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leaf epidermis SEM

Triratnesh Gajbhiye, Sudhir Kumar Pandey, Ki-Hyun Kim, Jan E Szulejko, Satgur Prasad
In order to investigate possible foliar transfer of toxic heavy metals, concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe were measured in samples of: Cassia siamea leaves (a common tree) Cassia siamea foliar dust, nearby road dust, and soil (Cassia siamea tree roots) at six different sites in/around the Bilaspur industrial area and a control site on the university campus. Bilaspur is located in a subtropical central Indian region. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Pb and Cd, when derived using the crustal and measured soil Fe data as reference, indicated significant anthropogenic contributions to Pb and Cd regional pollution...
August 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Martha Lima de Oliveira, Edésio José Tenório de Melo, Flávio Costa Miguens
Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure...
September 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Michael A Urban, Richard S Barclay, Mayandi Sivaguru, Surangi W Punyasena
Plant cuticle micromorphology is an invaluable tool in modern ecology and paleoecology. It has expanded our knowledge of systematic relationships among diverse plant groups and can be used to identify fossil plants. Furthermore, fossil plant leaf micromorphology is used for reconstructing past environments, most notably for estimating atmospheric CO2 concentration. Here we outline a new protocol for imaging plant cuticle for archival and paleoecological applications. Traditionally, both modern reference and fossil samples undergo maceration with subsequent imaging via environmental SEM, widefield fluorescence, or light microscopy...
April 25, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Jie Fan, Runli He, Yinbo Zhang, Xiaohua Jin
Determining the generic delimitations within Aeridinae has been a significant issue in the taxonomy of Orchidaceae, and Holcoglossum is a typical case. We investigated the phylogenetic utility of the morphological traits of leaf epidermis in the taxonomy of Holcoglossum s.l. by using light and scanning electron microscopy to analyze 38 samples representing 12 species of Holcoglossum, with five species from five closely related genera, such as Ascocentrum, Luisia, Papilionanthe, Rhynchostylis and Vanda. Our results indicated that Holcoglossum can be distinguished from the related genera based on cuticular wax characteristics, and the inclusion of Holcoglossum himalaicum in Holcoglossum is supported by the epidermis characteristics found by LM and SEM...
2014: PloS One
Daniel Sánchez-Mata, Vicenta de la Fuente, Lourdes Rufo, Nuria Rodríguez, Ricardo Amils
The genus Streptanthus Nutt. is one of the most important indicators of ultramafic floras in western North America. This genus contains taxa that are endemic or tolerant of ultramafic soils. Streptanthus polygaloides is an annual nickel hyperaccumulator strictly confined to ultramafic soils throughout the Californian Sierra Nevada foothills. Nickel concentration in S. polygaloides populations was evaluated by elemental microanalysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Representative samples of S...
January 2014: Biological Trace Element Research
J Těšitel, M Tesařová
The Rhinanthoid clade of the family Orobanchaceae comprises plants displaying a hemiparasitic or holoparasitic strategy of resource acquisition. Some of its species (mainly Rhinanthus spp.) are often used as models for studies of hemiparasite physiology. Although there is a well-developed concept covering their physiological processes, most recent studies have neglected the existence of hydathode trichomes present on leaves of these hemiparasitic plants. As a first step for the proposed integration of these structures in the theory of physiological processes of the hemiparasites, we described the outer micromorphology and ultrastructure of the hydathode trichomes on leaves of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus and Odontites vernus with scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively)...
January 2013: Plant Biology
Nednaldo Dantas-Santos, Dayanne Lopes Gomes, Leandro Silva Costa, Sara Lima Cordeiro, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira Costa, Edvaldo Silva Trindade, Célia Regina Chavichiolo Franco, Kátia Castanho Scortecci, Edda Lisboa Leite, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha
Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes...
2012: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chih-Yuan Tang, Rong-Nan Huang, Ling-Long Kuo-Huang, Tai-Chih Kuo, Ya-Yun Yang, Ching-Yeh Lin, Wann-Neng Jane, Shiang-Jiuun Chen
A pre-cryogenic holder (cryo-holder) facilitating cryo-specimen observation under a conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) is described. This cryo-holder includes a specimen-holding unit (the stub) and a cryogenic energy-storing unit (a composite of three cylinders assembled with a screw). After cooling, the cryo-holder can continue supplying cryogenic energy to extend the observation time for the specimen in a conventional SEM. Moreover, the cryogenic energy-storing unit could retain appropriate liquid nitrogen that can evaporate to prevent frost deposition on the surface of the specimen...
February 2012: Microscopy Research and Technique
S Pierce, K Maxwell, H Griffiths, K Winter
The distinctive foliar trichome of Bromeliaceae has promoted the evolution of an epiphytic habit in certain taxa by allowing the shoot to assume a significant role in the uptake of water and mineral nutrients. Despite the profound ecophysiological and taxonomic importance of this epidermal structure, the functions of nonabsorbent trichomes in remaining Bromeliaceae are not fully understood. The hypothesis that light reflection from these trichome layers provides photoprotection was not supported by spectroradiometry and fluorimetry in the present study; the mean reflectance of visible light from trichome layers did not exceed 6...
August 2001: American Journal of Botany
S Rossini Oliva, B Valdés, E O Leidi
Erica andevalensis is an endemic shrub from an area in the southwest of Spain (Andalucia) characterized by acidic and contaminated soils. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of samples after conventional or cryo-fixation preparation protocols was used for morphological and anatomical studies. SEM coupled with EDX-analysis was employed to localise and quantify different elements within plant parts (leaves, stems and roots) in samples collected in the field. Morphological studies revealed that the species has typical adaptive structures to drought-stress such as rolled needle-like leaves, sunken stomata and a thick waxy cuticle on the upper epidermis...
March 1, 2009: Science of the Total Environment
Chun-Xia He, Ji-Yue Li, Ping Zhou, Ming Guo, Quan-Shui Zheng
Leaf morphological and anatomical structure and carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) change with increasing tree height. To determine how tree height affects leaf characteristics, we measured the leaf area, specific leaf mass (ratio of leaf mass to leaf area [LMA]), thickness of the total leaf, cuticle, epidermis, palisade and sponge mesophyll, stomata traits and delta13C at different heights of Parashorea chinensis with methods of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry...
February 2008: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Ji-Ling Wu, Jun-Yi Niu, Zi-Zhu Yan, Sheng Li, Yu-Hong Gao, Han-Yu Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Characters of stem epidermis, leaf epidermis and stoma could be used as important microcosmic morphological characteristic when inheritance trend is studied in Ephedra breeding and identification. METHOD: The stomatic density, stoma major axis and mimor axis, stomatic morphylogy, characters of leaf and stem epidermis of 6 Ephedra plants' stems were examined by SEM. RESULT: The stomatic density and characteristic of leaf epidermis and stem epidermis in six Ephedra species was differenc, there were no obvious morphological differences in stoma shape and size...
September 2007: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Zhi-ying Sun, Fa-zeng Li
OBJECTIVE: Classification and diagnostic study on Lepidiumn (Brassicaceae) from China. METHODS: Leaf epidermal mi-cromophology of 10 species of Lepidium from China were observed by using LM (light microscope) and SEM (scaning electron microscope). RESULTS: The stomatal apparatuses present both on the adaxial epidermis and the abaxial epidermis. The type of stomatal apparatuses is mainly anisocytic, rarely anomocytic and only occasionally paracytic...
July 2007: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
Simona Dragota, Markus Riederer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The morphology of the epicuticular leaf waxes of Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) was studied with special emphasis on the relationship between the microstructure of epicuticular wax crystals and their chemical composition. Wollemia nobilis is a unique coniferous tree of the family Araucariaceae and is of very high scientific value as it is the sole living representative of an ancient genus, which until 1994 was known only from fossils. METHODS: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used for characterizing the morphology and the chemical structure of the epicuticular wax layer of W...
August 2007: Annals of Botany
Richard A James, Rana Munns, Susanne von Caemmerer, Carlos Trejo, Celia Miller, Tony A G Condon
The capacity of plants to tolerate high levels of salinity depends on the ability to exclude salt from the shoot, or to tolerate high concentrations of salt in the leaf (tissue tolerance). It is widely held that a major component of tissue tolerance is the capacity to compartmentalize salt into safe storage places such as vacuoles. This mechanism would avoid toxic effects of salt on photosynthesis and other key metabolic processes. To test this, the relationship between photosynthetic capacity and the cellular and subcellular distribution of Na+, K+ and Cl- was studied in salt-sensitive durum wheat (cv...
December 2006: Plant, Cell & Environment
Benjaporn Boonyapookana, Preeda Parkpian, Sombun Techapinyawat, R D DeLaune, Aroon Jugsujinda
The ability of three plant species: Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana tabacum, and Vetiveria zizanioides for phytoaccumulation of Pb was studied. Plants were grown in hydroponic solution containing Pb(NO3)2 at concentration of 0.25 and 2.5 mM Pb in the presence or absence of chelating agents (EDTA or DTPA). Lead (Pb) transport and localization within the tissues of the plant species was determined using scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (SEM-EDS). The addition of chelators increased Pb uptake as compared to plants grown in solution containing Pb alone...
2005: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Claudia Cosio, Laura DeSantis, Beat Frey, Saliou Diallo, Catherine Keller
Knowledge of the intracellular distribution of Cd in leaves is necessary in order to understand the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens. Ganges and Prayon, two ecotypes accumulating Cd to different levels, were grown in nutrient medium containing varying concentrations (0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 microM) of Cd. Several different approaches were combined in this study to (i) validate the results obtained by a specific method and (ii) establish the link between observations and measurements performed at different scales...
February 2005: Journal of Experimental Botany
C Leigh Broadhurst, Rufus L Chaney, J Scott Angle, Timothy K Maugel, Eric F Erbe, Charles A Murphy
We have developed commercially viable phytoremediation/phytomining technologies employing Alyssum Ni-hyperaccumulator species to quantitatively extract Ni from soils. The majority of Ni is stored either in Alyssum leaf epidermal cell vacuoles or in the basal portions only of the numerous stellate trichomes. Here, we report simultaneous and region-specific localization of high levels of Ni, Mn, and Ca within Alyssum trichomes as determined by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX)...
November 1, 2004: Environmental Science & Technology
F Zhou, Z Zhang, J Li, X Mao
Ultra-morphology of 4 spieces and 2 varities of the original plant of Herba Dianthi grown in Shandong was identified with SEM. The result showed that they were aparently divided into the Shizhu group and the Qumai group, and the Dianthus shandongensis was between the two groups, on the basis of the cutin-grain type of the epidermis of the stem and leaf as well as the surface of the guard cell of the stoma.
July 1998: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
L Zou, C Yang, H Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To Observe the morphological characteristics of the leaf epidermis of 9 Chinese species of genus Murraya and prepare and index for their differentiation. METHOD: SEM(scanning electron microscope). RESULT: Sect. Murraya was found having with blurred dividing lines on epidermis without ropy emblazonry, while sect. Bergera appeared the other way round. CONCLUSION: M. kwangsiensis var. macrophylla should be ground under Sect...
December 1999: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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