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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156574/infectious-agents-in-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-diseases-through-oxidative-stress
#1
REVIEW
Marisa Di Pietro, Simone Filardo, Francesca Falasca, Ombretta Turriziani, Rosa Sessa
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that vascular oxidative stress is a critical feature of atherosclerotic process, potentially triggered by several infectious agents that are considered as risk co-factors for the atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). C. pneumoniae has been shown to upregulate multiple enzymatic systems capable of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as NADPH oxidase (NOX) and cyclooxygenase in vascular endothelial cells, NOX and cytochrome c oxidase in macrophages as well as nitric oxide synthase and lipoxygenase in platelets contributing to both early and late stages of atherosclerosis...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153067/-detection-of-influenza-virus-infections-by-molecular-and-immunofluorescence-methods
#2
Deniz Yıldırım, Deniz Özdoğru Sağdıç, Buket Şeflek, Mehmet Çimentepe, İbrahim Bayram, Fügen Yarkın
Influenza virus infections are extremely important for human health due to the occurence of seasonal epidemics and pandemics worldwide. Influenza is associated with high morbidity and may result in serious complications such as life threatening viral or bacterial pneumonia. Especially, young children, older adults, patients with chronic diseases such as heart, lung, kidney, and diabetes and immunosuppressed people are at higher risk for complications and death from influenza virus infections. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of influenza type A and B virus infections and influenza A virus subtypes in hospitalized patients with respiratory tract infections by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Sacace, Italy), conventional RT-PCR and direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA, Argene SA, France) tests...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153065/-genotypes-of-rhinoviruses-in-children-and-adults-patients-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#3
Eda Demirkan, Sevin Kırdar, Emel Ceylan, Ayşe Yenigün, İmran Kurt Ömürlü
Rhinovirus (RV) is one of the most frequent causative agent of acute respiratory tract infections in the world. The virus may cause a mild cold, as well as more serious clinical symptoms in patients with immune system deficiency or comorbidities. Rhinoviruses have been identified by molecular methods under three types: RV-A, RV-B and RV-C. In most of the cases, it was reported that RV-A and RV-C were related with lower respiratory tract infections and asthma exacerbations, while RV-B was rarely reported in lower respiratory tract infections...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149338/multiplex-respiratory-virus-testing-for-antimicrobial-stewardship-a-prospective-assessment-of-antimicrobial-use-and-clinical-outcomes-among-hospitalized-adults
#4
Makeda Semret, Ian Schiller, Barbara Ann Jardin, Charles Frenette, Vivian G Loo, Jesse Papenburg, Shelly A McNeil, Nandini Dendukuri
Background: Respiratory tract infections are frequent causes of hospitalization and initiation of empirical antimicrobial therapy. Testing for a broad panel of respiratory viruses has been advocated as a useful tool for antibiotic stewardship. We conducted a prospective observational study to assess the impact of rapid viral test results on antimicrobial prescriptions and clinical outcomes among hospitalized adults. Methods: Eight hundred patients admitted with respiratory symptoms were tested by a 12-virus respiratory panel (RVP) during 3 consecutive winters in Montreal, Canada...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149199/epidemiology-and-clinical-profile-of-pathogens-responsible-for-the-hospitalization-of-children-in-sousse-area-tunisia
#5
Ines Brini, Aida Guerrero, Naila Hannachi, Jihene Bouguila, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Amira Bouhlel, Lamia Boughamoura, Benjamin Hetzer, Wegene Borena, Britta Schiela, Dorothee Von Laer, Jalel Boukadida, Heribert Stoiber
This study aimed to identify a broad spectrum of respiratory pathogens from hospitalized and not-preselected children with acute respiratory tract infections in the Farhat Hached University-hospital of Sousse, Tunisia. Between September 2013 and December 2014, samples from 372 children aged between 1 month and 5 years were collected, and tested using multiplex real-time RT-PCR by a commercial assay for 21 respiratory pathogens. In addition, samples were screened for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae 16S rDNA using real-time PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148920/the-unexpected-impact-of-vaccines-on-secondary-bacterial-infections-following-influenza
#6
Amber M Smith, Victor C Huber
Influenza virus infections remain a significant health burden worldwide, despite available vaccines. Factors that contribute to this include a lack of broad coverage by current vaccines and continual emergence of novel virus strains. Further complicating matters, when influenza viruses infect a host, severe infections can develop when bacterial pathogens invade. Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) contribute to a significant proportion of influenza-related mortality, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae as major coinfecting pathogens...
November 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148267/detection-of-teschovirus-type-13-from-two-swine-herds-exhibiting-nervous-clinical-signs-in-growing-pigs
#7
J Carnero, C Prieto, L Polledo, F J Martínez-Lobo
Recently, the number of clinical reports of growing pigs showing neurological signs possibly related to viral infections has increased. The objective of this report was to describe two outbreaks of an atypical condition observed in 6- to 7-week-old pigs with a morbidity of 20% and a fatality rate of 60% in two unrelated farms of the same company. During the acute phase of the disease, fever, sudden death, neurological signs, ear necrosis and occasional corneal opacity were observed. Histopathological examination revealed interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and lymphocytic vasculitis in different organs and mild polioencephalomyelitis suggesting a potential viral infection...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142177/perinatal-exposure-to-tetrabromobisphenol-a-tbbpa-a-brominated-flame-retardant-exacerbated-the-pneumonia-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infected-offspring-mice
#8
Wataru Watanabe, Akihiko Hirose, Tomomi Takeshita, Seiko Hashiguchi, Kentaro Sakata, Katsuhiko Konno, Aki Miyauchi, Toshi Akashi, Hiroki Yoshida, Chihiro Sugita, Masahiko Kurokawa
To investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a brominated flame retardant, on the immune system, a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection mouse model was utilized. Female mice were exposed to TBBPA mixed with the diet from 10 days after conception to weaning on postnatal day 21. Offspring mice were infected intranasally with A2 strain of RSV. Although no general toxicological sign was observed, the pulmonary viral titers of offspring mice exposed to 0.1% TBBPA were significantly increased compared with the control on day 5 post-infection...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141631/detection-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-2-during-the-wild-rabbit-oryctolagus-cuniculus-eradication-from-the-berlengas-archipelago-portugal
#9
F A Abade Dos Santos, C Carvalho, Oliveira Nuno, J J Correia, M Henriques, M C Peleteiro, M Fevereiro, M D Duarte
BACKGROUND: In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those deaths was never investigated. Our aim was to investigate the cause of death of 11 rabbits collected between April and May 2016. RESULTS: While screening samples from rabbit carcasses for the major viral rabbit pathogens, five tested positive to RHDV2 but all were negative for RHDV and myxoma virus (MYXV)...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136326/dna-based-testing-in-lung-transplant-recipients-with-suspected-non-viral-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
Nora Drick, Benjamin Seeliger, Mark Greer, Benjamin A Bollmann, Stefan Ziesing, Tobias Welte, Jens Gottlieb
BACKGROUND: Non-viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are common among lung transplant (LTx) recipients with increased mortality. Early pathogen identification is crucial to guide therapy and avoid adverse events. Results from cultures may require up to 72 hours. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) may allow faster pathogen identification, but its utility in LTx recipients with suspected non-viral LRTI remains unclear. METHODS: In a prospective open-label observational trial, LTx recipients presenting with suspected LRTI received bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)...
November 14, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135841/severe-warm-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-in-a-7-month-old-infant-associated-with-a-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#11
Cierra Wandro, Leili Dolatshahi, Douglas Blackall
A 7-month-old female infant had clinical and laboratory evidence of severe warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia. She also had clinical evidence of an upper respiratory tract infection with molecular detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Although reticulocytopenic initially, she responded to red blood cell transfusion, steroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin and remains well today. With the increasing use of multiplex respiratory viral and bacterial pathogen detection systems, the rare association described in this report may prove to be more common than previously thought and may provide insight into the pathogenesis and clinical consequences of red blood cell autoantibodies...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134688/neutropenic-fever-during-peripheral-blood-progenitor-cell-mobilization-is-associated-with-decreased-cd34-cell-collection-and-increased-apheresis-collection-days
#12
Jack Khouri, Lisa Rybicki, Navneet Majhail, Matt Kalaycio, Edward Copelan, Brad Pohlman, Brian Hill, Robert Dean, Aleksandr Lazaryan, Betty Hamilton, Steven Andresen, Ronald Sobecks, Brian Bolwell, Hien Liu
BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) mobilization with chemotherapy in addition to Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) improves cell collection compared to G-CSF alone; however, it is associated with increased risk of neutropenic fever (NF). METHODS: We analyzed risk factors for post-priming NF and NF association with autologous stem cell transplant outcomes. Between 1998 and 2008, 593 adult patients with lymphoma underwent PBPC mobilization with etoposide and G-CSF...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132070/sixteen-year-history-of-rituximab-therapy-for-1085-pemphigus-vulgaris-patients-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Soheil Tavakolpour, HamidReza Mahmoudi, Kamran Balighi, Robabeh Abedini, Maryam Daneshpazhooh
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune disease due to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3, usually affecting both skin and mucous membranes. Recently, rituximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 molecules have been regarded as a promising treatment for PV. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to conclude on how and which PV patients could benefit from rituximab infusion. Search in PubMed results in 114 relevant studies, which met the criteria...
November 10, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129538/pneumonia-in-the-tropics-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Steve McGloughlin, Pravin R Amin
The aetiology of community acquired pneumonia varies according to the region in which it is acquired. This review discusses those causes of CAP that occur in the tropics and might not be readily recognizable when transplanted to other sites. Various forms of pneumonia including the viral causes such as influenza (seasonal and avian varieties), the coronaviruses and the Hantavirus as well as bacterial causes, specifically the pneumonic form of Yersinia pestis and melioidosis are discussed.
November 3, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121208/dynamics-of-bacterial-colonization-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-haemophilus-influenzae-and-moraxella-catarrhalis-during-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-viral-upper-respiratory-infection
#15
Gregory P DeMuri, James E Gern, Jens C Eickhoff, Susan V Lynch, Ellen R Wald
Background: Virus is detected in about 80% of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) in children and is also detectable in the nasopharynx of 30% of asymptomatic children. The effect of asymptomatic viral infection on the dynamics of bacterial density and colonization of the nasopharynx has not been reported. Objective: To assess the presence and density of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in the nasopharynx of 4 to 7 year old children during URI and when well...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113587/streptococcus-pneumoniae-burden-and-nasopharyngeal-inflammation-during-acute-otitis-media
#16
Matthew C Morris, Michael E Pichichero
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is a common respiratory pathogen and a frequent cause of acute otitis media (AOM) in children. The first step in bacterial pathogenesis of AOM is the establishment of asymptomatic colonization in the nasopharynx. We studied Spn bacterial burden in conjunction with neutrophil recruitment and inflammatory gene transcription and cytokine secretion in samples of nasal wash collected from normal and otitis-prone children during health, viral upper respiratory infection without middle ear involvement (URI) and AOM...
November 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112278/cytomegalovirus-cmv-dna-quantification-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-of-immunocompromised-patients-with-cmv-pneumonia
#17
E Beam, J J Germer, B Lahr, J D Yao, A H Limper, M J Binnicker, R R Razonable
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia causes major morbidity and mortality. Its diagnosis requires demonstration of viral cytopathic changes in tissue, entailing risks of lung biopsy. This study aimed to determine CMV viral load (VL) thresholds in brochoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for diagnosis of CMV pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. CMV VL in BALF was studied in 17 patients (83% transplant recipients) and 21 control subjects with and without CMV pneumonia, respectively, using an FDA-approved PCR assay (Cobas(®) AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan(®) CMV Test, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109465/evidence-for-human-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-wild-and-captive-chimpanzees-a-potential-threat-to-wild-populations
#18
Sophie Köndgen, Sebastien Calvignac-Spencer, Kim Grützmacher, Verena Keil, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Kathrin Nowak, Sonja Metzger, John Kiyang, Antina Lübke Becker, Tobias Deschner, Roman M Wittig, Felix Lankester, Fabian H Leendertz
Habituation of wild great apes for tourism and research has had a significant positive effect on the conservation of these species. However, risks associated with such activities have been identified, specifically the transmission of human respiratory viruses to wild great apes, causing high morbidity and, occasionally, mortality. Here, we investigate the source of bacterial-viral co-infections in wild and captive chimpanzee communities in the course of several respiratory disease outbreaks. Molecular analyses showed that human respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV) and human metapneumoviruses (HMPV) were involved in the etiology of the disease...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108950/amoxicillin-for-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-primary-care-subgroup-analysis-by-bacterial-and-viral-etiology
#19
Robin Bruyndonckx, Beth Stuart, Paul Little, Niel Hens, Margareta Ieven, Christopher C Butler, Theo Verheij, Herman Goossens, Samuel Coenen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of amoxicillin treatment in adult patients presenting to primary care with a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) who are infected with a potential bacterial, viral, or mixed bacterial/viral infection. METHODS: The multicenter randomized controlled trial focused on adults with LRTI not suspected for pneumonia. Patients were randomized to receive either antibiotic (amoxicillin 1g) or placebo three times daily for seven consecutive days using computer-generated random numbers (follow-up 28 days)...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091081/protective-role-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-cigarette-smoke-and-influenza-infection
#20
M J Hong, B H Gu, M C Madison, C Landers, H Y Tung, M Kim, X Yuan, R You, A A Machado, B E Gilbert, P Soroosh, M Elloso, L Song, M Chen, D B Corry, G Diehl, F Kheradmand
Airborne pathogens commonly trigger severe respiratory failure or death in smokers with lung disease. Cigarette smoking compromises the effectiveness of innate immunity against infections but the underlying mechanisms responsible for defective acquired immune responses in smokers remains less clear. We found that mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke recovered poorly from primary Influenza A pneumonia with reduced type I and II interferons (IFNs) and viral-specific immunoglobulins, but recruited γδ T cells to the lungs that predominantly expressed interleukin 17A (IL-17A)...
November 1, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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