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Stuttering in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930777/involvement-of-the-central-cognitive-mechanism-in-word-production-in-adults-who-stutter
#1
Pei-Tzu Tsai, Nan Bernstein Ratner
Purpose: The study examined whether semantic and phonological encoding processes were capacity demanding, involving the central cognitive mechanism, in adults who do and do not stutter (AWS and NS) to better understand the role of cognitive demand in linguistic processing and stuttering. We asked (a) whether the two linguistic processes in AWS are capacity demanding, which can temporally disrupt the processing of a concurrent nonlinguistic task, and (b) whether AWS and NS show similar patterns of temporal disruption in the two processes...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919696/the-role-of-anxiety-in-stuttering-evidence-from-functional-connectivity
#2
Yang Yang, Fanlu Jia, Wai Ting Siok, Li Hai Tan
Persistent developmental stuttering is a neurologically based speech disorder associated with cognitive-linguistic, motor and emotional abnormalities. Previous studies investigating the relationship between anxiety and stuttering have yielded mixed results, but it has not yet been examined whether anxiety influences brain activity underlying stuttering. Here, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the functional connectivity associated with state anxiety in a syllable repetition task, and trait anxiety during rest in adults who stutter (N=19) and fluent controls (N=19)...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907811/using-the-oases-a-to-illustrate-how-network-analysis-can-be-applied-to-understand-the-experience-of-stuttering
#3
Cynthia S Q Siew, Kristin M Pelczarski, J Scott Yaruss, Michael S Vitevitch
PURPOSE: Network science uses mathematical and computational techniques to examine how individual entities in a system, represented by nodes, interact, as represented by connections between nodes. This approach has been used by Cramer et al. (2010) to make "symptom networks" to examine various psychological disorders. In the present analysis we examined a network created from the items in the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering-Adult (OASES-A), a commonly used measure for evaluating adverse impact in the lives of people who stutter...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893013/proton-chemical-shift-imaging-of-the-brain-in-pediatric-and-adult-developmental-stuttering
#4
Joseph O'Neill, Zhengchao Dong, Ravi Bansal, Iliyan Ivanov, Xuejun Hao, Jay Desai, Elena Pozzi, Bradley S Peterson
Importance: Developmental stuttering is a neuropsychiatric condition of incompletely understood brain origin. Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study indicates a possible partial basis of stuttering in circuits enacting self-regulation of motor activity, attention, and emotion. Objective: To further characterize the neurophysiology of stuttering through in vivo assay of neurometabolites in suspect brain regions. Design, Setting, and Participants: Proton chemical shift imaging of the brain was performed in a case-control study of children and adults with and without stuttering...
November 23, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865231/long-term-consequences-of-childhood-bullying-in-adults-who-stutter-social-anxiety-fear-of-negative-evaluation-self-esteem-and-satisfaction-with-life
#5
Gordon W Blood, Ingrid M Blood
PURPOSE: Psychosocial disorders have been reported in adults who stutter, especially social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety has been linked to childhood victimization. It is possible that recalled childhood victimization could be linked to psychosocial problems reported in some adults who stutter. METHOD: Participants were 36 adults who stutter and 36 adults who do not stutter (mean age=21.9 years). The Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire was completed for primary school, secondary school and university environments for physical, verbal, relational and cyber bullying...
December 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865229/a-comparison-of-three-strategies-for-reducing-the-public-stigma-associated-with-stuttering
#6
Michael P Boyle, Lauren Dioguardi, Julie E Pate
PURPOSE: The effects of three anti-stigma strategies for stuttering-contact (hearing personal stories from an individual who stutters), education (replacing myths about stuttering with facts), and protest (condemning negative attitudes toward people who stutter)-were examined on attitudes, emotions, and behavioral intentions toward people who stutter. METHOD: Two hundred and twelve adults recruited from a nationwide survey in the United States were randomly assigned to one of the three anti-stigma conditions or a control condition...
December 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865226/an-investigation-of-the-effects-of-a-speech-restructuring-treatment-for-stuttering-on-the-distribution-of-intervals-of-phonation
#7
Lisa Brown, Linda Wilson, Ann Packman, Mark Halaki, Mark Onslow, Ross Menzies
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether stuttering reductions following the instatement phase of a speech-restructuring treatment for adults were accompanied by reductions in the frequency of short intervals of phonation (PIs). The study was prompted by the possibility that reductions in the frequency of short PIs is the mechanism underlying such reductions in stuttering. METHOD: The distribution of PIs was determined for seven adults who stutter, before and immediately after the intensive phase of a speech-restructuring treatment program...
December 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833009/anomaly-in-neural-phase-coherence-accompanies-reduced-sensorimotor-integration-in-adults-who-stutter
#8
Ranit Sengupta, Shalin Shah, Katie Gore, Torrey Loucks, Sazzad M Nasir
Despite advances in our understanding of the human speech system, the neurophysiological basis of stuttering remains largely unknown. Here, it is hypothesized that the speech of adults who stutter (AWS) is susceptible to disruptions in sensorimotor integration caused by neural miscommunication within the speech motor system. Human speech unfolds over rapid timescales and relies on a distributed system of brain regions working in a parallel and synchronized manner, and a breakdown in neural communication between the putative brain regions could increase susceptibility to dysfluency...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810647/investigating-the-feasibility-of-using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-enhance-fluency-in-people-who-stutter
#9
Jennifer Chesters, Kate E Watkins, Riikka Möttönen
Developmental stuttering is a disorder of speech fluency affecting 1% of the adult population. Long-term reductions in stuttering are difficult for adults to achieve with behavioural therapies. We investigated whether a single session of transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) could improve fluency in people who stutter (PWS). In separate sessions, either anodal TDCS (1mA for 20min) or sham stimulation was applied over the left inferior frontal cortex while PWS read sentences aloud. Fluency was induced during the stimulation period by using choral speech, that is, participants read in unison with another speaker...
October 31, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752375/embolic-stroke-due-to-a-common-carotid-artery-thrombus-in-a-young-patient-with-severe-iron-deficiency-anemia-without-thrombocytosis
#10
David Roshal
This case report describes a 41-year-old previously healthy male who presented with stuttering transient ischemic symptoms and radiographic evidence of a left common carotid artery thrombus as well as acute and subacute ischemic infarcts in the left middle cerebral artery territory. An exhaustive stroke work-up did not provide a plausible etiology for his symptoms. His complete blood count and iron studies, however, revealed evidence of severe iron-deficiency anemia without reactive thrombocytosis. His stool guaiac test was positive...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720393/utility-of-virtual-reality-environments-to-examine-physiological-reactivity-and-subjective-distress-in-adults-who-stutter
#11
Shelley B Brundage, James M Brinton, Adrienne B Hancock
PURPOSE: Virtual reality environments (VREs) allow for immersion in speaking environments that mimic real-life interactions while maintaining researcher control. VREs have been used successfully to engender arousal in other disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of virtual reality environments to examine physiological reactivity and subjective ratings of distress in persons who stutter (PWS). METHOD: Subjective and objective measures of arousal were collected from 10PWS during four-minute speeches to a virtual audience and to a virtual empty room...
December 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711148/altered-modulation-of-silent-period-in-tongue-motor-cortex-of-persistent-developmental-stuttering-in-relation-to-stuttering-severity
#12
Pierpaolo Busan, Giovanni Del Ben, Simona Bernardini, Giulia Natarelli, Marco Bencich, Fabrizio Monti, Paolo Manganotti, Piero Paolo Battaglini
Motor balance in developmental stuttering (DS) was investigated with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), with the aim to define novel neural markers of persistent DS in adulthood. Eleven DS adult males were evaluated with TMS on tongue primary motor cortex, compared to 15 matched fluent speakers, in a "state" condition (i.e. stutterers vs. fluent speakers, no overt stuttering). Motor and silent period thresholds (SPT), recruitment curves, and silent period durations were acquired by recording tongue motor evoked potentials...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693846/grey-matter-volume-differences-in-the-left-caudate-nucleus-of-people-who-stutter
#13
Paul F Sowman, Margaret Ryan, Blake W Johnson, Greg Savage, Stephen Crain, Elisabeth Harrison, Erin Martin, Hana Burianová
The cause of stuttering has many theoretical explanations. A number of research groups have suggested changes in the volume and/or function of the striatum as a causal agent. Two recent studies in children and one in adults who stutter (AWS) report differences in striatal volume compared that seen in controls; however, the laterality and nature of this anatomical volume difference is not consistent across studies. The current study investigated whether a reduction in striatal grey matter volume, comparable to that seen in children who stutter (CWS), would be found in AWS...
September 28, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687010/discrimination-and-internalised-feelings-experienced-by-people-who-stutter-in-jordan
#14
Mazin Alqhazo, Michael Blomgren, Nelson Roy, Maha Abu Awwad
PURPOSE: This study investigated the internalised feelings and discrimination experienced by people who stutter in Jordan. METHOD: Five adult speakers who stutter were interviewed as a focus group. The participants were asked about their feelings related to stuttering and discrimination. The participants' responses in the focus group and items adapted from the extant literature formed the basis of a 20-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to 20 additional adults who stutter to assess their internalised feelings about stuttering and their perceived rejecting behaviours (discrimination) associated with their impairment...
August 9, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648057/effect-of-aerobic-exercises-on-stuttering
#15
Illays Khan, Irum Nawaz, Imran Amjad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. METHODS: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group -group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years)...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642279/sensorimotor-oscillations-prior-to-speech-onset-reflect-altered-motor-networks-in-adults-who-stutter
#16
Anna-Maria Mersov, Cecilia Jobst, Douglas O Cheyne, Luc De Nil
Adults who stutter (AWS) have demonstrated atypical coordination of motor and sensory regions during speech production. Yet little is known of the speech-motor network in AWS in the brief time window preceding audible speech onset. The purpose of the current study was to characterize neural oscillations in the speech-motor network during preparation for and execution of overt speech production in AWS using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Twelve AWS and 12 age-matched controls were presented with 220 words, each word embedded in a carrier phrase...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638191/premonitory-awareness-in-stuttering-scale-pais
#17
Joana Cholin, Sabrina Heiler, Alexander Whillier, Martin Sommer
Anticipation of stuttering events in persistent developmental stuttering is a frequent but inadequately measured phenomenon that is of both theoretical and clinical importance. Here, we describe the development and preliminary testing of a German version of the Premonitory Awareness in Stuttering Scale (PAiS): a 12-item questionnaire assessing immediate and prospective anticipation of stuttering that was translated and adapted from the Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS) (Woods, Piacentini, Himle, & Chang, 2005)...
September 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624615/alcohol-drinking-patterns-in-young-people-a-survey-based-study
#18
Giovanni Martinotti, Matteo Lupi, Leonardo Carlucci, Rita Santacroce, Eduardo Cinosi, Tiziano Acciavatti, Fabiola Sarchione, Valeria Verrastro, Pierluigi Diotaiuti, Irene Petruccelli, Silvia Ferrari, Maria G Nanni, Federica Pinna, Umberto Volpe, Aristide Saggino, Luigi Janiri, Lorenzo Leggio, Massimo Di Giannantonio
Binge drinking represents a major clinical and public health concern. Here, we investigated the prevalence of binge drinking and its related consequences, in a population of young adults. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 4275 healthy subjects. In the overall sample, the percentage of binge drinkers was 67.6 per cent; among regular alcohol users, 79.5 per cent reported episodes of binge drinking. Among binge drinkers, several serious consequences were identified (staggering and stuttering, amnesia, loss of control, aggressiveness, sexual disinhibition)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619005/impaired-motor-inhibition-in-adults-who-stutter-evidence-from-speech-free-stop-signal-reaction-time-tasks
#19
Sebastian Markett, Benjamin Bleek, Martin Reuter, Holger Prüss, Kirsten Richardt, Thilo Müller, J Scott Yaruss, Christian Montag
Idiopathic stuttering is a fluency disorder characterized by impairments during speech production. Deficits in the motor control circuits of the basal ganglia have been implicated in idiopathic stuttering but it is unclear how these impairments relate to the disorder. Previous work has indicated a possible deficiency in motor inhibition in children who stutter. To extend these findings to adults, we designed two experiments to probe executive motor control in people who stutter using manual reaction time tasks that do not rely on speech production...
September 13, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617559/a-brief-version-of-the-unhelpful-thoughts-and-beliefs-about-stuttering-scales-the-utbas-6
#20
Lisa Iverach, Rob Heard, Ross Menzies, Robyn Lowe, Sue O'Brian, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow
Purpose: A significant proportion of adults who stutter experience anxiety in social and speaking situations. The Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS) scales provide a comprehensive measure of the unhelpful cognitions associated with social anxiety in stuttering. However, reducing the number of UTBAS items would make it ideal as a brief screening instrument. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a brief version of the full UTBAS scales. Method: The 66-item UTBAS scales were completed by 337 adults who stutter...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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