Manuel Ar Ferreira, John W Upham, Maria B Sukkar, Simon Phipps
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease. Although many patients with asthma develop type-2 dominated eosinophilic inflammation, a number of individuals develop paucigranulocytic asthma, which occurs in the absence of eosinophilia or neutrophilia. The aetiology of paucigranulocytic asthma is unknown. However, both respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and mutations in the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) are risk factors for asthma development. Here, we show that RAGE deficiency impairs anti-viral immunity during an early-life infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM; a murine analogue of RSV)...
January 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099077/disease-complexity-in-a-declining-alaskan-muskox-ovibos-moschatus-population
#4
Josephine A Afema, Kimberlee B Beckmen, Stephen M Arthur, Kathy Burek Huntington, Jonna A K Mazet
The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) population inhabiting the eastern North Slope (ENS) of Alaska declined dramatically during 1999-2006, whereas populations in western Alaska (WA) were stable or increasing. To understand morbidity and mortality factors contributing to the decline, Alaska Department of Fish and Game conducted pathologic investigations of carcasses from 2005 until 2008. Additionally, archived sera from both ENS and WA muskoxen collected during 1984-1992, before the documented beginning of the ENS decline; sera collected during 2000, near the beginning of the decline; and contemporary sera (from live capture-release, adult females) collected during 2006, 2007, and 2008 were analyzed to determine whether prevalence of antibody to potential pathogens differed in the two areas or changed over time...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096183/pneumococcal-neuraminidase-a-nana-promotes-biofilm-formation-and-synergizes-with-influenza-a-virus-in-nasal-colonization-and-middle-ear-infection
#5
John T Wren, Lance K Blevins, Bing Pang, Ankita Basu Roy, Melissa B Oliver, Jennifer L Reimche, Jessie E Wozniak, Martha A Alexander-Miller, W Edward Swords
Even in the vaccine era, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains a leading cause of otitis media, a significant public health burden, in large because of its high prevalence of nasal colonization in children. The primary pneumococcal neuraminidase NanA, which is a sialidase that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal sialic acids from host glycoconjugates, is involved in both of these processes. Coinfection with influenza A virus, which also expresses a neuraminidase, exacerbates nasal colonization and disease by S...
January 17, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092611/prevalence-of-bovine-herpesvirus-type-4-in-aborting-dairy-cows
#6
Đ Cvetojević, B Savić, V Milićević, B Kureljušić, N Jezdimirović, D Jakić-Dimić, M Pavlović, Lj Spalević
Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) is related to many different conditions: infertility, postpartal metritis, vulvovaginitis, mastitis, encephalitis, calf pneumonia, keratoconjunctivitis, cutaneous lesions, digital dermatitis and abortion. In this study a retrospective PCR examination of 100 extracted DNA samples from aborting cows was performed in order to determine: prevalence of BHV-4 in abortive cattle, whether coinfections BHV-4 with other abortifacient pathogens are present in the same sample and to determine the month of gestation when BHV-4 associated abortions were detected...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088990/prevention-and-management-of-glucocorticoid-induced-side-effects-a-comprehensive-review-infectious-complications-and-vaccination-recommendations
#7
REVIEW
Avrom Caplan, Nicole Fett, Misha Rosenbach, Victoria P Werth, Robert G Micheletti
Part 3 of this 4-part continuing medical education series reviews several important infectious complications of corticosteroid use, including a focus on pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis, tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, and other infections, followed by a discussion of vaccination recommendations in immunosuppressed patients.
February 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079476/mimiviruses-and-the-human-interferon-system-viral-evasion-of-classical-antiviral-activities-but-inhibition-by-a-novel-interferon-%C3%AE-regulated-immunomodulatory-pathway
#8
Gabriel Magno de Freitas Almeida, Lorena C Ferreira Silva, Philippe Colson, Jonatas Santos Abrahao
In this review we discuss the role of mimiviruses as potential human pathogens focusing on clinical and evolutionary evidence. We also propose a novel antiviral immunomodulatory pathway controlled by interferon-β (IFN-β) and mediated by immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1) and itaconic acid, its product. Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APMV) was isolated from amoebae in a hospital while investigating a pneumonia outbreak. Mimivirus ubiquity and role as protist pathogens are well understood, and its putative status as a human pathogen has been gaining strength as more evidence is being found...
January 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074713/pathogens-patterns-of-pneumonia-and-epidemiologic-risk-factors-associated-with-respiratory-disease-in-recently-weaned-cattle-in-ireland
#9
Gerard M Murray, Simon J More, Dónal Sammin, Mìcheàl J Casey, Máire C McElroy, Rónan G O'Neill, William J Byrne, Bernadette Earley, Tracy A Clegg, Hywel Ball, Colin J Bell, Joseph P Cassidy
We examined the pathogens, morphologic patterns, and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in 136 recently weaned cattle ("weanlings"), 6-12 mo of age, that were submitted for postmortem examination to regional veterinary laboratories in Ireland. A standardized sampling protocol included routine microbiologic investigations as well as polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Lungs with histologic lesions were categorized into 1 of 5 morphologic patterns of pneumonia. Fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%) and interstitial pneumonia (48%) were the morphologic patterns recorded most frequently...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068397/burn-injury-leads-to-increased-long-term-susceptibility-to-respiratory-infection-in-both-mouse-models-and-population-studies
#10
Vanessa S Fear, James H Boyd, Suzanne Rea, Fiona M Wood, Janine M Duke, Mark W Fear
BACKGROUND: Burn injury initiates an acute inflammatory response that subsequently drives wound repair. However, acute disruption to the immune response is also common, leading to susceptibility to sepsis and increased morbidity and mortality. Despite increased understanding of the impact of burn injury on the immune system in the acute phase, little is known about long-term consequences of burn injury on immune function. This study was established to determine whether burn injury has long-term clinical impacts on patients' immune responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067676/severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-optimal-management
#11
Davide Leoni, Jordi Rello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases. Several efforts have been implemented to achieve better outcomes, but an important proportion of patients continue dying. This review focuses on the newest research on prognostic factors and diagnostics, opening new perspectives in the management of CAP. RECENT FINDINGS: CAP survival improved in recent years despite an increasing incidence of severe presentations...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065474/a-single-low-dose-of-a-cgmp-recombinant-bcg-vaccine-elicits-protective-t-cell-immunity-against-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-and-prevents-lung-pathology-in-mice
#12
Pablo F Céspedes, Emma Rey-Jurado, Janyra A Espinoza, Claudia A Rivera, Gisela Canedo-Marroquín, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major health burden worldwide, causing the majority of hospitalizations in children under two years old due to bronchiolitis and pneumonia. HRSV causes year-to-year outbreaks of disease, which also affects the elderly and immunocompromised adults. Furthermore, both hRSV morbidity and epidemics are explained by a consistently high rate of re-infections that take place throughout the patient life. Although significant efforts have been invested worldwide, currently there are no licensed vaccines to prevent hRSV infection...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063815/effect-of-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-risk-of-severe-bacterial-infections-in-hiv-positive-people-with-cd4-cell-counts-of-more-than-500-cells-per-%C3%AE-l-secondary-outcome-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Jemma O'Connor, Michael J Vjecha, Andrew N Phillips, Brian Angus, David Cooper, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Gustavo Lopardo, Satyajit Das, Robin Wood, Aimee Wilkin, Hartwig Klinker, Pacharee Kantipong, Karin L Klingman, David Jilich, Elbushra Herieka, Eileen Denning, Ibrahim Abubakar, Fred Gordin, Jens D Lundgren
BACKGROUND: The effects of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in people with high CD4 cell counts have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on the risk of severe bacterial infection in people with high CD4 cell counts in a preplanned analysis of the START trial. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in ART-naive HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell count of more than 500 cells per μL assigned to immediate ART or deferral until their CD4 cell counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
January 4, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062701/widespread-virus-replication-in-alveoli-drives-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-aerosolized-h5n1-influenza-infection-of-macaques
#14
Elizabeth R Wonderlich, Zachary D Swan, Stephanie J Bissel, Amy L Hartman, Jonathan P Carney, Katherine J O'Malley, Adebimpe O Obadan, Jefferson Santos, Reagan Walker, Timothy J Sturgeon, Lonnie J Frye, Pauline Maiello, Charles A Scanga, Jennifer D Bowling, Anthea L Bouwer, Parichat A Duangkhae, Clayton A Wiley, JoAnne L Flynn, Jieru Wang, Kelly S Cole, Daniel R Perez, Douglas S Reed, Simon M Barratt-Boyes
Human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus are frequently fatal but the mechanisms of disease remain ill-defined. H5N1 infection is associated with intense production of proinflammatory cytokines, but whether this cytokine storm is the main cause of fatality or is a consequence of extensive virus replication that itself drives disease remains controversial. Conventional intratracheal inoculation of a liquid suspension of H5N1 influenza virus in nonhuman primates likely results in efficient clearance of virus within the upper respiratory tract and rarely produces severe disease...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061469/diagnosis-of-cytomegalovirus-pneumonia-by-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-using-bronchial-washing-fluid-from-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#15
Hwa Young Lee, Chin Kook Rhee, Joon Young Choi, Hea Yon Lee, Jong Wook Lee, Dong Gun Lee
BACKGROUND: The incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is increasing in patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies. The utility of CMV-DNA viral load measurement has not been standardized, and viral cut-off values have not been established. This study was designed to investigate the utility of CMV quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using bronchial washing fluid. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the microbiologic and pathologic results of bronchial washing fluid and biopsy specimens in addition to the patients' clinical characteristics...
January 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060871/a-neonatal-murine-model-of-mrsa-pneumonia
#16
Elizabeth A Fitzpatrick, Dahui You, Bishwas Shrestha, David Siefker, Vivek S Patel, Nikki Yadav, Sridhar Jaligama, Stephania A Cormier
Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants particularly following lower respiratory tract viral infections such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). However, the mechanisms by which co-infection of infants by MRSA and RSV cause increased lung pathology are unknown. Because the infant immune system is qualitatively and quantitatively different from adults we developed a model of infant MRSA pneumonia which will allow us to investigate the effects of RSV co-infection on disease severity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054135/-community-acquired-pneumonia
#17
S Poetter-Lang, C J Herold
CLINICAL ISSUE: The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging...
January 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049398/infectious-agents-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-exploring-the-links
#18
Mohammad Zubair Alam, Qamre Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Asif Ahmad Jiman-Fatani, Esam I Azhar, Mohammad Azhar Khan, Absarul Haque
Recent studies have shown that bacterial and viral infections are risk factors for various neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Lyme disease (LD). However, it is still controversial how the infections play a role in neurological diseases progression. Infections in central nervous system may lead multiple damages in infected and neighboring cells. The infection leads to the activation of inflammatory processes and host immune responses, which acts as defense mechanism and also causes damage to the host neuronal functions and viability...
January 3, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033514/infections-due-to-alphaherpesviruses-in-early-post-transplant-period-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-results-of-a-5-year-survey
#19
Maciej Przybylski, Anna Majewska, Tomasz Dzieciatkowski, Patrycja Rusicka, Grzegorz W Basak, Barbara Nasilowska-Adamska, Jaroslaw Bilinski, Wieslaw W Jedrzejczak, Marta Wroblewska, Kazimierz Halaburda, Grazyna Mlynarczyk, Agnieszka Tomaszewska
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by human α-herpesviruses usually have a benign course with recurrencies. However, they may become dangerous in immunocompromised hosts. In this case, molecular methods constitute a reliable diagnostic tool enabling rapid assessment of the efficacy of antiviral treatment strategies. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the frequency of alphaherpesviral DNAemia and the viral load during early post-transplantation period after alloHSCT; we also analyzed association of the DNAemia and chosen parameters of the patients...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011920/nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-carriage-during-childhood-community-acquired-alveolar-pneumonia-relationship-between-specific-serotypes-and-co-infecting-viruses
#20
David Greenberg, Noga Givon-Lavi, Yaniv Fainguelernt, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Yonat Shemer Avni, Jacob Bar-Ziv, Ron Dagan
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses and S. pneumoniae are known to be co-pathogens in childhood pneumonia. However, it is unclear whether all pneumococcal serotypes are equally prone to such interaction. We attempted to determine association between carried pneumococcal serotypes and respiratory viruses during childhood community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP). METHODS: The study was conducted during RSV seasons, before pneumococcal vaccine introduction. Children <5 years diagnosed with CAAP, with positive pneumococcal nasopharyngeal cultures from whom viral diagnostic tests were obtained were enrolled...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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