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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790662/pathogenic-characterization-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-of-indian-origin-in-experimentally-infected-piglets
#1
D Senthilkumar, K Rajukumar, A Sen, M Kumar, D Shrivastava, S Kalaiyarasu, S Gautam, F Singh, D D Kulkarni, V P Singh
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important transboundary viral disease of pigs confronting the swine industry worldwide. This study was aimed to assess the pathogenic potential of PRRS virus belonging to genotype 2 that emerged in India in 2013. Nine 6-week-old piglets were inoculated intranasally with 2 × 105.75  TCID50 /ml of PRRSV (Ind-297221/2013). Three piglets were kept as uninfected controls. Blood and nasal swabs were collected daily up to 7 days post-infection (dpi) and on alternate days subsequently...
May 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789655/cigarette-smoke-promotes-hiv-infection-of-primary-bronchial-epithelium-and-additively-suppresses-cftr-function
#2
S Chinnapaiyan, R Dutta, J Bala, T Parira, M Agudelo, M Nair, H J Unwalla
Recurrent lung infections are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV and this is exacerbated in smokers even when administered combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The incidence of pneumonia is increased with smoking and treatment interruption and is directly dependent on viral load in patients when adjusted for CD4 counts. CFTR dysfunction plays an important role in aberrant airway innate immunity as it is pivotal in regulating mucociliary clearance (MCC) rates and other antibacterial mechanisms of the airway...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789506/design-and-efficacy-of-nanogels-formulations-for-intranasal-administration
#3
REVIEW
Blessing A Aderibigbe, Tobeka Naki
Nanogels are drug delivery systems that can bypass the blood-brain barrier and deliver drugs to the desired site when administered intranasally. They have been used as a drug delivery platform for the management of brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, migraine, schizophrenia and depression. nanogels have also been developed as vaccine carriers for the protection of bacterial infections such as influenza, meningitis, pneumonia and as veterinary vaccine carriers for the protection of animals from encephalomyelitis and mouth to foot disease...
May 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785832/lectin-microarray-combined-with-mass-spectrometry-identifies-haptoglobin-related-protein-hpr-as-a-potential-serologic-biomarker-for-separating-non-bacterial-pneumonia-from-bacterial-pneumonia-in-childhood
#4
Lin Yang, Zhou Yang, Lei Cheng, Juan Cheng, Li Cheng, Yangyang Sun, Wenting Li, Kai Song, Weichun Huang, Yong Yin, Shengce Tao, Qinghua Zhang
PURPOSE: Etiological diagnosis of pediatric patients with community-acquired pneumonia is difficult. For therapy, one of the major problems is the difficulty in separating bacterial pneumonia which would benefit from antibiotics from non-bacterial pneumonia. Therefore, we sought to identify potential biomarkers for distinguishing non-bacterial pneumonia from bacterial pneumonia. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Lectin microarray containing 91 lectins was used to screen serums from pediatric patients with pneumonia...
May 22, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785130/human-herpesvirus-6-pneumonitis-in-a-patient-with-follicular-lymphoma-following-immunochemotherapy-with-rituximab
#5
Saeko Kuwahara-Ota, Yoshiaki Chinen, Yoshimi Mizuno, Tomoko Takimoto-Shimomura, Yayoi Matsumura-Kimoto, Kazuna Tanba, Taku Tsukamoto, Shinsuke Mizutani, Yuji Shimura, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Shigeo Horiike, Junya Kuroda
Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) commonly occurs at an early age in children, most often at 3 years of age, and is associated with childhood diseases, such as exanthema subitum, hepatitis, febrile convulsions, or encephalitis. However, the virus occasionally reactivates from its latent state in immunosuppressed adults, especially post-transplant, resulting in serious disseminated, sometimes life-threatening end-organ complications. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man with relapsed follicular lymphoma who developed HHV-6 pneumonitis...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780032/severe-outcomes-associated-with-respiratory-viruses-in-newborns-and-infants-a-prospective-viral-surveillance-study-in-jordan
#6
Najwa Khuri-Bulos, Lindsey Lawrence, Bhinnata Piya, Li Wang, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Samir Faouri, Asem Shehabi, Sten H Vermund, John V Williams, Natasha B Halasa
OBJECTIVE: To assess virus-specific hospitalisation rates, risk factors for illness severity and seasonal trends in children hospitalised with acute respiratory infections (ARI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A government hospital serving low-income and middle-income population in Amman, Jordan. PARTICIPANTS: Children under 2 years of age hospitalised with fever and/or respiratory symptoms (n=3168) from 16 March 2010 to 31 March 2013...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776611/nasal-delivery-of-chitosan-alginate-nanoparticle-encapsulated-bee-apis-mellifera-venom-promotes-antibody-production-and-viral-clearance-during-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-by-modulating-t-cell-related-responses
#7
Jina Lee, Yun-Mi Kim, Ju-Heon Kim, Cheong-Weon Cho, Jong-Woon Jeon, Jin-Kyu Park, Sang-Ho Lee, Bock-Gie Jung, Bong-Joo Lee
In this study, we administered specially developed chitosan/alginate nanoparticle encapsulated BV (CH/AL-BV) which has slow-releasing properties and mucosal adhesiveness to pig via nasal route and evaluate whether it can facilitate systemic immune response and improve clearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The CH/AL-BV-administered group with PRRSV vaccination showed significantly enhanced Th1-related responses including a high population of CD4+ T lymphocyte and cytokine mRNA levels including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-12 and increased PRRSV-specific IgG levels...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764948/inducible-lung-epithelial-resistance-requires-multisource-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-to-protect-against-viral-infections
#8
Carson T Kirkpatrick, Yongxing Wang, Miguel M Leiva Juarez, Pooja Shivshankar, Jezreel Pantaleón García, Alexandria K Plumer, Vikram V Kulkarni, Hayden H Ware, Fahad Gulraiz, Miguel A Chavez Cavasos, Gabriela Martinez Zayes, Shradha Wali, Andrew P Rice, Hongbing Liu, James M Tour, William K A Sikkema, Ana S Cruz Solbes, Keith A Youker, Michael J Tuvim, Burton F Dickey, Scott E Evans
Viral pneumonias cause profound worldwide morbidity, necessitating novel strategies to prevent and treat these potentially lethal infections. Stimulation of intrinsic lung defenses via inhalation of synergistically acting Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists protects mice broadly against pneumonia, including otherwise-lethal viral infections, providing a potential opportunity to mitigate infectious threats. As intact lung epithelial TLR signaling is required for the inducible resistance and as these cells are the principal targets of many respiratory viruses, the capacity of lung epithelial cells to be therapeutically manipulated to function as autonomous antiviral effectors was investigated...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757717/radiographic-and-ct-features-of-viral-pneumonia
#9
Hyun Jung Koo, Soyeoun Lim, Jooae Choe, Sang-Ho Choi, Heungsup Sung, Kyung-Hyun Do
Viruses are the most common causes of respiratory infection. The imaging findings of viral pneumonia are diverse and overlap with those of other nonviral infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, identification of the underlying viral pathogens may not always be easy. There are a number of indicators for identifying viral pathogens on the basis of imaging patterns, which are associated with the pathogenesis of viral infections. Viruses in the same viral family share a similar pathogenesis of pneumonia, and the imaging patterns have distinguishable characteristics...
May 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751747/a-fatal-case-associated-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-a-young-child
#10
Lili Xu, Hengmiao Gao, Jiansheng Zeng, Jun Liu, Cong Lu, Xiaolei Guan, Suyun Qian, Zhengde Xie
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of pediatric bronchiolitis and pneumonia worldwide. Risk factors for high mortality and prolonged morbidity after RSV infection include premature birth, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, and Down syndrome. However, some previously healthy, full-term children who are infected with RSV also require hospitalization and even experience severe sequelae or death. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we present the case of an RSV-associated death of a child who was born at full-term and developed normally up to the age of 2 years old...
May 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751582/whole-exome-sequencing-identifies-new-host-genomic-susceptibility-factors-in-empyema-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-a-pilot-study
#11
Antonio Salas, Jacobo Pardo-Seco, Ruth Barral-Arca, Miriam Cebey-López, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Irene Rivero-Calle, Sara Pischedda, María-José Currás-Tuala, Jorge Amigo, José Gómez-Rial, Federico Martinón-Torres
Pneumonia is the leading cause of death amongst infectious diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for about 25% of pneumonia cases worldwide, and it is a major cause of childhood mortality. We carried out a whole exome sequencing (WES) study in eight patients with complicated cases of pneumococcal pneumonia (empyema). An initial assessment of statistical association of WES variation with pneumonia was carried out using data from the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) for the Iberian Peninsula (IBS) as reference controls...
May 3, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744035/human-metapneumovirus-what-we-know-now
#12
REVIEW
Nazly Shafagati, John Williams
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory infection, particularly in children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. HMPV, which is closely related to avian metapneumovirus subtype C, has circulated for at least 65 years, and nearly every child will be infected with HMPV by the age of 5. However, immunity is incomplete, and re-infections occur throughout adult life. Symptoms are similar to those of other respiratory viral infections, ranging from mild (cough, rhinorrhea, and fever) to more severe (bronchiolitis and pneumonia)...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741740/human-coronavirus-nl63-molecular-epidemiology-and-evolutionary-patterns-in-rural-coastal-kenya
#13
Patience K Kiyuka, Charles N Agoti, Patrick K Munywoki, Regina Njeru, Anne Bett, James R Otieno, Grieven P Otieno, Everlyn Kamau, Taane G Clark, Lia van der Hoek, Paul Kellam, D James Nokes, Matthew Cotten
Background: Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a globally endemic pathogen causing mild and severe respiratory tract infections with reinfections occurring repeatedly throughout a lifetime. Methods: Nasal samples were collected in coastal Kenya through community-based and hospital-based surveillance. HCoV-NL63 was detected with multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR, and positive samples were targeted for nucleotide sequencing of the spike (S) protein...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735243/effect-of-semen-processing-methods-on-lumpy-skin-disease-virus-status-in-cryopreserved-bull-semen
#14
C Henry Annandale, Mario P Smuts, Karen Ebersohn, Lizette du Plessis, Estelle H Venter, Tom A E Stout
Lumpy skin disease is an economically important disease of cattle, caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV; Capripoxvirus). It has a variable clinical appearance but, in severely affected animals, is associated with extensive skin damage, pneumonia and death. The LSDV can be found in the semen of infected bulls for prolonged periods of time, from where it can be transmitted by mating or artificial insemination and cause clinical disease in heifers and cows. In this study, an ejaculate was collected from a LSDV seronegative bull and confirmed free from LSDV DNA by PCR...
April 30, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723077/severe-acute-respiratory-infection-sari-surveillance-in-montenegro-2014-2017
#15
Bozidarka Rakocevic, Anita Grgurevic, Goran Trajkovic, Vedrana Pavlovic, Sandra Sipetic Grujicic, Danijela Vujosevic, Sanja Medenica, Zoran Vratnica, Olivera Bojovic, Boban Mugosa
AIM: The study aim was to analyze epidemiology and clinical characteristics of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases and to compare demographic and clinical characteristics as well as outcomes of influenza-positive SARI cases to those of influenza-negative SARI cases in Montenegro. METHODS: SARI surveillance was established in 2014 in nine healthcare institutions. Retrospective analysis of case-based surveillance data pertaining to all reported SARI cases during three seasons was conducted...
May 3, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719801/an-unusual-presentation-of-a-case-of-human-psittacosis
#16
Yannick Vande Weygaerde, Charlot Versteele, Elke Thijs, Anton De Spiegeleer, Jerina Boelens, Daisy Vanrompay, Eva Van Braeckel, Karim Vermaelen
Background: Chlamydia psittaci is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular organism. Birds are the main reservoir, but also non-avian domestic animals and humans can be infected. In humans it mostly causes respiratory infections due to occupational exposure with varying severity. Sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are needed to define psittacosis in humans as these tests also allow rapid tracing of the animal source. However, diagnosis in humans is often based on time-consuming culture techniques and antibody detection assays as in many countries, the existing molecular diagnostic tests for psittacosis are not reimbursed by the public health insurance...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718555/treatment-with-broadly-neutralizing-influenza-antibodies-reduces-severity-of-secondary-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-mice
#17
Frank van Someren Gréve, Koenraad F van der Sluijs, Anita M Tuip, Marcus J Schultz, Menno D de Jong, Nicole P Juffermans
BACKGROUND: Secondary bacterial pneumonia is a frequent complication of influenza, associated with high morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that treatment with neutralizing influenza A antibody AT10_002 protects against severe secondary pneumococcal infection in a mouse model of influenza A infection. METHODS: Influenza A (H3N2) virus-infected male C57Bl6 mice were treated intravenously with either AT10_002 or a control two days post-infection. Seven days later both groups were infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and sacrificed 18 hours later...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710534/antiviral-effects-of-ma-huang-tang-against-h1n1-influenza-virus-infection-in-vitro-and-in-an-icr-pneumonia-mouse-model
#18
Wenyang Wei, Haitong Wan, Xueqian Peng, Huifen Zhou, Yiyu Lu, Yu He
Ma Huang Tang (MHT), a classical Chinese herbal decoction which has been used in clinic for thousands of years, was very effective in treating the upper respiratory tract infection. But its activity against influenza virus A, the anti-inflammatory effect and the underlying mechanisms have been poorly investigated in previous researches. In this study, the antiviral efficacy of MHT directly inhibiting influenza virus A was investigated in vitro in MDCK cells. In an ICR pneumonia mouse model infected with influenza virus A PR/8/34, MHT (8, 4 and 2 g/kg) were oral administrated for 7 days after viral challenge, to evaluate the effect of MHT on ameliorating viral pneumonia and decipher the underlying mechanisms...
April 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698412/clinical-manifestations-in-infants-and-children-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#19
Mia Johanna Søndergaard, Martin Barfred Friis, Dennis Schrøder Hansen, Inger Merete Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in older children. Pulmonary and extra-pulmonary symptoms associated with M. pneumoniae infection are reported. M. pneumoniae is mainly epidemic in Denmark with the recurrence every 4-7th year. AIMS: Retrospectively, to describe the epidemiology and clinical features, in infants and children, during the M. pneumoniae epidemic in 2010 and 2011. METHODS: All children under the age of 16 that were tested for M...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688138/antibody-responses-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-haemophilus-influenzae-and-moraxella-catarrhalis-in-children-with-acute-respiratory-infection-with-or-without-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-carriage
#20
Dafne C Andrade, Igor C Borges, Maiara L Bouzas, Juliana R Oliveira, Helena Käyhty, Olli Ruuskanen, Cristiana Nascimento-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: We studied Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in young children with acute viral type respiratory infection and analyzed the findings in a multivariate model including age, nasopharyngeal carriage of the tested bacteria and pneumococcal vaccination. METHODS: We included 227 children aged 6-23 months with acute respiratory infection. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for bacterial carriage through detection of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript with nCounter analysis...
April 24, 2018: Infectious Diseases
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