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Stuttering in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985970/the-effects-of-actors-vocal-exercises-for-relaxation-on-fluency-a-preliminary-study
#1
Emily Monteagudo, Jean Sawyer, Alyssa Sivek-Eskra
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of treatment based on Kristin Linklater's technique for vocal preparation for performance for use with people who stutter. METHOD: A protocol for a treatment for stuttering involving breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and focus on awareness was designed by the first author from Linklater's published exercises in her book Freeing the Natural Voice (2006). Four adults who stutter participated in a 12-week, single-case reversal design study...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973156/semantic-and-phonological-encoding-times-in-adults-who-stutter-brain-electrophysiological-evidence
#2
Nathan D Maxfield
Purpose: Some psycholinguistic theories of stuttering propose that language production operates along a different time course in adults who stutter (AWS) versus typically fluent adults (TFA). However, behavioral evidence for such a difference has been mixed. Here, the time course of semantic and phonological encoding in picture naming was compared in AWS (n = 16) versus TFA (n = 16) by measuring 2 event-related potential (ERP) components: NoGo N200, an ERP index of response inhibition, and lateralized readiness potential, an ERP index of response preparation...
September 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958627/assisted-and-unassisted-recession-of-functional-anomalies-associated-with-dysprosody-in-adults-who-stutter
#3
Katrin Neumann, Harald A Euler, Malte Kob, Alexander Wolff von Gudenberg, Anne-Lise Giraud, Tobias Weissgerber, Christian A Kell
PURPOSE: Speech in persons who stutter (PWS) is associated with disturbed prosody (speech melody and intonation), which may impact communication. The neural correlates of PWS' altered prosody during speaking are not known, neither is how a speech-restructuring therapy affects prosody at both a behavioral and a cerebral level. METHODS: In this fMRI study, we explored group differences in brain activation associated with the production of different kinds of prosody in 13 male adults who stutter (AWS) before, directly after, and at least 1 year after an effective intensive fluency-shaping treatment, in 13 typically fluent-speaking control participants (CP), and in 13 males who had spontaneously recovered from stuttering during adulthood (RAWS), while sentences were read aloud with 'neutral', instructed emotional (happy), and linguistically driven (questioning) prosody...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886431/the-effect-of-phonetic-complexity-on-the-speed-of-single-word-productions-in-adults-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#4
Courtney T Byrd, Geoffrey A Coalson, Jie Yang, Kirsten Moriarty
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of phonetic complexity as measured by the Word Complexity Measure (WCM) on the speed of single-word production in adults who do (AWS, n=15) and do not stutter (AWNS, n=15). METHOD: Participants were required to name pictures of high versus low phonetic complexity and balanced for lexical properties. Speech reaction time was recorded from initial presentation of the picture to verbal response of participant for each word type...
September 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880977/speech-situation-checklist-revised-investigation-with-adults-who-do-not-stutter-and-treatment-seeking-adults-who-stutter
#5
Martine Vanryckeghem, Michael Matthews, Peixin Xu
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Speech Situation Checklist for adults who stutter (SSC) in differentiating people who stutter (PWS) from speakers with no stutter based on self-reports of anxiety and speech disruption in communicative settings. The SSC's psychometric properties were examined, norms were established, and suggestions for treatment were formulated. Method: The SSC was administered to 88 PWS seeking treatment and 209 speakers with no stutter between the ages of 18 and 62...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870331/atypical-non-verbal-sensorimotor-synchronization-in-adults-who-stutter-may-be-modulated-by-auditory-feedback
#6
Robert van de Vorst, Vincent L Gracco
PURPOSE: To investigate if non-verbal sensorimotor synchronization abilities in adult individuals who stutter (IWS) differ from non-stuttering controls (NS) under various performance conditions (tempo, auditory feedback, use of hands [single/both] and rhythm). METHODS: Participants were 11 IWS (5 males, 6 females, Mean age=25.8, SD=8.7) and 11 age- and gender-matched controls (Mean age=24.4, SD=8.4). During the experiment, participants were asked to prepare three melodies and subsequently perform them with a metronome at different rates and auditory feedback modalities (non-altered and suppressed)...
September 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870330/evidence-based-guidelines-for-being-supportive-of-people-who-stutter-in-north-america
#7
Kenneth O St Louis, Farzan Irani, Rodney M Gabel, Stephanie Hughes, Marilyn Langevin, Midori Rodriguez, Kathleen Scaler Scott, Mary E Weidner
While many resources, particularly those available on the Internet, provide suggestions for fluent speakers as they interact with people who stutter (PWS), little evidence exists to support these suggestions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to document the supportiveness of common public reactions, behaviors, or interventions to stuttering by PWS.Methods 148 PWS completed the Personal Appraisal of Support for Stuttering-Adults. Additionally, a comparison of the opinions of adults who stutter based on gender and their involvement in self-help/support groups was undertaken...
September 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853955/lexical-tone-and-stuttering-in-cantonese
#8
Thomas Law, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow, Carol K-S To, Michael C-F Tong, Kathy Y-S Lee
Cantonese is a tone language, in which the variation of the fundamental frequency contour of a syllable can change meaning. There are six different lexical tones in Cantonese. While research with Western languages has shown an association between stuttering and syllabic stress, nothing is known about whether stuttering in Cantonese speakers is associated with one or more of the six lexical tones. Such an association has been reported in conversational speech in Mandarin, which is also a tone language, but which varies markedly from Cantonese...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841724/intrajudge-and-interjudge-reliability-of-the-stuttering-severity-instrument-fourth-edition
#9
Jason H Davidow, Kathleen A Scott
Purpose: The Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI) is a tool used to measure the severity of stuttering. Previous versions of the instrument have known limitations (e.g., Lewis, 1995). The present study examined the intra- and interjudge reliability of the newest version, the Stuttering Severity Instrument-Fourth Edition (SSI-4) (Riley, 2009). Method: Twelve judges who were trained on the SSI-4 protocol participated. Judges collected SSI-4 data while viewing 4 videos of adults who stutter at Time 1 and 4 weeks later at Time 2...
August 25, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835863/clozapine-induced-microseizures-orofacial-dyskinesia-and-speech-dysfluency-in-an-adolescent-with-treatment-resistant-early-onset-schizophrenia-on-concurrent-lithium-therapy
#10
Vivekananda Rachamallu, Ayman Haq, Michael M Song, Manish Aligeti
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. It has a well-known side effect profile, including agranulocytosis, decreased seizure threshold, and tardive dyskinesia. In addition, numerous case reports have described clozapine-induced stuttering in adults. However, there has been only one previous case report describing it in the adolescent population. In addition, concurrent lithium therapy has been shown to enhance the neurotoxic effects of antipsychotics and lower the seizure threshold...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815262/semantic-and-phonological-encoding-in-adults-who-stutter-silent-responses-to-pictorial-stimuli
#11
Irena Vincent
Purpose: Research on language planning in adult stuttering is relatively sparse and offers diverging arguments about a potential causative relationship between semantic and phonological encoding and fluency breakdowns. This study further investigated semantic and phonological encoding efficiency in adults who stutter (AWS) by means of silent category and phoneme identification, respectively. Method: Fifteen AWS and 15 age- and sex-matched adults who do not stutter (ANS) participated...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744239/social-and-cognitive-impressions-of-adults-who-do-and-do-not-stutter-based-on-listeners-perceptions-of-read-speech-samples
#12
Lauren J Amick, Soo-Eun Chang, Juli Wade, J Devin McAuley
Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by frequent and involuntary disruptions during speech production. Adults who stutter are often subject to negative perceptions. The present study examined whether negative social and cognitive impressions are formed when listening to speech, even without any knowledge about the speaker. Two experiments were conducted in which naïve participants were asked to listen to and provide ratings on samples of read speech produced by adults who stutter and typically-speaking adults without knowledge about the individuals who produced the speech...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741037/shifted-dynamic-interactions-between-subcortical-nuclei-and-inferior-frontal-gyri-during-response-preparation-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering
#13
F Luise Metzger, Tibor Auer, Gunther Helms, Walter Paulus, Jens Frahm, Martin Sommer, Nicole E Neef
Persistent developmental stuttering is associated with basal ganglia dysfunction or dopamine dysregulation. Here, we studied whole-brain functional connectivity to test how basal ganglia structures coordinate and reorganize sensorimotor brain networks in stuttering. To this end, adults who stutter and fluent speakers (control participants) performed a response anticipation paradigm in the MRI scanner. The preparation of a manual Go/No-Go response reliably produced activity in the basal ganglia and thalamus and particularly in the substantia nigra...
July 24, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697606/dysphonia-in-adults-with-developmental-stuttering-a-descriptive-study
#14
Anél Botha, Elizbé Ras, Shabnam Abdoola, Jeannie Van der Linde
BACKGROUND: Persons with stuttering (PWS) often present with other co-occurring conditions. The World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) proposes that it is important to understand the full burden of a health condition. A few studies have explored voice problems among PWS, and the characteristics of voices of PWS are relatively unknown. The importance of conducting future research has been emphasised. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the vocal characteristics of PWS...
June 26, 2017: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655373/the-pathogenesis-assessment-and-treatment-of-speech-fluency-disorders
#15
Katrin Neumann, Harald A Euler, Hans-Georg Bosshardt, Susanne Cook, Patricia Sandrieser, Martin Sommer
BACKGROUND: Approximately 1% of children and adolescents, 0.2% of women, and 0.8% of men suffer from stuttering, and lesser numbers from cluttering. Persistent speech fluency disorders often cause lifelong problems in communication and social participation. METHODS: In an interdisciplinary, evidence and consensus based clinical practice guideline, the current understanding of the nature, identification, diagnosis, and treatment of stuttering and cluttering was summarized...
June 5, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642548/hemodynamics-of-speech-production-an-fnirs-investigation-of-children-who-stutter
#16
B Walsh, F Tian, J A Tourville, M A Yücel, T Kuczek, A J Bostian
Stuttering affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide and often has life-altering negative consequences, including poorer mental health and emotional well-being, and reduced educational and employment achievements. Over two decades of neuroimaging research reveals clear anatomical and physiological differences in the speech neural networks of adults who stutter. However, there have been few neurophysiological investigations of speech production in children who stutter. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we examined hemodynamic responses over neural regions integral to fluent speech production including inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and superior temporal gyrus during a picture description task...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614847/using-network-science-measures-to-predict-the-lexical-decision-performance-of-adults-who-stutter
#17
Nichol Castro, Kristin M Pelczarski, Michael S Vitevitch
Purpose: Methods from network science have examined various aspects of language processing. Clinical populations may also benefit from these novel analyses. Phonological and lexical factors have been examined in adults who stutter (AWS) as potential contributing factors to stuttering, although differences reported are often subtle. We reexamined the performance of AWS and adults who do not stutter (AWNS) from a previously conducted lexical decision task in an attempt to determine if network science measures would provide additional insight into the phonological network of AWS beyond traditional psycholinguistic measures...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577876/a-preliminary-study-on-the-neural-oscillatory-characteristics-of-motor-preparation-prior-to-dysfluent-and-fluent-utterances-in-adults-who-stutter
#18
Anna Mersov, Douglas Cheyne, Cecilia Jobst, Luc De Nil
PURPOSE: Recent literature on speech production in adults who stutter (AWS) has begun to investigate the neural mechanisms characterizing speech-motor preparation prior to speech onset. Compelling evidence has suggested that stuttering is associated with atypical processing within cortical and sub-cortical motor networks, particularly in the beta frequency range, that is effective before speech production even begins. Due to low stuttering frequency in experimental settings, however, the literature has so far predominantly reported on fluent speech production in AWS...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576293/the-relationship-between-the-experience-of-stuttering-and-demographic-characteristics-of-adults-who-stutter
#19
Debora Freud, Marina Kichin-Brin, Ruth Ezrati-Vinacour, Ilan Roziner, Ofer Amir
PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the association between adults' experience of stuttering and their age, gender and marital status, as well as to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Hebrew version of the OASES-A. METHODS: The Hebrew version of the OASES-A was administered to 91 adults-who-stutter. The validity of the translated version was evaluated using a subset of 43 participants, who also completed three additional instruments: (a) a Perceived Stuttering Severity (PSS) self-rating scale, (b) the Situation Avoidance Behavior Checklist (SABC), (c) the Students Life Satisfaction scale (SLSS)...
June 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576292/a-country-wide-probability-sample-of-public-attitudes-toward-stuttering-in-portugal
#20
Ana Rita S Valente, Kenneth O St Louis, Margaret Leahy, Andreia Hall, Luis M T Jesus
BACKGROUND: Negative public attitudes toward stuttering have been widely reported, although differences among countries and regions exist. Clear reasons for these differences remain obscure. PURPOSE: Published research is unavailable on public attitudes toward stuttering in Portugal as well as a representative sample that explores stuttering attitudes in an entire country. This study sought to (a) determine the feasibility of a country-wide probability sampling scheme to measure public stuttering attitudes in Portugal using a standard instrument (the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering [POSHA-S]) and (b) identify demographic variables that predict Portuguese attitudes...
June 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
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