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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345007/aetiology-of-neonatal-conjunctivitis-evaluated-in-a-population-based-setting
#1
Minna Honkila, Marjo Renko, Irma Ikäheimo, Tytti Pokka, Matti Uhari, Terhi Tapiainen
AIM: Our aim was to study prospectively the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis in a population-based setting. METHODS: Altogether 173 neonates with clinical conjunctivitis aged on average 20 (SD 10) days were recruited from child welfare clinics in Oulu, Finland, in 2010-2015. Conjunctival specimens were collected from 167 neonates for multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect 16 respiratory viruses, from 163 for polymerase chain reaction to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and from 160 for bacterial culture studies...
January 18, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343795/recurrent-wheezing-in-neonatal-pneumonia-is-associated-with-combined-infection-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-staphylococcus-aureus-or-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#2
Qin Zhong, Hui Feng, Qi Lu, Xu Liu, Qi Zhao, Yue Du, Xian-Hong Zhang, Jia-Rong Wang
Both viral and bacterial infections can be associated with wheezing episodes in children; however, information regarding combined infections with both viral and bacterial pathogens in full term neonates is limited. We sought to investigate the effects of viral-bacterial codetection on pneumonia severity and recurrent wheezing. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on neonates admitted to our hospital with pneumonia from 2009 to 2015. Of 606 total cases, 341 were diagnosed with RSV only, and 265 were diagnosed with both RSV and a potential bacterial pathogen...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341032/-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-nosocomial-pneumonia-update-2017-s3-guideline-of-the-german-society-for-anaesthesiology-and-intensive-care-medicine-the-german-society-for-infectious-diseases-the-german-society-for-hygiene-and-microbiology
#3
K Dalhoff, M Abele-Horn, S Andreas, M Deja, S Ewig, P Gastmeier, S Gatermann, H Gerlach, B Grabein, C P Heußel, G Höffken, M Kolditz, E Kramme, H Kühl, C Lange, K Mayer, I Nachtigall, M Panning, M Pletz, P-M Rath, G Rohde, S Rosseau, B Schaaf, D Schreiter, H Schütte, H Seifert, C Spies, T Welte
Nosocomial pneumonia (HAP) is a frequent complication of hospital care. Most data are available on ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, infections on general wards are increasing. A central issue are infections with multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens which are difficult to treat in the empirical setting potentially leading to inappropriate use of antimicrobial therapy.This guideline update was compiled by an interdisciplinary group on the basis of a systematic literature review. Recommendations are made according to GRADE giving guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of HAP on the basis of quality of evidence and benefit/risk ratio...
January 2018: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334446/pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia
#4
Stephanie Posten, Jennifer Reed
Pediatric community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently encountered by medical providers and is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission. CAP is known to cause significant morbidity and mortality, causing greater than 2 million deaths annually worldwide in children younger than five years old. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) released guidelines in 2011 with recommendations regarding appropriate diagnosis and management of community acquired pneumonia for children greater than 3 months age, with the goal of assisting providers in clinical decision making...
December 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329683/respiratory-disease-in-ball-pythons-python-regius-experimentally-infected-with-ball-python-nidovirus
#5
Laura L Hoon-Hanks, Marylee L Layton, Robert J Ossiboff, John S L Parker, Edward J Dubovi, Mark D Stenglein
Circumstantial evidence has linked a new group of nidoviruses with respiratory disease in pythons, lizards, and cattle. We conducted experimental infections in ball pythons (Python regius) to test the hypothesis that ball python nidovirus (BPNV) infection results in respiratory disease. Three ball pythons were inoculated orally and intratracheally with cell culture isolated BPNV and two were sham inoculated. Antemortem choanal, oroesophageal, and cloacal swabs and postmortem tissues of infected snakes were positive for viral RNA, protein, and infectious virus by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and virus isolation...
January 9, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322872/a-collaborative-approach-to-improve-consistent-use-of-procalcitonin-in-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#6
Alexander R Levine, Robyn Riggott, Kristela Vulaj, Tera R Falcetti, Syed Ali, Gagandeep Singh
BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a biomarker that can help differentiate bacterial from viral infections and has been extensively studied in patients with sepsis and pneumonia to guide antibiotic therapy. However, there is poor adherence to prescribed algorithms when used to discontinue antibiotics in the real world. A quality improvement project was implemented to increase consistent use of PCT. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate use of PCT and impact on antibiotic length of therapy (LOT) preimplementation and postimplementation of a quality improvement initiative...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317512/streptococcus-pneumoniae-modulates-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-dispersion-and-the-transition-from-colonization-to-invasive-disease
#7
Ryan M Reddinger, Nicole R Luke-Marshall, Shauna L Sauberan, Anders P Hakansson, Anthony A Campagnari
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are ubiquitous upper respiratory opportunistic pathogens. Individually, these Gram-positive microbes are two of the most common causative agents of secondary bacterial pneumonia following influenza A virus infection, and they constitute a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, rates of cocolonization with both of these bacterial species have increased, despite the traditional view that they are antagonistic and mutually exclusive...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310581/application-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-patients-with-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-induced-by-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-viral-pneumonia-national-data-from-the-chinese-multicentre-collaboration
#8
Linna Huang, Wei Zhang, Yi Yang, Wenjuan Wu, Weihua Lu, Han Xue, Hongsheng Zhao, Yunfu Wu, Jia Shang, Lihua Cai, Long Liu, Donglin Liu, Yeming Wang, Bin Cao, Qingyuan Zhan, Chen Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298882/host-tumor-suppressor-p18ink4c-functions-as-a-potent-cell-intrinsic-inhibitor-of-%C3%AE-hv68-reactivation-and-pathogenesis
#9
Brian F Niemeyer, Lauren M Oko, Eva M Medina, Darby G Oldenburg, Douglas W White, Carlyne D Cool, Eric T Clambey, Linda F van Dyk
Gammaherpesviruses are common viruses associated with lifelong infection and increased disease risk. Reactivation from latency aids the virus in maintaining infection throughout the life of the host and is responsible for a wide array of disease outcomes. Previously, we demonstrated that the virus encoded cyclin (v-cyclin) of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (γHV68) is essential for optimal reactivation from latency in normal mice but not in mice lacking the host tumor suppressor, p18INK4c (p18). Whether p18 plays a cell-intrinsic or -extrinsic role in constraining reactivation remains unclear...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297442/the-significance-of-cytomegalovirus-in-children-with-pneumonia-admitted-for-mechanical-ventilation
#10
P M Jeena, K Govender, R Parboosing, M Adhikari
BACKGROUND: The pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children with pneumonia is not clear. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: We describe the outcome of children on mechanical ventilation with 'probable' CMV-related pneumonitis (CMV DNA polymerase chain reaction [PCR] positive as well as clinical and imaging features of CMV on ganciclovir) and children with pneumonia and CMV infection (CMV DNA PCR-positive without clinical and imaging features of CMV and not on ganciclovir therapy) at a paediatric intensive care unit in South Africa between 2011 and 2013...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290098/rotavirus-infection-as-a-frequent-cause-of-neonatal-fever
#11
Ha-Na Kang, Hyun Kyung Park, Hyun-Ju Lee, Jin-Hwa Moon, Jae Won Oh, Chang-Ryul Kim
BACKGROUND: Fever rather than diarrhea or vomiting was the most common symptom of neonatal rotavirus(RV) infection in our previous study. We investigated if RV infection is a major cause of neonatal fever and we compared the clinical characteristics of bacterial infections, viral infections and unknown causes of neonatal fever. METHOD: We reviewed the electronic medical records of 48 newborns of ≤ 28 days who were admitted to the Special Care Nursery of Hanyang University Guri Hospital for fever (≥ 38°C) from 2005 to 2009...
December 31, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284418/the-aetiologies-of-central-nervous-system-infections-in-hospitalised-cambodian-children
#12
Paul Turner, Kuong Suy, Le Van Tan, Pora Sar, Thyl Miliya, Nguyen Thi Thu Hong, Vu Thi Ty Hang, Nguyen Thi Han Ny, Sona Soeng, Nicholas P J Day, H Rogier van Doorn, Claudia Turner
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The aetiologies of these potentially vaccine-preventable infections have not been well established in Cambodia. METHODS: We did a one year prospective study of children hospitalised with suspected CNS infection at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens (CSF) samples underwent culture, multiplex PCR and serological analysis to identify a range of bacterial and viral pathogens...
December 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280432/a-combined-syndromic-approach-to-examine-viral-bacterial-and-parasitic-agents-among-febrile-patients-a-pilot-study-in-kilombero-tanzania
#13
Christine Hercik, Leonard Cosmas, Ondari D Mogeni, Newton Wamola, Wanze Kohi, Eric Houpt, Jie Liu, Caroline Ochieng, Clayton Onyango, Barry Fields, Sayoki Mfinanga, Joel M Montgomery
The use of fever syndromic surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa is an effective approach to determine the prevalence of both malarial and nonmalarial infectious agents. We collected both blood and naso/oro-pharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs from consecutive consenting patients ≥ 1 year of age, with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C, and symptom onset of ≤ 5 days. Specimens were analyzed using both acute febrile illness (AFI) and respiratory TaqMan array cards (TAC) for multiagent detection of 56 different bloodstream and respiratory agents...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279451/epidemiology-of-respiratory-pathogens-in-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-shanghai-china-from-2013-to-2015
#14
Pengcheng Liu, Menghua Xu, Leiyan He, Liyun Su, Aimin Wang, Pan Fu, Lijuan Lu, Chuanqing Wang, Jin Xu
This study aimed to explore the epidemiology of pathogens in children who were hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) at the Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Children aged less than 18 years who were hospitalized with LRTIs were recruited from January 2013 to December 2015. Respiratory specimens were collected for the detection of common respiratory viruses, atypical bacteria and bacteria using current laboratory diagnostic tests. The epidemiological characteristics of the respiratory pathogens were analysed...
December 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277569/membrane-permeabilization-design-of-antimicrobial-peptides-based-on-chikungunya-fusion-domain-scaffold-and-its-antibacterial-activity-against-gram-positive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-respiratory-infection
#15
Rui Yang, Guojun Zhang, Furui Zhang, Zhanjiang Li, Chun Huang
The structural dynamics of membrane permeabilization are investigated systematically and compared between viral fusion peptides (VFPs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). It is revealed that the permeabilization process can be divided into two phases: a fast motion phase in water (first phase) and a slow diffusion phase in lipid (second phase). Difference in peptide permeability to neutrally or weakly charged mammalian membrane and to negatively charged bacterial membrane is primarily determined by the first phase, which is dominated by the direct electrostatic interaction between peptide and the hydrophilic surface of membranes...
December 22, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276769/low-incidence-of-opportunistic-infections-in-lupus-patients-treated-with-cyclophosphamide-and-steroids-in-a-tertiary-care-setting
#16
Shubhasree Banerjee, Ann Biehl, Maryam Ghaderi-Yeganeh, Zerai Manna, Sarfaraz Hasni
Background: Infection is common cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our objective was to determine incidence and types of infections, particularly opportunistic infections, in SLE patients receiving cyclophosphamide, and to identify contribution of variables like demographics, steroid, other immunosuppressives, white blood cell and absolute neutrophil count to infection risk. Patients and Methods: We did retrospective chart review of SLE patients in our institute over last 10 years, who received minimum six cyclophosphamide infusions...
March 2017: Medical Research Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274318/the-burden-of-viruses-in-pneumonia-associated-with-acute-respiratory-failure-an-underappreciated-issue
#17
Andrew F Shorr, Kristen Fisher, Scott T Micek, Marin H Kollef
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation (MV) results in substantial mortality and represents a leading reason for antibiotic utilization. The role of viruses in this setting is unclear. Identifying a viral etiology such instances could facilitate antibiotic stewardship. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort with pneumonia requiring MV. We included both community and hospital-onset cases and classified patients as to the pneumonia's etiology...
December 20, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261289/wavelength-dependent-damage-to-adenoviral-proteins-across-the-germicidal-uv-spectrum
#18
Sara E Beck, Natalie M Hull, Christopher Poepping, Karl G Linden
Adenovirus, a waterborne pathogen responsible for causing bronchitis, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal infections, is highly resistant to UV disinfection and therefore drives the virus disinfection regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Polychromatic UV irradiation has been shown to be more effective at inactivating adenovirus and other viruses than traditional monochromatic irradiation emitted at 254 nm; the enhanced efficacy has been attributed to UV-induced damage to viral proteins. This research shows UV-induced damage to adenoviral proteins across the germicidal UV spectrum at wavelength intervals between 200 and 300 nm...
December 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258745/recovery-from-childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-a-developing-country-prognostic-value-of-serum-procalcitonin
#19
Taiane S Fonseca, Ângela G Vasconcellos, Dominique Gendrel, Olli Ruuskanen, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Childhood community-acquired pneumonia is a common and potentially life-threatening illness in developing countries. We assessed the prognostic value of serum procalcitonin level upon admission on clinical response to antibiotic treatment. METHODS: Out of 89 patients, the median (IQR) age was 19(12-29) months and 60% were boys. Viral (49.5%), typical bacterial (38%) and atypical bacterial (12.5%) infections as well as probable pneumococcal infections (26%) were diagnosed...
December 16, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258242/successful-treatment-of-pulmonary-and-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-associated-with-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-an-hiv-patient
#20
Marie-Françoise Rey, Charles Mary, Diane Sanguinetti, Stéphane Ranque, Christophe Bartoli, Coralie L'Ollivier
In both the post and pre combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, Pneumocystis jirovecii and Toxoplasma gondii remain common opportunistic infectious agents. The common manifestations are pneumonia for P. jirovecii and brain abscess for T. gondii. Nevertheless, co-infection remains rare, and pulmonary toxoplasmosis is scarce, or may be underestimated because of its similarity with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We reported an uncommon case of an AIDS patient (6 CD4 + T cells/mm³) with both pulmonary and cerebral toxoplasmosis associated with pneumocystis pneumonia...
December 18, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
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