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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321223/abo-incompatible-kidney-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Christian Morath, Martin Zeier, Bernd Döhler, Gerhard Opelz, Caner Süsal
ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation has long been considered a contraindication to successful kidney transplantation. During the last 25 years, increasing organ shortage enforced the development of strategies to overcome the ABO antibody barrier. In the meantime, ABOi kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure with death-censored graft survival rates comparable to the rates in compatible transplantations. Desensitization is usually achieved by apheresis and B cell-depleting therapies that are accompanied by powerful immunosuppression...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316929/cytomegalovirus-pneumonitis-complicated-by-a-central-peribronchial-pattern-of-organising-pneumonia
#2
Maria M Cuadrado, Asia Ahmed, Ben Carpenter, Jeremy S Brown
We present five cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis occurring in patients after recent T cell deplete allogeneic stem cell transplantation (AlloHSCT). These cases were complicated by an organising pneumonia (during the recovery period) with a predominantly central peribronchial pattern. All patients presented with evidence of active CMV pneumonitis which was treated successfully with anti-viral therapy but was followed by persistent severe dyspnoea, cough and hypoxia. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging showed widespread central peribronchial consolidation with traction bronchiectasis...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298903/apoptosis-toll-like-rig-i-like-and-nod-like-receptors-are-pathways-jointly-induced-by-diverse-respiratory-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens
#3
Isidoro Martínez, Juan C Oliveros, Isabel Cuesta, Jorge de la Barrera, Vicente Ausina, Cristina Casals, Alba de Lorenzo, Ernesto García, Belén García-Fojeda, Junkal Garmendia, Mar González-Nicolau, Alicia Lacoma, Margarita Menéndez, David Moranta, Amelia Nieto, Juan Ortín, Alicia Pérez-González, Cristina Prat, Elisa Ramos-Sevillano, Verónica Regueiro, Ariel Rodriguez-Frandsen, Dolores Solís, José Yuste, José A Bengoechea, José A Melero
Lower respiratory tract infections are among the top five leading causes of human death. Fighting these infections is therefore a world health priority. Searching for induced alterations in host gene expression shared by several relevant respiratory pathogens represents an alternative to identify new targets for wide-range host-oriented therapeutics. With this aim, alveolar macrophages were independently infected with three unrelated bacterial (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus) and two dissimilar viral (respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus) respiratory pathogens, all of them highly relevant for human health...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295964/respiratory-virus-infection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-a-tropical-center-predictive-value-of-the-immunodeficiency-scoring-index
#4
Lin Wang, John Allen, Colin Diong, Yeow-Tee Goh, Sathish Gopalakrishnan, Aloysius Ho, William Hwang, Francesca Lim, Lynette Oon, Thuan-Tong Tan, Yeh-Ching Linn, Ban-Hock Tan
BACKGROUND: Respiratory virus infection (RVI) is a prevalent infection in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Ability to assess the potential severity of RVI is important in the management of such patients. METHODS: We reviewed the cases of RVI in allo-HSCT recipients and explored the predictive value of the immunodeficiency scoring index (ISI) established for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and its applicability for RVI caused by other respiratory viruses...
March 10, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295914/development-of-a-gastric-carcinoid-tumor-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-early-t-cell-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#5
Tsung-Yen Chang, Jin-Yao Lai, Chao-Jan Wang, Shih-Yen Chen, Tang-Her Jaing, Chuen Hsueh, Lee-Yung Shih, Shih-Hsiang Chen
Gastric carcinoid tumor is rarely diagnosed in children. We report a case of gastric carcinoid tumor that occurred after allogeneic HSCT. A 13-year-old girl with ETP acute lymphoblastic leukemia underwent allogeneic HSCT from a 7/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor. She presented with rashes, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which were suggestive of GVHD, 7 months after HSCT. Immunosuppressive agents failed to resolve these symptoms well. After a series of evaluations, carcinoid syndrome caused by a gastric carcinoid tumor was diagnosed...
March 11, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290951/pneumonia-at-marine-corps-recruit-depots-current-trends-in-ambulatory-encounters-and-inpatient-discharges
#6
Kristen Rossi, Gosia Nowak, Asha Jindal Riegodedios
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections are recognized as a significant source of morbidity for military populations, particularly for recruits. This analysis aims to describe the pneumonia burden at Marine Corps Recruit Depots (MCRD) in Parris Island and San Diego during 2007-2014, as these two depots maintain noteworthy comparisons in vaccine and prophylaxis policies. First, both depots reinstated the adenovirus vaccine in October 2011. Second, San Diego provides the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine to all recruits within the first 2 days of arrival, although Parris Island does not routinely vaccinate for Streptococcus pneumoniae...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288233/-dress-syndrome-in-paediatrics-clinical-case
#7
Marcos Silva-Feistner, Elena Ortiz, María Jesús Rojas-Lechuga, Daniel Muñoz
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a rare, potentially life-threatening, drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction that includes skin eruption, haematological abnormalities, lymphadenopathy, and internal organ involvement. OBJECTIVE: Presenting a rare condition in children, to facilitate a rapid diagnostic suspicion and recognition by doctors. CASE REPORT: An 9 months old infant admitted due to a severe viral pneumonia, managed with non-invasive ventilation and ceftriaxone...
February 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284622/a-novel-pulmonary-polyomavirus-in-alpacas-vicugna-pacos
#8
Florante N Dela Cruz, Linlin Li, Eric Delwart, P A Pesavento
Viral metagenomic analysis detected a novel polyomavirus in a 6-month old female alpaca (Vicugna pacos) euthanized after a diagnosis of disseminated lymphosarcoma. The viral genome was fully sequenced, found to be similar to other polyomaviruses in gene architecture and provisionally named Alpaca polyomavirus or AlPyV. Viral nucleic acid was detected by PCR in venous blood, spleen, thymus, and lung. AlPyV phylogenetically clustered in the "Wuki" group of PyVs, which includes WU and KI polyomaviruses, commonly found in human respiratory samples...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283855/the-role-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-infections-in-the-immunopathology-of-the-respiratory-tract
#9
REVIEW
Malgorzata Pawełczyk, Marek Leszek Kowalski
Viral infections are leading causes of both upper and lower airway acute illness in all age groups of healthy persons, and have also been implicated in the acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disorders like asthma and COPD. Human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus and coronavirus have been considered as the most important respiratory pathogens and relatively little attention has been paid to the role of parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs). Human parainfluenza viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family that may evoke lower respiratory infections in infants, children and immunocompromised individuals...
March 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283007/-mortality-related-factors-in-patients-requiring-hospitalization-for-influenza-like-illness
#10
Lale Özışık, Mine Durusu Tanrıöver, Meral Çıblak Akçay, Kübra Yuntçu, Serhat Ünal, Selim Badur, Banu Çakır
The knowledge about the viral etiologies causing respiratory disease in adults is limited. Viral respiratory diseases may lead deterioration in certain patient populations. The aim of this study was to determine the viral etiologies of influenza-like illness among patients requiring hospitalization and to document the risk factors for mortality. This prospective study was performed in one of the 7 centers in Turkey in the context of influenza surveillance by the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282445/endothelial-cell-tropism-is-a-determinant-of-h5n1-pathogenesis-in-mammalian-species
#11
Smanla Tundup, Matheswaran Kandasamy, Jasmine T Perez, Nacho Mena, John Steel, Tamas Nagy, Randy A Albrecht, Balaji Manicassamy
The cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the unusually high virulence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in mammalian species remains unknown. Here, we investigated if the cell tropism of H5N1 virus is a determinant of enhanced virulence in mammalian species. We engineered H5N1 viruses with restricted cell tropism through the exploitation of cell type-specific microRNA expression by incorporating microRNA target sites into the viral genome. Restriction of H5N1 replication in endothelial cells via miR-126 ameliorated disease symptoms, prevented systemic viral spread and limited mortality, despite showing similar levels of peak viral replication in the lungs as compared to control virus-infected mice...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282407/potential-disease-agents-in-domestic-goats-and-relevance-to-bighorn-sheep-ovis-canadensis-management
#12
Mark L Drew, Glen C Weiser
Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281094/clinical-features-and-inflammatory-markers-in-pediatric-pneumonia-a-prospective-study
#13
Are Stuwitz Berg, Christopher Stephen Inchley, Hans Olav Fjaerli, Truls Michael Leegaard, Morten Lindbaek, Britt Nakstad
In this prospective, observational study on previously healthy children <18 years, we aimed to study the diagnostic ability of clinical features and inflammatory markers to (i) predict pathologic chest radiography in suspected pneumonia and (ii) differentiate etiology in radiological proven pneumonia. In 394 cases of suspected pneumonia, 265 (67%) had radiographs consistent with pneumonia; 34/265 had proof of bacterial etiology. Of the cases, 86.5% had received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. In suspected pneumonia, positive chest radiography was significantly associated with increasing C-reactive protein (CRP) values, higher age, and SpO2 ≤92% in multivariate logistic regression, OR 1...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279802/prevention-of-influenza-virus-induced-bacterial-superinfection-by-standardized-echinacea-purpurea-via-regulation-of-surface-receptor-expression-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#14
Selvarani Vimalanathan, Roland Schoop, Andy Suter, James Hudson
Viral infections may predispose the airways to secondary bacterial infections that can lead to unfavorable progression of principally self-limiting illnesses. Such complicated respiratory infections include pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis, acute otitis media, and sepsis, which cause high morbidity and lethality. Some of the pathogenic consequences of viral infections, like the expression of bacterial adhesion receptors and the disturbance of physical barrier integrity due to inflammation, may create permissive conditions for co-infections...
March 7, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275537/a-histologically-proven-case-of-lymphocytic-interstitial-pneumonia-in-a-hiv-infected-adult-with-an-undetectable-viral-load
#15
Sarah Assaf, Pujan Patel, David Stoeckel
Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is on the spectrum of lymphoproliferative diseases that can affect the lungs. Although common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children, it is rarely reported in adults. A 51-year-old HIV infected female patient presented with worsening dyspnea over five months. She had radiological findings of bilateral lung nodular infiltrates. Her CD4 count was 835 cells/uL and her HIV viral load was undetectable. Bronchoalveolar lavage did not yield any infectious pathogen...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273842/immunological-features-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-caused-pneumonia-implications-for-vaccine-design
#16
REVIEW
Emma Rey-Jurado, Alexis M Kalergis
The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the causative agent for high rates of hospitalizations due to viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia worldwide. Such a disease is characterized by an infection of epithelial cells of the distal airways that leads to inflammation and subsequently to respiratory failure. Upon infection, different pattern recognition receptors recognize the virus and trigger the innate immune response against the hRSV. Further, T cell immunity plays an important role for virus clearance...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261167/discovery-and-characterization-of-diazenylaryl-sulfonic-acids-as-inhibitors-of-viral-and-bacterial-neuraminidases
#17
Anja Hoffmann, Martina Richter, Susanne von Grafenstein, Elisabeth Walther, Zhongli Xu, Lilia Schumann, Ulrike Grienke, Christina E Mair, Christian Kramer, Judith M Rollinger, Klaus R Liedl, Michaela Schmidtke, Johannes Kirchmair
Viral neuraminidases are an established drug target to combat influenza. Severe complications observed in influenza patients are primarily caused by secondary infections with e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae. These bacteria engage in a lethal synergism with influenza A viruses (IAVs) and also express neuraminidases. Therefore, inhibitors with dual activity on viral and bacterial neuraminidases are expected to be advantageous for the treatment of influenza infections. Here we report on the discovery and characterization of diazenylaryl sulfonic acids as dual inhibitors of viral and Streptococcus pneumoniae neuraminidase...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260460/sirolimus-induced-combined-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-and-lymphocytic-pneumonitis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Osama Gheith, Magdalena Cerna, Medhat A Halim, Narayanam Nampoory, Torki Al-Otaibi, Prasad Nair, Tarek Said, Hassanein Abo Atteya, Kenneth Katchy
The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor sirolimus was introduced into clinical transplant practice in 1999. Dose-related myelosuppression and hyper lipidemia are the most common adverse effects. Pulmonary toxicity has been reported since 2004 and can cause interstitial pneumonitis, organizing pneumonia, and alveolar hemorrhage. Moreover, it can occasionally induce posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, as documented in scarce reports. To our knowledge; this is the 1st report of combined posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and lymphocytic pneumonitis to be induced by sirolimus...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257752/efficacy-and-safety-of-idelalisib-in-combination-with-ofatumumab-for-previously-treated-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-an-open-label-randomised-phase-3-trial
#19
Jeffrey A Jones, Tadeusz Robak, Jennifer R Brown, Farrukh T Awan, Xavier Badoux, Steven Coutre, Javier Loscertales, Kerry Taylor, Elisabeth Vandenberghe, Malgorzata Wach, Nina Wagner-Johnston, Loic Ysebaert, Lyndah Dreiling, Ronald Dubowy, Guan Xing, Ian W Flinn, Carolyn Owen
BACKGROUND: Idelalisib, a selective inhibitor of PI3Kδ, is approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in combination with rituximab. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of idelalisib in combination with a second-generation anti-CD20 antibody, ofatumumab, in a similar patient population. METHODS: In this global, open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients with relapsed CLL progressing less than 24 months from last therapy...
March 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252630/-pharmacoepidemiological-study-of-the-course-of-influenza-and-other-acute-respiratory-viral-infections-in-risk-groups
#20
V A Bulgakova, A A Poromov, A I Grekova, N Yu Pshenichnaya, E P Selkova, N I Lvov, I A Leneva, I V Shestakova, V V Maleev
AIM: To identify risk factors (RFs) for the development of bacterial complications and the prolonged course of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections (ARVIs) among inpatients treated in Russian healthcare facilities in the post-pandemic period; to determine the clinical presentation of the disease (flu-like syndrome) in risk-group people and to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral therapy with arbidol (umifenovir). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigators retrospectively analyzed randomly selected medical records of inpatients with influenza and other ARVI in 88 hospitals from 50 regions of the Russian Federation: those of 3532 and 1755 patients in the 2010-2011 and 2014-2015 seasons, respectively, by applying parametric and nonparametric statistical methods...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
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