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leaf epidermis SEM

Ashish Agnihotri, Praveen Gupta, Anuj Dwivedi, Chandra Shekhar Seth
Salicylic acid alleviates lead toxicity in Brassica juncea (L.) by promoting growth under non-stress and activating stress-defense mechanism (s) under lead stress conditions. It also boosts the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and thus helps in minimizing oxidative and DNA damage. Brassica juncea plants were exposed to different concentrations (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1 ) of lead (Pb) and subsequently sprayed with 0.5 mM of salicylic acid (SA) to check for morphological and leaf gas exchange parameters like transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (GH2 O), net photosynthetic rate (A) and maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv /Fm )...
March 21, 2018: Planta
Shayan Jamshed, Asad Ullah, Raees Khan, Altaf Hussain
Common mulberry weed (Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai) and creeping amaranth (Amaranthus crassipes Schlecht) are reported for the first time in Pakistan's flora as these were not listed in any other literature nor identified before in Pakistan. Plants were found as a result of taxonomic studies performed in 2013 in Peshawar, Pakistan. Detail study was performed for the exact identification. Morphological results were compared with Flora of China and Flora of North America. Plant distribution along with its habitat and adjacent species was also recorded...
May 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Kanapol Ketjarun, George W Staples, Sasivimon C Swangpol, Paweena Traiperm
BACKGROUND: Several medicinal properties have been reported for plants in the genus Evolvulus, such as a brain tonic and antifungal from Evolvulus alsinoides, and a sedative and an anthelmintic from Evolvulus nummularius. Therefore, the correct identification of the source plants is critically important. The aim of this research was to investigate the micromorphology of two Evolvulus taxa used for herbal medicines compared with one worldwide ornamental species by using peeling, paraffin embedding, acetolysis, and SEM methods in order to support species identification...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Triratnesh Gajbhiye, Sudhir Kumar Pandey, Ki-Hyun Kim, Jan E Szulejko, Satgur Prasad
In order to investigate possible foliar transfer of toxic heavy metals, concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe were measured in samples of: Cassia siamea leaves (a common tree) Cassia siamea foliar dust, nearby road dust, and soil (Cassia siamea tree roots) at six different sites in/around the Bilaspur industrial area and a control site on the university campus. Bilaspur is located in a subtropical central Indian region. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Pb and Cd, when derived using the crustal and measured soil Fe data as reference, indicated significant anthropogenic contributions to Pb and Cd regional pollution...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Martha Lima de Oliveira, Edésio José Tenório de Melo, Flávio Costa Miguens
Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure...
September 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Michael A Urban, Richard S Barclay, Mayandi Sivaguru, Surangi W Punyasena
Plant cuticle micromorphology is an invaluable tool in modern ecology and paleoecology. It has expanded our knowledge of systematic relationships among diverse plant groups and can be used to identify fossil plants. Furthermore, fossil plant leaf micromorphology is used for reconstructing past environments, most notably for estimating atmospheric CO2 concentration. Here we outline a new protocol for imaging plant cuticle for archival and paleoecological applications. Traditionally, both modern reference and fossil samples undergo maceration with subsequent imaging via environmental SEM, widefield fluorescence, or light microscopy...
February 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Jie Fan, Runli He, Yinbo Zhang, Xiaohua Jin
Determining the generic delimitations within Aeridinae has been a significant issue in the taxonomy of Orchidaceae, and Holcoglossum is a typical case. We investigated the phylogenetic utility of the morphological traits of leaf epidermis in the taxonomy of Holcoglossum s.l. by using light and scanning electron microscopy to analyze 38 samples representing 12 species of Holcoglossum, with five species from five closely related genera, such as Ascocentrum, Luisia, Papilionanthe, Rhynchostylis and Vanda. Our results indicated that Holcoglossum can be distinguished from the related genera based on cuticular wax characteristics, and the inclusion of Holcoglossum himalaicum in Holcoglossum is supported by the epidermis characteristics found by LM and SEM...
2014: PloS One
Daniel Sánchez-Mata, Vicenta de la Fuente, Lourdes Rufo, Nuria Rodríguez, Ricardo Amils
The genus Streptanthus Nutt. is one of the most important indicators of ultramafic floras in western North America. This genus contains taxa that are endemic or tolerant of ultramafic soils. Streptanthus polygaloides is an annual nickel hyperaccumulator strictly confined to ultramafic soils throughout the Californian Sierra Nevada foothills. Nickel concentration in S. polygaloides populations was evaluated by elemental microanalysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Representative samples of S...
January 2014: Biological Trace Element Research
J Těšitel, M Tesařová
The Rhinanthoid clade of the family Orobanchaceae comprises plants displaying a hemiparasitic or holoparasitic strategy of resource acquisition. Some of its species (mainly Rhinanthus spp.) are often used as models for studies of hemiparasite physiology. Although there is a well-developed concept covering their physiological processes, most recent studies have neglected the existence of hydathode trichomes present on leaves of these hemiparasitic plants. As a first step for the proposed integration of these structures in the theory of physiological processes of the hemiparasites, we described the outer micromorphology and ultrastructure of the hydathode trichomes on leaves of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus and Odontites vernus with scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively)...
January 2013: Plant Biology
Nednaldo Dantas-Santos, Dayanne Lopes Gomes, Leandro Silva Costa, Sara Lima Cordeiro, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira Costa, Edvaldo Silva Trindade, Célia Regina Chavichiolo Franco, Kátia Castanho Scortecci, Edda Lisboa Leite, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha
Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes...
2012: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chih-Yuan Tang, Rong-Nan Huang, Ling-Long Kuo-Huang, Tai-Chih Kuo, Ya-Yun Yang, Ching-Yeh Lin, Wann-Neng Jane, Shiang-Jiuun Chen
A pre-cryogenic holder (cryo-holder) facilitating cryo-specimen observation under a conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) is described. This cryo-holder includes a specimen-holding unit (the stub) and a cryogenic energy-storing unit (a composite of three cylinders assembled with a screw). After cooling, the cryo-holder can continue supplying cryogenic energy to extend the observation time for the specimen in a conventional SEM. Moreover, the cryogenic energy-storing unit could retain appropriate liquid nitrogen that can evaporate to prevent frost deposition on the surface of the specimen...
February 2012: Microscopy Research and Technique
S Pierce, K Maxwell, H Griffiths, K Winter
The distinctive foliar trichome of Bromeliaceae has promoted the evolution of an epiphytic habit in certain taxa by allowing the shoot to assume a significant role in the uptake of water and mineral nutrients. Despite the profound ecophysiological and taxonomic importance of this epidermal structure, the functions of nonabsorbent trichomes in remaining Bromeliaceae are not fully understood. The hypothesis that light reflection from these trichome layers provides photoprotection was not supported by spectroradiometry and fluorimetry in the present study; the mean reflectance of visible light from trichome layers did not exceed 6...
August 2001: American Journal of Botany
S Rossini Oliva, B Valdés, E O Leidi
Erica andevalensis is an endemic shrub from an area in the southwest of Spain (Andalucia) characterized by acidic and contaminated soils. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of samples after conventional or cryo-fixation preparation protocols was used for morphological and anatomical studies. SEM coupled with EDX-analysis was employed to localise and quantify different elements within plant parts (leaves, stems and roots) in samples collected in the field. Morphological studies revealed that the species has typical adaptive structures to drought-stress such as rolled needle-like leaves, sunken stomata and a thick waxy cuticle on the upper epidermis...
March 1, 2009: Science of the Total Environment
Chun-Xia He, Ji-Yue Li, Ping Zhou, Ming Guo, Quan-Shui Zheng
Leaf morphological and anatomical structure and carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) change with increasing tree height. To determine how tree height affects leaf characteristics, we measured the leaf area, specific leaf mass (ratio of leaf mass to leaf area [LMA]), thickness of the total leaf, cuticle, epidermis, palisade and sponge mesophyll, stomata traits and delta13C at different heights of Parashorea chinensis with methods of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry...
February 2008: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Ji-Ling Wu, Jun-Yi Niu, Zi-Zhu Yan, Sheng Li, Yu-Hong Gao, Han-Yu Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Characters of stem epidermis, leaf epidermis and stoma could be used as important microcosmic morphological characteristic when inheritance trend is studied in Ephedra breeding and identification. METHOD: The stomatic density, stoma major axis and mimor axis, stomatic morphylogy, characters of leaf and stem epidermis of 6 Ephedra plants' stems were examined by SEM. RESULT: The stomatic density and characteristic of leaf epidermis and stem epidermis in six Ephedra species was differenc, there were no obvious morphological differences in stoma shape and size...
September 2007: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Zhi-ying Sun, Fa-zeng Li
OBJECTIVE: Classification and diagnostic study on Lepidiumn (Brassicaceae) from China. METHODS: Leaf epidermal mi-cromophology of 10 species of Lepidium from China were observed by using LM (light microscope) and SEM (scaning electron microscope). RESULTS: The stomatal apparatuses present both on the adaxial epidermis and the abaxial epidermis. The type of stomatal apparatuses is mainly anisocytic, rarely anomocytic and only occasionally paracytic...
July 2007: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
Simona Dragota, Markus Riederer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The morphology of the epicuticular leaf waxes of Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) was studied with special emphasis on the relationship between the microstructure of epicuticular wax crystals and their chemical composition. Wollemia nobilis is a unique coniferous tree of the family Araucariaceae and is of very high scientific value as it is the sole living representative of an ancient genus, which until 1994 was known only from fossils. METHODS: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used for characterizing the morphology and the chemical structure of the epicuticular wax layer of W...
August 2007: Annals of Botany
Richard A James, Rana Munns, Susanne von Caemmerer, Carlos Trejo, Celia Miller, Tony A G Condon
The capacity of plants to tolerate high levels of salinity depends on the ability to exclude salt from the shoot, or to tolerate high concentrations of salt in the leaf (tissue tolerance). It is widely held that a major component of tissue tolerance is the capacity to compartmentalize salt into safe storage places such as vacuoles. This mechanism would avoid toxic effects of salt on photosynthesis and other key metabolic processes. To test this, the relationship between photosynthetic capacity and the cellular and subcellular distribution of Na+, K+ and Cl- was studied in salt-sensitive durum wheat (cv...
December 2006: Plant, Cell & Environment
Benjaporn Boonyapookana, Preeda Parkpian, Sombun Techapinyawat, R D DeLaune, Aroon Jugsujinda
The ability of three plant species: Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana tabacum, and Vetiveria zizanioides for phytoaccumulation of Pb was studied. Plants were grown in hydroponic solution containing Pb(NO3)2 at concentration of 0.25 and 2.5 mM Pb in the presence or absence of chelating agents (EDTA or DTPA). Lead (Pb) transport and localization within the tissues of the plant species was determined using scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (SEM-EDS). The addition of chelators increased Pb uptake as compared to plants grown in solution containing Pb alone...
2005: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Claudia Cosio, Laura DeSantis, Beat Frey, Saliou Diallo, Catherine Keller
Knowledge of the intracellular distribution of Cd in leaves is necessary in order to understand the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens. Ganges and Prayon, two ecotypes accumulating Cd to different levels, were grown in nutrient medium containing varying concentrations (0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 microM) of Cd. Several different approaches were combined in this study to (i) validate the results obtained by a specific method and (ii) establish the link between observations and measurements performed at different scales...
February 2005: Journal of Experimental Botany
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