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Stuttering in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068353/speech-timing-deficit-of-stuttering-evidence-from-contingent-negative-variations
#1
Ning Ning, Danling Peng, Xiangping Liu, Shuang Yang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the speech preparation processes of adults who stutter (AWS). Fifteen AWS and fifteen adults with fluent speech (AFS) participated in the experiment. The event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a foreperiod paradigm. The warning signal (S1) was a color square, and the following imperative stimulus (S2) was either a white square (the Go signal that required participants to name the color of S1) or a white dot (the NoGo signal that prevents participants from speaking)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035724/reduced-perfusion-in-broca-s-area-in-developmental-stuttering
#2
Jay Desai, Yuankai Huo, Zhishun Wang, Ravi Bansal, Steven C R Williams, David Lythgoe, Fernando O Zelaya, Bradley S Peterson
OBJECTIVE: To study resting cerebral blood flow in children and adults with developmental stuttering. METHODS: We acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging data in 26 participants with stuttering and 36 healthy, fluent controls. While covarying for age, sex, and IQ, we compared perfusion values voxel-wise across diagnostic groups and assessed correlations of perfusion with stuttering severity within the stuttering group and with measures of motor speed in both groups...
December 30, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936963/stuttering-in-relation-to-the-morphophonemics-of-kannada
#3
Horabail S Venkatagiri, Nuggehalli P Nataraja, M Deepthi
The present study investigated the effect of certain unique morphophonemic features of Kannada words on the rate of stutters in a group of 22 adolescent and adult persons who stuttered in an oral reading task. A linear regression analysis showed that word length ranging from 1 to 8 syllables was a potent variable in the occurrence of stutters accounting for 25.3% of stutters. A composite index of morphophonemic complexity with points assigned for sandhi, geminates, consonant clusters, and number of morphemes accounted for a small 7...
December 12, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936276/the-impact-of-social-cognitive-stress-on-speech-variability-determinism-and-stability-in-adults-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#4
Eric S Jackson, Mark Tiede, Deryk Beal, D H Whalen
Purpose: This study examined the impact of social-cognitive stress on sentence-level speech variability, determinism, and stability in adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (AWNS). We demonstrated that complementing the spatiotemporal index (STI) with recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) provides a novel approach to both assessing and interpreting speech variability in stuttering. Method: Twenty AWS and 21 AWNS repeated sentences in audience and nonaudience conditions while their lip movements were tracked...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930777/involvement-of-the-central-cognitive-mechanism-in-word-production-in-adults-who-stutter
#5
Pei-Tzu Tsai, Nan Bernstein Ratner
Purpose: The study examined whether semantic and phonological encoding processes were capacity demanding, involving the central cognitive mechanism, in adults who do and do not stutter (AWS and NS) to better understand the role of cognitive demand in linguistic processing and stuttering. We asked (a) whether the two linguistic processes in AWS are capacity demanding, which can temporally disrupt the processing of a concurrent nonlinguistic task, and (b) whether AWS and NS show similar patterns of temporal disruption in the two processes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919696/the-role-of-anxiety-in-stuttering-evidence-from-functional-connectivity
#6
Yang Yang, Fanlu Jia, Wai Ting Siok, Li Hai Tan
Persistent developmental stuttering is a neurologically based speech disorder associated with cognitive-linguistic, motor and emotional abnormalities. Previous studies investigating the relationship between anxiety and stuttering have yielded mixed results, but it has not yet been examined whether anxiety influences brain activity underlying stuttering. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the functional connectivity associated with state anxiety in a syllable repetition task, and trait anxiety during rest in adults who stutter (N=19) and fluent controls (N=19)...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907811/using-the-oases-a-to-illustrate-how-network-analysis-can-be-applied-to-understand-the-experience-of-stuttering
#7
Cynthia S Q Siew, Kristin M Pelczarski, J Scott Yaruss, Michael S Vitevitch
PURPOSE: Network science uses mathematical and computational techniques to examine how individual entities in a system, represented by nodes, interact, as represented by connections between nodes. This approach has been used by Cramer et al. (2010) to make "symptom networks" to examine various psychological disorders. In the present analysis we examined a network created from the items in the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering-Adult (OASES-A), a commonly used measure for evaluating adverse impact in the lives of people who stutter...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893013/proton-chemical-shift-imaging-of-the-brain-in-pediatric-and-adult-developmental-stuttering
#8
Joseph O'Neill, Zhengchao Dong, Ravi Bansal, Iliyan Ivanov, Xuejun Hao, Jay Desai, Elena Pozzi, Bradley S Peterson
Importance: Developmental stuttering is a neuropsychiatric condition of incompletely understood brain origin. Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study indicates a possible partial basis of stuttering in circuits enacting self-regulation of motor activity, attention, and emotion. Objective: To further characterize the neurophysiology of stuttering through in vivo assay of neurometabolites in suspect brain regions. Design, Setting, and Participants: Proton chemical shift imaging of the brain was performed in a case-control study of children and adults with and without stuttering...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865231/long-term-consequences-of-childhood-bullying-in-adults-who-stutter-social-anxiety-fear-of-negative-evaluation-self-esteem-and-satisfaction-with-life
#9
Gordon W Blood, Ingrid M Blood
PURPOSE: Psychosocial disorders have been reported in adults who stutter, especially social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety has been linked to childhood victimization. It is possible that recalled childhood victimization could be linked to psychosocial problems reported in some adults who stutter. METHOD: Participants were 36 adults who stutter and 36 adults who do not stutter (mean age=21.9 years). The Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire was completed for primary school, secondary school and university environments for physical, verbal, relational and cyber bullying...
December 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865229/a-comparison-of-three-strategies-for-reducing-the-public-stigma-associated-with-stuttering
#10
Michael P Boyle, Lauren Dioguardi, Julie E Pate
PURPOSE: The effects of three anti-stigma strategies for stuttering-contact (hearing personal stories from an individual who stutters), education (replacing myths about stuttering with facts), and protest (condemning negative attitudes toward people who stutter)-were examined on attitudes, emotions, and behavioral intentions toward people who stutter. METHOD: Two hundred and twelve adults recruited from a nationwide survey in the United States were randomly assigned to one of the three anti-stigma conditions or a control condition...
December 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865226/an-investigation-of-the-effects-of-a-speech-restructuring-treatment-for-stuttering-on-the-distribution-of-intervals-of-phonation
#11
Lisa Brown, Linda Wilson, Ann Packman, Mark Halaki, Mark Onslow, Ross Menzies
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether stuttering reductions following the instatement phase of a speech-restructuring treatment for adults were accompanied by reductions in the frequency of short intervals of phonation (PIs). The study was prompted by the possibility that reductions in the frequency of short PIs is the mechanism underlying such reductions in stuttering. METHOD: The distribution of PIs was determined for seven adults who stutter, before and immediately after the intensive phase of a speech-restructuring treatment program...
December 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833009/anomaly-in-neural-phase-coherence-accompanies-reduced-sensorimotor-integration-in-adults-who-stutter
#12
Ranit Sengupta, Shalin Shah, Katie Gore, Torrey Loucks, Sazzad M Nasir
Despite advances in our understanding of the human speech system, the neurophysiological basis of stuttering remains largely unknown. Here, it is hypothesized that the speech of adults who stutter (AWS) is susceptible to disruptions in sensorimotor integration caused by neural miscommunication within the speech motor system. Human speech unfolds over rapid timescales and relies on a distributed system of brain regions working in a parallel and synchronized manner, and a breakdown in neural communication between the putative brain regions could increase susceptibility to dysfluency...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810647/investigating-the-feasibility-of-using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-enhance-fluency-in-people-who-stutter
#13
Jennifer Chesters, Kate E Watkins, Riikka Möttönen
Developmental stuttering is a disorder of speech fluency affecting 1% of the adult population. Long-term reductions in stuttering are difficult for adults to achieve with behavioural therapies. We investigated whether a single session of transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) could improve fluency in people who stutter (PWS). In separate sessions, either anodal TDCS (1mA for 20min) or sham stimulation was applied over the left inferior frontal cortex while PWS read sentences aloud. Fluency was induced during the stimulation period by using choral speech, that is, participants read in unison with another speaker...
January 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752375/embolic-stroke-due-to-a-common-carotid-artery-thrombus-in-a-young-patient-with-severe-iron-deficiency-anemia-without-thrombocytosis
#14
David Roshal
This case report describes a 41-year-old previously healthy male who presented with stuttering transient ischemic symptoms and radiographic evidence of a left common carotid artery thrombus as well as acute and subacute ischemic infarcts in the left middle cerebral artery territory. An exhaustive stroke work-up did not provide a plausible etiology for his symptoms. His complete blood count and iron studies, however, revealed evidence of severe iron-deficiency anemia without reactive thrombocytosis. His stool guaiac test was positive...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720393/utility-of-virtual-reality-environments-to-examine-physiological-reactivity-and-subjective-distress-in-adults-who-stutter
#15
Shelley B Brundage, James M Brinton, Adrienne B Hancock
PURPOSE: Virtual reality environments (VREs) allow for immersion in speaking environments that mimic real-life interactions while maintaining researcher control. VREs have been used successfully to engender arousal in other disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of virtual reality environments to examine physiological reactivity and subjective ratings of distress in persons who stutter (PWS). METHOD: Subjective and objective measures of arousal were collected from 10PWS during four-minute speeches to a virtual audience and to a virtual empty room...
December 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711148/altered-modulation-of-silent-period-in-tongue-motor-cortex-of-persistent-developmental-stuttering-in-relation-to-stuttering-severity
#16
Pierpaolo Busan, Giovanni Del Ben, Simona Bernardini, Giulia Natarelli, Marco Bencich, Fabrizio Monti, Paolo Manganotti, Piero Paolo Battaglini
Motor balance in developmental stuttering (DS) was investigated with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), with the aim to define novel neural markers of persistent DS in adulthood. Eleven DS adult males were evaluated with TMS on tongue primary motor cortex, compared to 15 matched fluent speakers, in a "state" condition (i.e. stutterers vs. fluent speakers, no overt stuttering). Motor and silent period thresholds (SPT), recruitment curves, and silent period durations were acquired by recording tongue motor evoked potentials...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693846/grey-matter-volume-differences-in-the-left-caudate-nucleus-of-people-who-stutter
#17
Paul F Sowman, Margaret Ryan, Blake W Johnson, Greg Savage, Stephen Crain, Elisabeth Harrison, Erin Martin, Hana Burianová
The cause of stuttering has many theoretical explanations. A number of research groups have suggested changes in the volume and/or function of the striatum as a causal agent. Two recent studies in children and one in adults who stutter (AWS) report differences in striatal volume compared that seen in controls; however, the laterality and nature of this anatomical volume difference is not consistent across studies. The current study investigated whether a reduction in striatal grey matter volume, comparable to that seen in children who stutter (CWS), would be found in AWS...
January 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687010/discrimination-and-internalised-feelings-experienced-by-people-who-stutter-in-jordan
#18
Mazin Alqhazo, Michael Blomgren, Nelson Roy, Maha Abu Awwad
PURPOSE: This study investigated the internalised feelings and discrimination experienced by people who stutter in Jordan. METHOD: Five adult speakers who stutter were interviewed as a focus group. The participants were asked about their feelings related to stuttering and discrimination. The participants' responses in the focus group and items adapted from the extant literature formed the basis of a 20-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to 20 additional adults who stutter to assess their internalised feelings about stuttering and their perceived rejecting behaviours (discrimination) associated with their impairment...
August 9, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648057/effect-of-aerobic-exercises-on-stuttering
#19
Illays Khan, Irum Nawaz, Imran Amjad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. METHODS: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group -group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years)...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642279/sensorimotor-oscillations-prior-to-speech-onset-reflect-altered-motor-networks-in-adults-who-stutter
#20
Anna-Maria Mersov, Cecilia Jobst, Douglas O Cheyne, Luc De Nil
Adults who stutter (AWS) have demonstrated atypical coordination of motor and sensory regions during speech production. Yet little is known of the speech-motor network in AWS in the brief time window preceding audible speech onset. The purpose of the current study was to characterize neural oscillations in the speech-motor network during preparation for and execution of overt speech production in AWS using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Twelve AWS and 12 age-matched controls were presented with 220 words, each word embedded in a carrier phrase...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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