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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740697/successful-treatment-of-acute-respiratory-failure-in-a-patient-with-pulmonary-mycobacterium-abscessus-infection-accompanied-by-organizing-pneumonia
#1
Goohyeon Hong, Doh Hyung Kim, Youn Seup Kim
Organizing pneumonia (OP) is an inflammatory lung disease characterized pathologically by the presence of buds of granulation tissue in the distal air spaces. There are numerous causes of OP including acute respiratory infections such as viral and bacterial infections. However, Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) has rarely been reported as a causative pathogen of OP. Here, we report a 67-year-old woman with rapidly progressive pulmonary M. abscessus infection who developed OP and acute respiratory failure (ARF)...
June 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739424/respiratory-viruses-in-transplant-recipients-more-than-just-a-cold-clinical-syndromes-and-infection-prevention-principles
#2
REVIEW
Salma Abbas, Jillian E Raybould, Sangeeta Sastry, Oveimar de la Cruz
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to provide updated information on the clinical spectrum, treatment options, and infection prevention strategies for respiratory viral infections (RVI) in both solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE and Pubmed databases for literature regarding the aforementioned aspects of RVIs, with focus on respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza, human metapneumovirus and rhinovirus...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736803/genetic-and-pathogenic-analysis-of-a-novel-reassortant-h5n6-influenza-virus-isolated-from-waterfowl-in-south-korea-in-2016
#3
In Hong Lee, Seo Yeon Jin, Sang Heui Seo
A novel reassortant highly pathogenic H5N6 influenza virus was isolated from waterfowl in South Korea in 2016. Seven genes of this virus originated from an H5N6 virus from China, whereas the remaining gene, PB1, was from an unknown virus. This virus productively infected pigs, which showed viral shedding through their noses and developed severe interstitial pneumonia.
July 24, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736021/infectious-complications-and-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-the-first-12-months-after-transplant
#4
A César-Arce, P Volkow-Fernández, L M Valero-Saldaña, B Acosta-Maldonado, D Vilar-Compte, P Cornejo-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used as treatment in different hematologic and solid malignancies. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of infectious complications, microbiology, and outcome in patients undergoing HSCT in Mexico during the pre-engraftment period and the impact on mortality rates at 12 months. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of all hematologic malignancies that received HSCT from January 2009 and December 2014, at an oncology reference center...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729050/an-infant-with-concurrent-serotype-6c-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-infectious-mononucleosis
#5
Naoko Nishikawa-Nakamura, Takafumi Okada, Keiko Nishimura, Tsuyako Iwai, Kimiko Ubukata, Satoshi Iwata, Asayuki Iwai
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a main causative agent of serious invasive bacterial infections. However, concurrent infection with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and viral infectious mononucleosis (IM) is rare. We report an infant with serotype 6C infection causing IPD occurring simultaneously with IM. A previously healthy 11-month-old girl referred to our hospital because of fever, leukopenia, and elevated C-reactive protein presented to us with disturbance of consciousness, tachycardia, tachypnea and agranulocytosis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726662/cytokines-as-the-predictors-of-severe-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-children-review
#6
I Chkhaidze, N Kapanadze
In spite of many attempts to differentiate bacterial from viral disease and predict severity and outcome, the etiologic diagnosis of paediatric community acquired pneumonia and the estimation of potential outcomes remain unsolved problems in most cases. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens causing CAP in children. Although MP infection was traditionally thought to be a self-limited process, more and more severe cases even fatal cases of MP infections were reported in recent years. So it is essential for pediatricians to recognize severe or refractory or severe MP early, treat it promptly and prevent the progress of the disease...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725563/atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-triggered-by-varicella-infection
#7
Pauline Condom, Jean-Michel Mansuy, Stéphane Decramer, Jacques Izopet, Catherine Mengelle
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is a well-known virus that belongs to the Herpesviridae family which induces a self-limited disease except in specific cases in particular among stem cell transplant patients. This virus is not known however to trigger atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS). Here we report the case of a six-year-old boy who was hospitalized with fever and abdominal pains associated to pruritic and vesicular rash, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. He was diagnosed with aHUS precipitated by varicella virus...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724637/predictors-of-mortality-in-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-mers
#8
Ki-Ho Hong, Jae-Phil Choi, Seon-Hui Hong, Jeewon Lee, Ji-Soo Kwon, Sun-Mi Kim, Se Yoon Park, Ji-Young Rhee, Baek-Nam Kim, Hee Jung Choi, Eui-Cheol Shin, Hyunjoo Pai, Su-Hyung Park, Sung-Han Kim
We evaluated the clinical characteristics, cytokine/chemokine concentrations, viral shedding and antibody kinetics in 30 patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), including 6 non-survivors admitted to 3 MERS-designated hospitals. Old age, low albumin, altered mentality and high pneumonia severity index score at admission were risk factors for mortality. In addition, severe signs of inflammation at initial presentation (at hospital days 1-4), such as high inducible protein-10 (p=0.0013), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (p=0...
July 19, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723546/local-modulation-of-antigen-presenting-cell-development-after-resolution-of-pneumonia-induces-long-term-susceptibility-to-secondary-infections
#9
Antoine Roquilly, Hamish E G McWilliam, Cedric Jacqueline, Zehua Tian, Raphael Cinotti, Marie Rimbert, Linda Wakim, Irina Caminschi, Mireille H Lahoud, Gabrielle T Belz, Axel Kallies, Justine D Mintern, Karim Asehnoune, Jose A Villadangos
Lung infections cause prolonged immune alterations and elevated susceptibility to secondary pneumonia. We found that, after resolution of primary viral or bacterial pneumonia, dendritic cells (DC), and macrophages exhibited poor antigen-presentation capacity and secretion of immunogenic cytokines. Development of these "paralyzed" DCs and macrophages depended on the immunosuppressive microenvironment established upon resolution of primary infection, which involved regulatory T (Treg) cells and the cytokine TGF-β...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722366/-large-vessel-vasculitis-pathogenesis-diagnostic-and-medical-management
#10
Alireza Sadrkhah, Jörg D Seebach, Yannick Muller
Large vessels vasculitis includes two diseases : 1) giant cell arteritis, formerly known as Horton's arteritis and 2) Takayasu arteritis. In this article, we will describe and compare the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and medical management of both vasculitis. T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 responses, genetic links and the role of viral (varicella zoster) and bacterial infection (Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Chlamydia pneumoniae) will be discussed. Classification criteria, inflammation biomarkers and progress in imaging tools will also be described...
April 5, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708872/nasopharyngeal-microbiota-in-infants-and-changes-during-viral-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-and-acute-otitis-media
#11
Tasnee Chonmaitree, Kristofer Jennings, Georgiy Golovko, Kamil Khanipov, Maria Pimenova, Janak A Patel, David P McCormick, Michael J Loeffelholz, Yuriy Fofanov
BACKGROUND: Interferences between pathogenic bacteria and specific commensals are known. We determined the interactions between nasopharyngeal microbial pathogens and commensals during viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) and acute otitis media (AOM) in infants. METHODS: We analyzed 971 specimens collected monthly and during URI and AOM episodes from 139 infants. The 16S rRNA V4 gene regions were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. RESULTS: Among the high abundant genus-level nasopharyngeal microbiota were Moraxella, Haemophilus, and Streptococcus (3 otopathogen genera), Corynebacterium, Dolosigranulum, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Bifidobacterium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705941/tyk2-as-a-target-for-immune-regulation-in-human-viral-bacterial-pneumonia
#12
Johanna Berg, Katja Zscheppang, Diana Fatykhova, Mario Tönnies, Torsten T Bauer, Paul Schneider, Jens Neudecker, Jens C Rückert, Stephan Eggeling, Maria Schimek, Achim D Gruber, Norbert Suttorp, Stefan Hippenstiel, Andreas C Hocke
The severity and lethality of influenza A virus (IAV) infections is frequently aggravated by secondary bacterial pneumonia. However, the mechanisms in human lung tissue that provoke this increase in fatality are unknown and therapeutic immune modulatory options are lacking.We established a human lung ex vivo co-infection model to investigate innate immune related mechanisms contributing to the susceptibility of secondary pneumococcal pneumonia.We revealed that type I and III interferon (IFN) inhibits Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced interleukin (IL)-1β release...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697267/back-to-the-basics-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#13
Kathleen Boyd
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common childhood infection and often a reason for inpatient admission, especially when a child is hypoxic or in respiratory distress. Despite advances in technology and diagnostics, it remains difficult to accurately differentiate bacterial CAP from a viral process. Most of the laboratory tests routinely done in inpatient medicine, such as complete blood counts and acute phase reactants, do little to differentiate a viral pneumonia from a bacterial pneumonia. Clinicians must rely heavily on the clinical presentation and decide whether to treat empirically with antibiotics...
July 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697166/cytomegalovirus-cavitary-pneumonia-in-nontransplant-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Francesco De Leonardis, Teresa Perillo, Rosa M Daniele, Nicola Santoro
Lung cavitary lesions are a rare finding in the nontransplant setting of a patient with acute leukemia. Among viral agents, cytomegalovirus (CMV) may cause pulmonary nodules and cavities in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but during pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment, CMV disease is less common. Here we report the case of a boy affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia who suffered severe cavitary CMV pneumonia during chemotherapy, and we review the current literature...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694795/modulation-of-host-mirnas-transcriptome-in-lung-and-spleen-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-infected-sheep-and-goats
#15
Aruna Pandey, Amit R Sahu, Sajad A Wani, Shikha Saxena, Sonam Kanchan, Vaishali Sah, Kaushal K Rajak, Alok Khanduri, Aditya P Sahoo, Ashok K Tiwari, Bina Mishra, D Muthuchelvan, Bishnu P Mishra, Raj K Singh, Ravi K Gandham
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the highly contagious viral disease, characterized by fever, sore mouth, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and pneumonia, primarily affecting sheep and goats. Reports suggested variable host response in goats and sheep and this host response vis-a-vis the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has not been investigated. Here, miRNAs were sequenced and proteomics data were generated to identify the role of differentially expressed miRNA (DEmiRNA) in PPR virus (PPRV) infected lung and spleen tissues of sheep and goats...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694251/advances-in-the-causes-and-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults
#16
REVIEW
Richard G Wunderink, Grant Waterer
Community acquired pneumonia remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Usually, the causal organism is not identified and treatment remains empiric. Recent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies have challenged the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia, and epidemiologic studies are changing our perspective of what causes community acquired pneumonia, especially the role of viral pathogens and the frequent finding of multiple pathogens. The past decade has seen increasing overuse of empiric coverage of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistant Gram negative pathogens owing to inappropriate application of guidelines for healthcare associated pneumonia...
July 10, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693067/-chinese-expert-consensus-for-non-antiinfective-effects-and-clinical-use-of-macrolides
#17
J T Lin, Y M Zhang, X Zhou, C Z Wang, M Huang, C T Liu, C G Wu, H Y Wan, W C Yu, Y R Dai
Important/potential value of macrolides has been proved in the management of chronic respiratory diseases by increasing basic and clinical trials.Through three face-to-face discussions, 10 experts examined important data and drafted this consensus related to macrolides: (1) mechanism of non-antiinfective effects; (2) clinical use in chronic respiratory diseases; (3) cautions of long-term use.The mechanism out of non-antiinfective effects includes anti-inflammatory effect, modifying airway secretion, immune-regulation related to antibacterial effect, corticoid saving effect and anti-viral effect...
July 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690868/mirna-200c-3p-is-crucial-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#18
Qiang Liu, Jianchao Du, Xuezhong Yu, Jun Xu, Fengming Huang, Xiaoyun Li, Cong Zhang, Xiao Li, Jiahui Chang, Daozhen Shang, Yan Zhao, Mingyao Tian, Huijun Lu, Jiantao Xu, Chang Li, Huadong Zhu, Ningyi Jin, Chengyu Jiang
Influenza infection and pneumonia are known to cause much of their mortality by inducing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is the most severe form of acute lung injury (ALI). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is a negative regulator of angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin system, has been reported to have a crucial role in ALI. Downregulation of ACE2 is always associated with the ALI or ARDS induced by avian influenza virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus and sepsis...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687247/bacterial-and-viral-pneumonia-new-insights-from-the-drakenstein-child-health-study
#19
REVIEW
Heather J Zar
Pneumonia remains the major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite improved preventative strategies. Increasing evidence also links early life pneumonia with the development of chronic non-communicable respiratory diseases into childhood and adulthood. The Drakenstein Child Health Study is a unique, multidisciplinary, South African birth cohort, investigating the incidence, risk factors, aetiology and long term impact of early life pneumonia on child health. The study provides novel data showing a high incidence of pneumonia despite excellent immunisation coverage; that pneumonia is due to multiple pathogens; that dysbiosis of the nasopharyngeal flora precedes and predisposes to pneumonia; and that early life pneumonia results in reduced lung function...
June 11, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685493/peripheral-neuropathy-episodic-rhabdomyolysis-and-hypoparathyroidism-in-a-patient-with-mitochondrial-trifunctional-protein-deficiency
#20
Peter van Vliet, Annelies E Berden, Mojca K M van Schie, Jaap A Bakker, Christian Heringhaus, Irenaeus F M de Coo, Mirjam Langeveld, Marielle A Schroijen, M Sesmu Arbous
A combination of unexplained peripheral neuropathy, hypoparathyroidism, and the inability to cope with metabolic stress could point to a rare inborn error of metabolism, such as mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiency.Here, we describe a 20-year-old woman who was known since childhood with axonal motor sensory polyneuropathy of unknown origin. She presented with progressive dyspnoea, and increased muscle weakness, preceded by 6 days of fever, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Laboratory testing showed rhabdomyolysis, and hypocalcaemia with low parathyroid levels...
July 7, 2017: JIMD Reports
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