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Stuttering in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648952/reliability-and-validity-evidence-of-the-assessment-of-language-use-in-social-contexts-for-adults-alusca
#1
Ana Rita S Valente, Andreia Hall, Helena Alvelos, Margaret Leahy, Luis M T Jesus
BACKGROUND: The appropriate use of language in context depends on the speaker's pragmatic language competencies. A coding system was used to develop a specific and adult-focused self-administered questionnaire to adults who stutter and adults who do not stutter, The Assessment of Language Use in Social Contexts for Adults, with three categories: precursors, basic exchanges, and extended literal/non-literal discourse. This paper presents the content validity, item analysis, reliability coefficients and evidences of construct validity of the instrument...
April 12, 2018: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623339/maintenance-of-improved-attitudes-toward-stuttering
#2
Kenneth O St Louis, Timothy W Flynn
Purpose: This study sought to determine the extent to which experimentally induced positive attitudes in high school students in a previous investigation were maintained 7 years later. Method: Authors and assistants recruited 36 adults in their early 20s (Follow-up group) who, in high school, had witnessed either a live oral talk by a person who stutters or a professionally made video on stuttering designed for teens followed by a short talk by the same speaker...
April 5, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602052/comparison-of-adults-who-stutter-with-and-without-social-anxiety-disorder
#3
Lisa Iverach, Mark Jones, Robyn Lowe, Susan O'Brian, Ross G Menzies, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow
PURPOSE: Social anxiety disorder is a debilitating anxiety disorder associated with significant life impairment. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate overall functioning for adults who stutter with and without a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. METHOD: Participants were 275 adults who stuttered (18-80 years), including 219 males (79.6%) and 56 females (20.4%), who were enrolled to commence speech treatment for stuttering. Comparisons were made between participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (n = 82, 29...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596670/facilitating-fluency-in-adults-who-stutter
#4
Jennifer T Crinion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574262/enacted-stigma-and-felt-stigma-experienced-by-adults-who-stutter
#5
Michael P Boyle
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to (1) document the experiences of enacted stigma (external stigma, experienced discrimination) and felt stigma (anticipation and expectation of discrimination or negative treatment by others) in adults who stutter, (2) investigate their relationships to each other, and (3) investigate their relationships to global mental health. METHOD: Participants were 324 adults who stutter recruited from clinicians and self-help group leaders in the United States...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569967/characteristics-of-adults-who-stutter-by-treatments-sought
#6
Lisa Iverach, Mark Jones, Robyn Lowe, Susan O'Brian, Ross G Menzies, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow
Several treatment approaches are available for adults who stutter, including speech treatment, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) treatment for anxiety, and a combination of both. It is useful to determine whether any differences exist between adults who stutter enrolled in different types of treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare demographic, speech, and psychological characteristics of adults who stutter enrolled in speech, psychological, and combined treatment programs. Participants were 288 adults who stuttered (18-80 years) enrolled in one of three different treatment programs: Speech Treatment for stuttering (n = 134), Anxiety Treatment for anxiety about stuttering (n = 70), or Speech Treatment for Stuttering With or Without Anxiety Treatment (n = 84)...
March 23, 2018: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558672/beliefs-and-behavioural-intentions-towards-pharmacotherapy-for-stuttering-a-survey-of-adults-who-stutter
#7
Allan McGroarty, Rebecca McCartan
PURPOSE: Although considerable efforts have been made to investigate the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for stuttering, little is known about how the stuttering community perceives these treatments. This study aimed to assess and quantify beliefs regarding pharmacotherapy for adults who stutter and to establish whether behavioural intentions to undertake treatment were related to these beliefs. METHOD: An adapted version of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire was completed by adults who stutter...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533938/uniqueness-point-effects-during-speech-planning-in-adults-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#8
Geoffrey A Coalson, Courtney T Byrd, Amanda Kuylen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies employing a variety of tasks have demonstrated that adults who stutter (AWS) pre-sent with phonological encoding differences compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS). The present study examined whether atypical preverbal monitoring also influenced AWS performance during one such paradigm - the silent phoneme monitoring task. Specifically, we investigated whether monitoring latencies for AWS were accelerated after the word's uniqueness point - the phoneme that isolates the word from all lexical competitors - as observed for AWNS when monitoring internal and external speech...
March 13, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454469/use-of-a-phoneme-monitoring-task-to-examine-lexical-access-in-adults-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#9
Timothy A Howell, Nan Bernstein Ratner
Previous work has postulated that a deficit in lexicalization may be an underlying cause of a stuttering disorder (Prins, Main, & Wampler, 1997; Wingate, 1988). This study investigates the time course of lexicalization of nouns and verbs in adults who stutter. A generalized phoneme monitoring (PM) paradigm was used. Adults who stutter (AWS) and typically-fluent peers both showed an expected effect of word class (verbs yielded slower and less accurate monitoring than nouns), as well as phoneme position (word medial/final phonemes yielded slower and less accurate monitoring than word initial phonemes)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421786/speaker-and-observer-perceptions-of-physical-tension-during-stuttering
#10
Seth Tichenor, Paula Leslie, Susan Shaiman, J Scott Yaruss
PURPOSE: Speech-language pathologists routinely assess physical tension during evaluation of those who stutter. If speakers experience tension that is not visible to clinicians, then judgments of severity may be inaccurate. This study addressed this potential discrepancy by comparing judgments of tension by people who stutter and expert clinicians to determine if clinicians could accurately identify the speakers' experience of physical tension. METHOD: Ten adults who stutter were audio-video recorded in two speaking samples...
February 8, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421268/high-prevalence-of-pineal-cysts-in-adults-who-stutter
#11
Richard M Arenas, Jody M Shoemaker, John Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394325/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-left-inferior-frontal-cortex-improves-speech-fluency-in-adults-who-stutter
#12
Jennifer Chesters, Riikka Möttönen, Kate E Watkins
Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting 5% of children, and persisting in 1% of adults. Promoting lasting fluency improvement in adults who stutter is a particular challenge. Novel interventions to improve outcomes are of value, therefore. Previous work in patients with acquired motor and language disorders reported enhanced benefits of behavioural therapies when paired with transcranial direct current stimulation. Here, we report the results of the first trial investigating whether transcranial direct current stimulation can improve speech fluency in adults who stutter...
January 31, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378280/speech-disfluency-dependent-amygdala-activity-in-adults-who-stutter-neuroimaging-of-interpersonal-communication-in-mri-scanner-environment
#13
Akira Toyomura, Tetsunoshin Fujii, Koichi Yokosawa, Shinya Kuriki
Affective states, such as anticipatory anxiety, critically influence speech communication behavior in adults who stutter. However, there is currently little evidence regarding the involvement of the limbic system in speech disfluency during interpersonal communication. We designed this neuroimaging study and experimental procedure to sample neural activity during interpersonal communication between human participants, and to investigate the relationship between the amygdala activity and speech disfluency. Participants were required to engage in live communication with a stranger of the opposite sex in the MRI scanner environment...
January 25, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299745/an-evaluation-of-g-protein-coupled-membrane-estrogen-receptor-1-level-in-stuttering
#14
Nagihan Bilal, Ergül Belge Kurutas, Israfil Orhan
OBJECTIVE: Stuttering is a widespread but little understood disease. There has been a recent increase in neuropathophysiological, genetic, and biochemical studies related to the etiopathogenesis. As developmental stuttering continues in adult males, hormonal factors are thought to have an effect. In this study, an evaluation was made for the first time of serum GPER-1 level in patients with a stutter. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 30 patients with a stutter, aged < 18 years, and 35 age-matched children as the control group...
February 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280401/spectral-coefficient-analyses-of-word-initial-stop-consonant-productions-suggest-similar-anticipatory-coarticulation-for-stuttering-and-nonstuttering-adults
#15
Santosh Maruthy, Yongqiang Feng, Ludo Max
A longstanding hypothesis about the sensorimotor mechanisms underlying stuttering suggests that stuttered speech dysfluencies result from a lack of coarticulation. Formant-based measures of either the stuttered or fluent speech of children and adults who stutter have generally failed to obtain compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that these individuals differ in the timing or degree of coarticulation. Here, we used a sensitive acoustic technique-spectral coefficient analyses-that allowed us to compare stuttering and nonstuttering speakers with regard to vowel-dependent anticipatory influences as early as the onset burst of a preceding voiceless stop consonant...
March 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228195/structural-connectivity-of-right-frontal-hyperactive-areas-scales-with-stuttering-severity
#16
Nicole E Neef, Alfred Anwander, Christoph Bütfering, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Angela D Friederici, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants...
January 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223687/effect-of-control-samples-and-listener-attributes-on-speech-naturalness-ratings-of-people-who-stutter
#17
Brenda Carey, Shane Erickson, Susan Block
PURPOSE: Speech restructuring treatment can effectively reduce stuttering but the resultant speech may sound unnatural. Martin et al. (1984) speech naturalness scale is widely used by clinicians and researchers, yet little is known about whether including normally fluent speech samples alters the judgement of the naturalness of speech samples of people who stutter, and whether attributes of listeners - specifically training and sex - influence ratings. METHODS: In this study 20 untrained listeners (male and female) and 19 speech language pathology students (female only) rated either the naturalness of 21 speech samples from adults who stutter obtained post-treatment, or the same 21 post-treatment samples randomly mixed with samples of 21 samples from normally fluent speakers matched for age and sex...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195626/effects-of-emotion-on-the-acoustic-parameters-in-adults-who-stutter-an-exploratory-study
#18
Kim R Bauerly, Jessica Paxton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195625/the-experience-of-stuttering-among-ultra-orthodox-and-secular-traditional-jews
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Debora Freud, Ruth Ezrati-Vinacour, Nitza Katz-Bernstein, Leah Fostick
PURPOSE: This groundbreaking research compares the experience of stuttering among adult male People Who Stutter (PWS) from the ultra-Orthodox (UO) Jewish community in Israel to those from Secular/Traditional (ST) backgrounds. METHODS: Participants were 32 UO and 31 ST PWS, aged 18-67 years. Self-report questionnaires utilized: Perceived Stuttering Severity (PSS); Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES-A); Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS); Situation Avoidance Behavior Checklist (SABC)...
December 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195624/self-efficacy-and-quality-of-life-in-adults-who-stutter
#20
Alice Carter, Lauren Breen, J Scott Yaruss, Janet Beilby
PURPOSE: Self-efficacy has emerged as a potential predictor of quality of life for adults who stutter. Research has focused primarily on the positive relationship self-efficacy has to treatment outcomes, but little is known about the relationship between self-efficacy and quality of life for adults who stutter. The purpose of this mixed- methods study is to determine the predictive value of self-efficacy and its relationship to quality of life for adults who stutter. METHOD: The Self-Efficacy Scale for Adult Stutterers and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience with Stuttering were administered to 39 adults who stutter, aged 18- 77...
December 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
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