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Stuttering in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538833/research-about-suppression-effect-and-auditory-processing-in-individuals-who-stutter
#1
Cláudia Fassin Arcuri, Ana Maria Schiefer, Marisa Frasson de Azevedo
Purpose: To verify the auditory processing abilities and occurrence of the suppression effect of Otoacoustic Emissions (OAE) in individuals who stutter. Methods: The study sample comprised 15 adult individuals who stutter, aged 18-40 years, with stuttering severity ranging from mild to severe, paired according to gender, age, and schooling with individuals without speech complaint or disorder. All participants underwent conventional clinical evaluation, specific stuttering assessment, and basic (audiometry, imitanciometry, and measurement of acoustic reflexes) and specific (auditory processing evaluation and measurement of suppression effect of OAEs) audiological assessments...
May 22, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525541/safety-behaviors-and-stuttering
#2
Robyn Lowe, Fjola Helgadottir, Ross Menzies, Rob Heard, Sue O'Brian, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow
Purpose: Those who are socially anxious may use safety behaviors during feared social interactions to prevent negative outcomes. Safety behaviors are associated with anxiety maintenance and poorer treatment outcomes because they prevent fear extinction. Social anxiety disorder is often comorbid with stuttering. Speech pathologists reported in a recent publication (Helgadottir, Menzies, Onslow, Packman, & O'Brian, 2014a) that they often recommended procedures for clients that could be safety behaviors...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483857/cortical-dynamics-of-disfluency-in-adults-who-stutter
#3
Ranit Sengupta, Shalin Shah, Torrey M J Loucks, Kristin Pelczarski, J Scott Yaruss, Katie Gore, Sazzad M Nasir
Stuttering is a disorder of speech production whose origins have been traced to the central nervous system. One of the factors that may underlie stuttering is aberrant neural miscommunication within the speech motor network. It is thus argued that disfluency (any interruption in the forward flow of speech) in adults who stutter (AWS) could be associated with anomalous cortical dynamics. Aberrant brain activity has been demonstrated in AWS in the absence of overt disfluency, but recording neural activity during disfluency is more challenging...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475659/fear-of-negative-evaluation-trait-anxiety-and-judgment-bias-in-adults-who-stutter
#4
Shelley B Brundage, Katherine L Winters, Janet M Beilby
Purpose: Persons who stutter (PWS) and those with social anxiety disorder may exhibit fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and anxiety in social situations. However, the information processing biases that perpetuate these characteristics have had limited investigation. This study investigated judgment bias in social situations. Method: Participants included 50 adults who stutter and 45 age- and gender-matched fluent persons who do not stutter (PWNS), who made up the control group...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432288/overexpression-of-human-nr2b-receptor-subunit-in-lman-causes-stuttering-and-song-sequence-changes-in-adult-zebra-finches
#5
Mukta Chakraborty, Liang-Fu Chen, Emma E Fridel, Marguerita E Klein, Rebecca A Senft, Abhra Sarkar, Erich D Jarvis
Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) learn to produce songs in a manner reminiscent of spoken language development in humans. One candidate gene implicated in influencing learning is the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype 2B glutamate receptor (NR2B). Consistent with this idea, NR2B levels are high in the song learning nucleus LMAN (lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium) during juvenile vocal learning, and decreases to low levels in adults after learning is complete and the song becomes more stereotyped...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413060/stuttering-treatment-and-brain-research-in-adults-a-still-unfolding-relationship
#6
REVIEW
Roger J Ingham, Janis C Ingham, Harald A Euler, Katrin Neumann
PURPOSE: Brain imaging and brain stimulation procedures have now been used for more than two decades to investigate the neural systems that contribute to the occurrence of stuttering in adults, and to identify processes that might enhance recovery from stuttering. The purpose of this paper is to review the extent to which these dual lines of research with adults who stutter have intersected and whether they are contributing towards the alleviation of this impairment. METHOD: Several areas of research are reviewed in order to determine whether research on the neurology of stuttering is showing any potential for advancing the treatment of this communication disorder: (a) attempts to discover the neurology of stuttering, (b) neural changes associated with treated recovery, and (c) direct neural intervention...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400266/eeg-mu-%C3%A2%C2%B5-rhythm-spectra-and-oscillatory-activity-differentiate-stuttering-from-non-stuttering-adults
#7
Tim Saltuklaroglu, Ashley W Harkrider, David Thornton, David Jenson, Tiffani Kittilstved
Stuttering is linked to sensorimotor deficits related to internal modeling mechanisms. This study compared spectral power and oscillatory activity of EEG mu (μ) rhythms between persons who stutter (PWS) and controls in listening and auditory discrimination tasks. EEG data were analyzed from passive listening in noise and accurate (same/different) discrimination of tones or syllables in quiet and noisy backgrounds. Independent component analysis identified left and/or right μ rhythms with characteristic alpha (α) and beta (β) peaks localized to premotor/motor regions in 23 of 27 people who stutter (PWS) and 24 of 27 controls...
April 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334398/maintenance-of-social-anxiety-in-stuttering-a-cognitive-behavioral-model
#8
Lisa Iverach, Ronald M Rapee, Quincy J J Wong, Robyn Lowe
Purpose: Stuttering is a speech disorder frequently accompanied by anxiety in social-evaluative situations. A growing body of research has confirmed a significant rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a chronic and disabling anxiety disorder associated with substantial life impairment. Several influential models have described cognitive-behavioral factors that contribute to the maintenance of social anxiety in nonstuttering populations. The purpose of the present article is to apply these leading models to the experience of social anxiety for people who stutter...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327784/comparison-between-the-speech-performance-of-fluent-speakers-and-individuals-who-stutter
#9
Julia Biancalana Costa, Ana Paula Ritto, Fabiola Staróbole Juste, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the speech performance of fluent speakers and individuals who stutter during spontaneous speech, automatic speech, and singing. Methods: The study sample was composed of 34 adults, 17 individuals who stutter and 17 fluent controls, matched for gender and age. The speech performance of participants was compared by means of three tasks: monologue, automatic speech, and singing. The following aspects were assessed: total number of common disruptions and total number of stuttering-like disruptions...
March 16, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256029/auditory-motor-adaptation-is-reduced-in-adults-who-stutter-but-not-in-children-who-stutter
#10
Ayoub Daliri, Elizabeth A Wieland, Shanqing Cai, Frank H Guenther, Soo-Eun Chang
Previous studies have shown that adults who stutter produce smaller corrective motor responses to compensate for unexpected auditory perturbations in comparison to adults who do not stutter, suggesting that stuttering may be associated with deficits in integration of auditory feedback for online speech monitoring. In this study, we examined whether stuttering is also associated with deficiencies in integrating and using discrepancies between expected and received auditory feedback to adaptively update motor programs for accurate speech production...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212720/the-japanese-version-of-the-overall-assessment-of-the-speaker-s-experience-of-stuttering-for-adults-oases-a-j-translation-and-psychometric-evaluation
#11
Naomi Sakai, Shin Ying Chu, Koichi Mori, J Scott Yaruss
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the psychometric performance of the Japanese version of the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering for Adults (OASES-A), a comprehensive assessment tool of individuals who stutter. METHODS: The OASES-A-J was administered to 200 adults who stutter in Japan. All respondents also evaluated their own speech (SA scale), satisfaction of their own speech (SS scale) and the Japanese translation version of the Modified Erickson Communication Attitude scale (S-24)...
March 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212717/japanese-normative-data-for-the-unhelpful-thoughts-and-beliefs-about-stuttering-utbas-scales-for-adults-who-stutter
#12
Shin Ying Chu, Naomi Sakai, Koichi Mori, Lisa Iverach
PURPOSE: This study reports Japanese normative data for the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs about Stuttering (UTBAS) scales. We outline the translation process, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the UTBAS scales. METHODS: The translation of the UTBAS scales into Japanese (UTBAS-J) was completed using the standard forward-backward translation process, and was administered to 130 Japanese adults who stutter. To validate the UTBAS-J scales, scores for the Japanese and Australian cohorts were compared...
March 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197011/the-efficacy-of-cognitive-behavior-therapy-in-an-adult-who-stutters
#13
Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159356/a-real-time-phoneme-counting-algorithm-and-application-for-speech-rate-monitoring
#14
Vered Aharonson, Eran Aharonson, Katia Raichlin-Levi, Aviv Sotzianu, Ofer Amir, Zehava Ovadia-Blechman
Adults who stutter can learn to control and improve their speech fluency by modifying their speaking rate. Existing speech therapy technologies can assist this practice by monitoring speaking rate and providing feedback to the patient, but cannot provide an accurate, quantitative measurement of speaking rate. Moreover, most technologies are too complex and costly to be used for home practice. We developed an algorithm and a smartphone application that monitor a patient's speaking rate in real time and provide user-friendly feedback to both patient and therapist...
March 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113105/reorganization-of-brain-function-after-a-short-term-behavioral-intervention-for-stuttering
#15
Chunming Lu, Lifen Zheng, Yuhang Long, Qian Yan, Guosheng Ding, Li Liu, Danling Peng, Peter Howell
This study investigated changes in brain function that occurred over a 7-day behavioral intervention for adults who stutter (AWS). Thirteen AWS received the intervention (AWS+), and 13 AWS did not receive the intervention (AWS-). There were 13 fluent controls (FC-). All participants were scanned before and after the intervention. Whole-brain analysis pre-intervention showed significant differences in task-related brain activation between AWS and FC- in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left middle temporal cortex, but there were no differences between the two AWS groups...
May 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068353/speech-timing-deficit-of-stuttering-evidence-from-contingent-negative-variations
#16
Ning Ning, Danling Peng, Xiangping Liu, Shuang Yang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the speech preparation processes of adults who stutter (AWS). Fifteen AWS and fifteen adults with fluent speech (AFS) participated in the experiment. The event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a foreperiod paradigm. The warning signal (S1) was a color square, and the following imperative stimulus (S2) was either a white square (the Go signal that required participants to name the color of S1) or a white dot (the NoGo signal that prevents participants from speaking)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035724/reduced-perfusion-in-broca-s-area-in-developmental-stuttering
#17
Jay Desai, Yuankai Huo, Zhishun Wang, Ravi Bansal, Steven C R Williams, David Lythgoe, Fernando O Zelaya, Bradley S Peterson
OBJECTIVE: To study resting cerebral blood flow in children and adults with developmental stuttering. METHODS: We acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging data in 26 participants with stuttering and 36 healthy, fluent controls. While covarying for age, sex, and IQ, we compared perfusion values voxel-wise across diagnostic groups and assessed correlations of perfusion with stuttering severity within the stuttering group and with measures of motor speed in both groups...
April 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936963/stuttering-in-relation-to-the-morphophonemics-of-kannada
#18
Horabail S Venkatagiri, Nuggehalli P Nataraja, M Deepthi
The present study investigated the effect of certain unique morphophonemic features of Kannada words on the rate of stutters in a group of 22 adolescent and adult persons who stuttered in an oral reading task. A linear regression analysis showed that word length ranging from 1 to 8 syllables was a potent variable in the occurrence of stutters accounting for 25.3% of stutters. A composite index of morphophonemic complexity with points assigned for sandhi, geminates, consonant clusters, and number of morphemes accounted for a small 7...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936276/the-impact-of-social-cognitive-stress-on-speech-variability-determinism-and-stability-in-adults-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#19
Eric S Jackson, Mark Tiede, Deryk Beal, D H Whalen
Purpose: This study examined the impact of social-cognitive stress on sentence-level speech variability, determinism, and stability in adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (AWNS). We demonstrated that complementing the spatiotemporal index (STI) with recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) provides a novel approach to both assessing and interpreting speech variability in stuttering. Method: Twenty AWS and 21 AWNS repeated sentences in audience and nonaudience conditions while their lip movements were tracked...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930777/involvement-of-the-central-cognitive-mechanism-in-word-production-in-adults-who-stutter
#20
Pei-Tzu Tsai, Nan Bernstein Ratner
Purpose: The study examined whether semantic and phonological encoding processes were capacity demanding, involving the central cognitive mechanism, in adults who do and do not stutter (AWS and NS) to better understand the role of cognitive demand in linguistic processing and stuttering. We asked (a) whether the two linguistic processes in AWS are capacity demanding, which can temporally disrupt the processing of a concurrent nonlinguistic task, and (b) whether AWS and NS show similar patterns of temporal disruption in the two processes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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