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Stuttering in adults

David Roshal
This case report describes a 41-year-old previously healthy male who presented with stuttering transient ischemic symptoms and radiographic evidence of a left common carotid artery thrombus as well as acute and subacute ischemic infarcts in the left middle cerebral artery territory. An exhaustive stroke work-up did not provide a plausible etiology for his symptoms. His complete blood count and iron studies, however, revealed evidence of severe iron-deficiency anemia without reactive thrombocytosis. His stool guaiac test was positive...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Shelley B Brundage, James M Brinton, Adrienne B Hancock
PURPOSE: Virtual reality environments (VREs) allow for immersion in speaking environments that mimic real-life interactions while maintaining researcher control. VREs have been used successfully to engender arousal in other disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of virtual reality environments to examine physiological reactivity and subjective ratings of distress in persons who stutter (PWS). METHOD: Subjective and objective measures of arousal were collected from 10PWS during four-minute speeches to a virtual audience and to a virtual empty room...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
Pierpaolo Busan, Giovanni Del Ben, Simona Bernardini, Giulia Natarelli, Marco Bencich, Fabrizio Monti, Paolo Manganotti, Piero Paolo Battaglini
Motor balance in developmental stuttering (DS) was investigated with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), with the aim to define novel neural markers of persistent DS in adulthood. Eleven DS adult males were evaluated with TMS on tongue primary motor cortex, compared to 15 matched fluent speakers, in a "state" condition (i.e. stutterers vs. fluent speakers, no overt stuttering). Motor and silent period thresholds (SPT), recruitment curves, and silent period durations were acquired by recording tongue motor evoked potentials...
2016: PloS One
Paul F Sowman, Margaret Ryan, Blake W Johnson, Greg Savage, Stephen Crain, Elisabeth Harrison, Erin Martin, Hana Burianová
The cause of stuttering has many theoretical explanations. A number of research groups have suggested changes in the volume and/or function of the striatum as a causal agent. Two recent studies in children and one in adults who stutter (AWS) report differences in striatal volume compared that seen in controls; however, the laterality and nature of this anatomical volume difference is not consistent across studies. The current study investigated whether a reduction in striatal grey matter volume, comparable to that seen in children who stutter (CWS), would be found in AWS...
September 28, 2016: Brain and Language
Mazin Alqhazo, Michael Blomgren, Nelson Roy, Maha Abu Awwad
PURPOSE: This study investigated the internalised feelings and discrimination experienced by people who stutter in Jordan. METHOD: Five adult speakers who stutter were interviewed as a focus group. The participants were asked about their feelings related to stuttering and discrimination. The participants' responses in the focus group and items adapted from the extant literature formed the basis of a 20-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to 20 additional adults who stutter to assess their internalised feelings about stuttering and their perceived rejecting behaviours (discrimination) associated with their impairment...
August 9, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Illays Khan, Irum Nawaz, Imran Amjad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. METHODS: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group -group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years)...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Anna-Maria Mersov, Cecilia Jobst, Douglas O Cheyne, Luc De Nil
Adults who stutter (AWS) have demonstrated atypical coordination of motor and sensory regions during speech production. Yet little is known of the speech-motor network in AWS in the brief time window preceding audible speech onset. The purpose of the current study was to characterize neural oscillations in the speech-motor network during preparation for and execution of overt speech production in AWS using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Twelve AWS and 12 age-matched controls were presented with 220 words, each word embedded in a carrier phrase...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Joana Cholin, Sabrina Heiler, Alexander Whillier, Martin Sommer
Anticipation of stuttering events in persistent developmental stuttering is a frequent but inadequately measured phenomenon that is of both theoretical and clinical importance. Here, we describe the development and preliminary testing of a German version of the Premonitory Awareness in Stuttering Scale (PAiS): a 12-item questionnaire assessing immediate and prospective anticipation of stuttering that was translated and adapted from the Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS) (Woods, Piacentini, Himle, & Chang, 2005)...
September 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
Giovanni Martinotti, Matteo Lupi, Leonardo Carlucci, Rita Santacroce, Eduardo Cinosi, Tiziano Acciavatti, Fabiola Sarchione, Valeria Verrastro, Pierluigi Diotaiuti, Irene Petruccelli, Silvia Ferrari, Maria G Nanni, Federica Pinna, Umberto Volpe, Aristide Saggino, Luigi Janiri, Lorenzo Leggio, Massimo Di Giannantonio
Binge drinking represents a major clinical and public health concern. Here, we investigated the prevalence of binge drinking and its related consequences, in a population of young adults. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 4275 healthy subjects. In the overall sample, the percentage of binge drinkers was 67.6 per cent; among regular alcohol users, 79.5 per cent reported episodes of binge drinking. Among binge drinkers, several serious consequences were identified (staggering and stuttering, amnesia, loss of control, aggressiveness, sexual disinhibition)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
Sebastian Markett, Benjamin Bleek, Martin Reuter, Holger Prüss, Kirsten Richardt, Thilo Müller, J Scott Yaruss, Christian Montag
Idiopathic stuttering is a fluency disorder characterized by impairments during speech production. Deficits in the motor control circuits of the basal ganglia have been implicated in idiopathic stuttering but it is unclear how these impairments relate to the disorder. Previous work has indicated a possible deficiency in motor inhibition in children who stutter. To extend these findings to adults, we designed two experiments to probe executive motor control in people who stutter using manual reaction time tasks that do not rely on speech production...
September 13, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Lisa Iverach, Rob Heard, Ross Menzies, Robyn Lowe, Sue O'Brian, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow
Purpose: A significant proportion of adults who stutter experience anxiety in social and speaking situations. The Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS) scales provide a comprehensive measure of the unhelpful cognitions associated with social anxiety in stuttering. However, reducing the number of UTBAS items would make it ideal as a brief screening instrument. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a brief version of the full UTBAS scales. Method: The 66-item UTBAS scales were completed by 337 adults who stutter...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Amanda Savio Lee, Michael Robb, Ondene Van Dulm, Tika Ormond
This is the third article in a series examining communication restriction in adults with stuttering (AWS). The aim was to explore interpersonal communication behaviour in AWS at long-term treatment follow-up, using systemic functional linguistics (SFL) as an analytical framework. The performance of 10 AWS within 10-minute conversation samples was compared across pretreatment (T1), post-treatment (T2) and 12-month follow-up (T3), in terms of language productivity and complexity, modality, and appraisal. At T1 and T3, comparisons were also made to a control group (AWNS)...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Santosh Maruthy, Sahana Venugopal, Priyanka Parakh
PURPOSE: A longstanding hypothesis about the underlying mechanisms of stuttering suggests that speech disfluencies may be associated with problems in timing and temporal patterning of speech events. METHOD: Fifteen adults who do and do not stutter read five sentences, and from these, the vocalic and consonantal durations were measured. Using these, pairwise variability index (raw PVI for consonantal intervals and normalised PVI for vocalic intervals) and interval based rhythm metrics (PercV, DeltaC, DeltaV, VarcoC and VarcoV) were calculated for all the participants...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Nicole E Neef, Christoph Bütfering, Alfred Anwander, Angela D Friederici, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
Area 44 is a cytoarchitectonically distinct portion of Broca's region. Parallel and overlapping large-scale networks couple with this region thereby orchestrating heterogeneous language, cognitive, and motor functions. In the context of stuttering, area 44 frequently comes into focus because structural and physiological irregularities affect developmental trajectories, stuttering severity, persistency, and etiology. A remarkable phenomenon accompanying stuttering is the preserved ability to sing. Speaking and singing are connatural behaviours recruiting largely overlapping brain networks including left and right area 44...
August 16, 2016: NeuroImage
Ross Menzies, Sue O'Brian, Robyn Lowe, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow
PURPOSE: CBTPsych is an individualized, fully automated, standalone Internet treatment program that requires no clinical contact or support. It is designed specifically for those who stutter. Two preliminary trials demonstrated that it may be efficacious for treating the social anxiety commonly associated with stuttering. However, both trials involved pre- and post-treatment assessment at a speech clinic. This contact may have increased compliance, commitment and adherence with the program...
June 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
Courtney T Byrd, Zoi Gkalitsiou, Joe Donaher, Erin Stergiou
PURPOSE: Voluntary stuttering is a strategy that has been suggested for use in the clinical literature but has minimal empirical data regarding treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to explore client perspectives regarding the impact of the use of this strategy on the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of stuttering. METHOD: The present study used an original survey designed to explore the intended purpose. A total of 206 adults who stutter were included in the final data corpus...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Kenneth O St Louis, Hilda Sønsterud, Lejla Junuzović-Žunić, Donatella Tomaiuoli, Francesca Del Gado, Emilia Caparelli, Mareen Theiling, Cecilie Flobakk, Lise Nesbakken Helmen, Ragnhild R Heitmann, Helene Kvenseth, Sofia Nilsson, Tobias Wetterling, Cecilia Lundström, Ciara Daly, Margaret Leahy, Laila Tyrrell, David Ward, Marta Węsierska
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological research methods have been shown to be useful in determining factors that might predict commonly reported negative public attitudes toward stuttering. Previous research has suggested that stuttering attitudes of respondents from North America and Europe (i.e., "The West"), though characterized by stereotypes and potential stigma, are more positive than those from several other regions of the world. This inference assumes that public attitudes within various regions characterized by "The West" are similar...
July 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
Hector R Perez, James H Stoeckle
OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of developmental stuttering. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched for past and recent studies on the epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of developmental stuttering. Most recommendations are based on small studies, limited-quality evidence, or consensus. MAIN MESSAGE: Stuttering is a speech disorder, common in persons of all ages, that affects normal fluency and time patterning of speech...
June 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Tali Halag-Milo, Nadav Stoppelman, Vered Kronfeld-Duenias, Oren Civier, Ofer Amir, Ruth Ezrati-Vinacour, Michal Ben-Shachar
Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder that disrupts the ability to produce speech fluently. While stuttering is typically diagnosed based on one's behavior during speech production, some models suggest that it involves more central representations of language, and thus may affect language perception as well. Here we tested the hypothesis that developmental stuttering implicates neural systems involved in language perception, in a task that manipulates comprehensibility without an overt speech production component...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ana Paula Ritto, Fabiola Staróbole Juste, Andrew Stuart, Joseph Kalinowski, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefit of devices delivering altered auditory feedback (AAF) as a therapeutic alternative for those who stutter. AIMS: The effectiveness of a device delivering AAF (SpeechEasy®) was compared with behavioural techniques in the treatment of stuttering in a randomized clinical trial. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Two groups of adults who stutter participated: group 1 consisted of 10 men and one woman aged 21-42 years (mean = 30...
June 8, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
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