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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933286/viral-infection-in-the-development-and-progression-of-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Steven Nye, Richard J Whitley, Michele Kong
Viral infections are an important cause of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Numerous viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A (H1N1) virus, have been implicated in the progression of pneumonia to ARDS; yet the incidence of progression is unknown. Despite acute and chronic morbidity associated with respiratory viral infections, particularly in "at risk" populations, treatment options are limited. Thus, with few exceptions, care is symptomatic. In addition, mortality rates for viral-related ARDS have yet to be determined...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924246/adenovirus-and-culture-negative-sepsis-in-a-preterm-neonate
#2
Mohannad Moallem, Eunkyung Song, Preeti Jaggi, Miriam R Conces, Adriana E Kajon, Pablo J Sánchez
Background Respiratory viral infections remain an underrecognized cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Case Report An eight day old, 650 gram birth weight, 23 weeks' gestational age female developed "culture-negative" sepsis manifested by respiratory deterioration, hypoxia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. She was diagnosed with pneumonia and hepatitis due to adenovirus HAdV-D (H29F9) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, but died at the age of 18 days despite treatment with cidofovir and immune globulin intravenous...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922699/adhesion-and-invasion-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-primary-and-secondary-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#3
Sara Novick, Marilous Shagan, Karin Blau, Sarit Lifshitz, Noga Givon-Lavi, Nili Grossman, Lipa Bodner, Ron Dagan, Yaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
The interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and the mucosal epithelial cells of its host is a prerequisite for pneumococcal disease development, yet the specificity of this interaction between different respiratory cells is not fully understood. In the present study, three areas were examined: i) The capability of the encapsulated S. pneumoniae serotype 3 strain (WU2) to adhere to and invade primary nasal‑derived epithelial cells in comparison to primary oral‑derived epithelial cells, A549 adenocarcinoma cells and BEAS‑2B viral transformed bronchial cells; ii) the capability of the unencapsulated 3...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922126/viral-and-bacterial-co-infection-in-severe-pneumonia-triggers-innate-immune-responses-and-specifically-enhances-ip-10-a-translational-study
#4
Jonathan Hoffmann, Daniela Machado, Olivier Terrier, Stephane Pouzol, Mélina Messaoudi, Wilma Basualdo, Emilio E Espínola, Rosa M Guillen, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Valentina Picot, Thomas Bénet, Hubert Endtz, Graciela Russomando, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Mixed viral and bacterial infections are widely described in community-acquired pneumonia; however, the clinical implications of co-infection on the associated immunopathology remain poorly studied. In this study, microRNA, mRNA and cytokine/chemokine secretion profiling were investigated for human monocyte-derived macrophages infected in-vitro with Influenza virus A/H1N1 and/or Streptococcus pneumoniae. We observed that the in-vitro co-infection synergistically increased interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (CXCL10, IP-10) expression compared to the singly-infected cells conditions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919133/-significance-of-urological-surgical-treatment-for-viral-hemorrhagic-cystitis-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
Kazuhiro Kurosawa, Shinji Urakami, Kazuya Ishiwata, Jinpei Miyagawa, Kazushige Sakaguchi, Masashi Fujioka, Hirokatsu Murata, Naoko Inoshita, Shuichi Taniguchi, Toshikazu Okaneya
This study investigated the significance of urological surgical intervention for viral hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). A total of 1, 024 patients underwent allo-HSCT at our medical center between January 2006 and July 2014. In the 6 patients (0.58%) who required urological surgical treatment for viral HC, we retrospectively analyzed patient characteristics and outcomes. Two patients underwent nephrostomy for bilateral hydronephrosis due to bladder tamponade...
November 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918839/clinical-utility-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-cytomegalovirus-viral-loads-in-the-diagnosis-of-cytomegalovirus-pneumonitis-in-infants
#6
Kerusha Govender, Prakash Jeena, Raveen Parboosing
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality of children in Africa. The current practice for diagnosing CMV pneumonitis in this setting is based on interpretation of clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings. There is a need for a sensitive and specific laboratory test to objectively distinguish between patients with CMV pneumonitis and those with CMV infection, and non-CMV pneumonia. In this study, we compared plasma and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (NBBAL) CMV viral loads in patients with CMV pneumonitis and those with CMV infection and non-CMV pneumonia...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917707/management-of-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-critical-care-unit-an-area-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#7
Aimee M Dassner, David P Nicolau, Jennifer E Girotto
Pediatric pneumonia is one of the most common causes of childhood infection requiring hospitalization and is a substantial driver of antimicrobial use among hospitalized children. About 12-20% of pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require critical care. Additionally, nosocomial pneumonias (i.e. hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonias) are responsible for 15-53% of hospital-associated infections and are the most common indication for empiric antibiotics in the pediatric intensive care unit...
December 4, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908639/animal-models-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#8
Geraldine Taylor
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905939/causes-of-death-in-vanuatu
#9
Karen Carter, Viran Tovu, Jeffrey Tila Langati, Michael Buttsworth, Lester Dingley, Andy Calo, Griffith Harrison, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death...
March 15, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896062/acute-fibrinous-and-organizing-pneumonia-in-a-patient-with-sjogren-s-syndrome
#10
Adebayo Fasanya, Viral Gandhi, Christina DiCarlo, Raghukumar Thirumala
Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is a histological pattern characterized by intra-alveolar fibrin deposition and associated organizing pneumonia. AFOP has been associated with many rheumatologic disorders in the literature but has not been described in association with Sjogren's syndrome. This paper shows a rare association of AFOP with Sjogren's syndrome. Patient's symptoms promptly improved after treatment with steroid.
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895901/prevention-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-non-ventilated-adult-patients-a-narrative-review
#11
REVIEW
Leonor Pássaro, Stephan Harbarth, Caroline Landelle
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is one of the leading hospital-acquired infections worldwide and has an important impact. Although preventive measures for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are well known, less is known about appropriate measures for prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). AIM: The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the current standards for preventing HAP in non-ventilated adult patients. METHODS: A search of the literature up to May 2015 was conducted using Medline for guidelines published by national professional societies or professional medical associations...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895132/protection-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-pathogenesis-by-a-protein-based-vaccine-is-achieved-by-suppression-of-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-density-during-influenza-a-virus-co-infection
#12
M Nadeem Khan, Qingfu Xu, Michael E Pichichero
An increase in Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization density during a viral co-infection initiates pathogenesis. To mimic natural Spn pathogenesis, we commensally colonized the NP of adult C57BL/6 mice with Spn serotypes (STs) 6A or 8, and then co-infected with mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza A virus (PR/8/34). Spn established effective commensal colonization and Influenza co-infection caused Spn NP density to increase, resulting in bacteremia and mortality. We then studied histidine triad protein D (PhtD), a Spn adhesin vaccine candidate, for its ability to prevent invasive Spn disease in adult and infant mice...
November 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893998/influenza-and-rhinovirus-viral-load-and-disease-severity-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#13
Andrea Granados, Adriana Peci, Allison McGeer, Jonathan B Gubbay
BACKGROUND: The role of viral load in respiratory viral infection is unclear. It is proposed that the viral load of some, but not all respiratory viruses correlate with disease severity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine if an association exists between viral loads among patients in ambulatory settings, compared to those requiring hospitalization/intensive care unit (ICU) admission with influenza A/H3N2, influenza B, or human rhinovirus (HRV); we also explored the impact of age, gender and co-detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae on patient setting...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892925/a-mouse-model-for-mers-coronavirus-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#14
Adam S Cockrell, Boyd L Yount, Trevor Scobey, Kara Jensen, Madeline Douglas, Anne Beall, Xian-Chun Tang, Wayne A Marasco, Mark T Heise, Ralph S Baric
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel virus that emerged in 2012, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe pneumonia-like symptoms and multi-organ failure, with a case fatality rate of ∼36%. Limited clinical studies indicate that humans infected with MERS-CoV exhibit pathology consistent with the late stages of ARDS, which is reminiscent of the disease observed in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Models of MERS-CoV-induced severe respiratory disease have been difficult to achieve, and small-animal models traditionally used to investigate viral pathogenesis (mouse, hamster, guinea-pig and ferret) are naturally resistant to MERS-CoV...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885562/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-are-the-key-viral-pathogens-in-children-2%C3%A2-years-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-islamabad-pakistan
#15
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Yasir Arshad, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Asiya Ashraf, Hajra Sadia, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active surveillance of acute lower respiratory infections among children aged <2 years hospitalized at two hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan. Viral etiology was determined using real-time PCR on respiratory specimens collected during March 2011-April 2012. The overall mean age was 7.83 ± 5.25 months while no statistical difference between age or sex distribution of patients with positive and negative viral etiology (p > 0...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885052/enhanced-protective-responses-to-a-serotype-independent-pneumococcal-vaccine-when-combined-with-an-inactivated-influenza-vaccine
#16
Rachelle Babb, Austen Chen, Abiodun D Ogunniyi, Timothy R Hirst, Ervin E Kara, Shaun R McColl, Mohammed Alsharifi, James C Paton
Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza are the world's foremost bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens. We have previously described a gamma-irradiated influenza (γ-FLU) vaccine that provides cross-protective immunity against heterosubtypic infections. More recently, we reported a novel non-adjuvanted gamma-irradiated S. pneumoniae (γ-PN) vaccine that elicits serotype-independent protection. Considering the clinical synergism of both pathogens, combination of a serotype-independent pneumococcal vaccine with a broad-spectrum influenza vaccine to protect against both infections would have considerable clinical impact...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883071/mint3-apba3-depletion-ameliorates-severe-murine-influenza-pneumonia-and-macrophage-cytokine-production-in-response-to-the-influenza-virus
#17
Takayuki Uematsu, Tomoko Fujita, Hiroki J Nakaoka, Toshiro Hara, Noritada Kobayashi, Yoshinori Murakami, Motoharu Seiki, Takeharu Sakamoto
Influenza virus (IFV) infection is a common cause of severe pneumonia. Studies have suggested that excessive activation of the host immune system including macrophages is responsible for the severe pathologies mediated by IFV infection. Here, we focused on the X11 protein family member Mint3/Apba3, known to promote ATP production via glycolysis by activating hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in macrophages, and examined its roles in lung pathogenesis and anti-viral defence upon IFV infection. Mint3-deficient mice exhibited improved influenza pneumonia with reduced inflammatory cytokines/chemokine levels and neutrophil infiltration in the IFV-infected lungs without alteration in viral burden, type-I interferon production, or acquired immunity...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871304/respiratory-viral-infections-and-host-responses-insights-from-genomics
#18
REVIEW
Niamh M Troy, Anthony Bosco
Respiratory viral infections are a leading cause of disease and mortality. The severity of these illnesses can vary markedly from mild or asymptomatic upper airway infections to severe wheezing, bronchiolitis or pneumonia. In this article, we review the viral sensing pathways and organizing principles that govern the innate immune response to infection. Then, we reconstruct the molecular networks that differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic respiratory viral infections, and identify the underlying molecular drivers of these networks...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867585/successful-treatment-of-suspected-organizing-pneumonia-in-a-patient-with-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-a-case-report
#19
Insu Kim, Jeong Eun Lee, Kye-Hyung Kim, Shinwon Lee, Kwangha Lee, Jeong Ha Mok
A 54-year-old man with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection was transferred to our hospital. We initiated anti-viral drugs and supportive care. The patient's fever and chills disappeared 3 days after admission and the results of serial follow-up reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing for MERS-CoV was negative soon thereafter. He was discharged from the hospital 14 days after admission with no symptoms; however, he presented with a fever 7 days after discharge and was re-hospitalized...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852281/viral-bacterial-coinfection-affects-the-presentation-and-alters-the-prognosis-of-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Guillaume Voiriot, Benoit Visseaux, Johana Cohen, Liem Binh Luong Nguyen, Mathilde Neuville, Caroline Morbieu, Charles Burdet, Aguila Radjou, François-Xavier Lescure, Roland Smonig, Laurence Armand-Lefèvre, Bruno Mourvillier, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Jean-Francois Soubirou, Stephane Ruckly, Nadhira Houhou-Fidouh, Jean-François Timsit
BACKGROUND: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) enables recovery of viruses from airways of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), although their clinical impact remains uncertain. METHODS: Among consecutive adult patients who had undergone a mPCR within 72 hours following their admission to one intensive care unit (ICU), we retrospectively included those with a final diagnosis of CAP. Four etiology groups were clustered: bacterial, viral, mixed (viral-bacterial) and no etiology...
October 25, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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