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obesity and genetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239649/switching-harmful-visceral-fat-to-beneficial-energy-combustion-improves-metabolic-dysfunctions
#1
Xiaoyan Yang, Wenhai Sui, Meng Zhang, Mei Dong, Sharon Lim, Takahiro Seki, Ziheng Guo, Carina Fischer, Huixia Lu, Cheng Zhang, Jianmin Yang, Meng Zhang, Yangang Wang, Caixia Cao, Yanyan Gao, Xingguo Zhao, Meili Sun, Yuping Sun, Rujie Zhuang, Nilesh J Samani, Yun Zhang, Yihai Cao
Visceral fat is considered the genuine and harmful white adipose tissue (WAT) that is associated to development of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Here, we present a new concept to turn the harmful visceral fat into a beneficial energy consumption depot, which is beneficial for improvement of metabolic dysfunctions in obese mice. We show that low temperature-dependent browning of visceral fat caused decreased adipose weight, total body weight, and body mass index, despite increased food intake...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238197/phenotypic-and-genetic-relationship-between-bmi-and-drinking-in-a-sample-of-uk-adults
#2
Amanda G Wills, Luke M Evans, Christian Hopfer
The health impairments derived from both alcoholism and obesity are well known. However, reports that relate increased alcohol use with increased measures of obesity have been mixed in their findings, especially with respect to genetic factors that could potentially link these two behaviors. Here, using a large sample of adults from the UK (n ≈ 113,000), we report both the observed and genetic correlations between BMI (kg/m(2)) and two measures of alcohol use: reported quantity (drinks per week) and frequency of use (from never to daily)...
February 25, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238104/microbial-carcinogenic-toxins-and-dietary-anti-cancer-protectants
#3
REVIEW
Trevor W Stone, L Gail Darlington
Several toxins are known which account for the ability of some bacteria to initiate or promote carcinogenesis. These ideas are summarised and evidence is discussed for more specific mechanisms involving chymotrypsin and the bacterial chymotryptic enzyme subtilisin. Subtilisin and Bacillus subtilis are present in the gut and environment and both are used commercially in agriculture, livestock rearing and meat processing. The enzymes deplete cells of tumour suppressors such as deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and neogenin, so their potential presence in the food chain might represent an important link between diet and cancer...
February 25, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237985/genetic-variation-in-cd36-is-associated-with-decreased-fat-and-sugar-intake-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#4
Marina B Pioltine, Maria Edna de Melo, Aritânia Santos, Alisson D Machado, Ariana E Fernandes, Clarissa T Fujiwara, Cintia Cercato, Marcio C Mancini
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Taste is recognized as an important predictor of food choices. Thus, polymorphisms in genes encoding taste receptors may explain the variability in food preference and intake. Here, we aimed to determine whether genetic variation in the CD36 gene affects food intake and risk of obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with obese Brazilian children and adolescents (n = 466; BMI-for-age z-score [zBMI] 3.29 ± 0.61) and normal-weight children (n = 114; zBMI -0...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237857/genetic-association-analysis-of-polymorphisms-in-psd3-gene-with-obesity-type-2-diabetes-and-hdl-cholesterol
#5
Shaoqing Gong, Chun Xu, Liang Wang, Ying Liu, Daniel Owusu, Beth A Bailey, Yujing Li, Kesheng Wang
BACKGROUND: The pleckstrin and Sec7 domain-containing 3 (PSD3) gene has been linked to immune diseases. We examined whether the genetic variants within the PSD3 gene are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level. METHODS: Multiple logistic regression model and linear regression model were used to examine the associations of 259 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the PSD3 gene with obesity and T2D as binary traits, and HDL level as a continuous trait using the Marshfield data, respectively...
February 10, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236287/behavioural-susceptibility-theory-professor-jane-wardle-and-the-role-of-appetite-in-genetic-risk-of-obesity
#6
REVIEW
Clare H Llewellyn, Alison Fildes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is considerable variability in human body weight, despite the ubiquity of the 'obesogenic' environment. Human body weight has a strong genetic basis and it has been hypothesised that genetic susceptibility to the environment explains variation in human body weight, with differences in appetite being implicated as the mediating mechanism; so-called 'behavioural susceptibility theory' (BST), first described by Professor Jane Wardle. This review summarises the evidence for the role of appetite as a mediator of genetic risk of obesity...
February 24, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230630/update-on-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-and-its-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#7
Lily Van, Erik Boot, Anne S Bassett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia occurs in ∼25% of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the strongest known molecular genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. This review highlights recent literature in 22q11.2DS as it pertains to psychosis and schizophrenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in noninvasive prenatal testing allow for early detection of 22q11.2DS in utero, whereas premature birth has been shown to be a significant risk factor for development of psychotic illness in 22q11...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229243/correlation-of-insulin-resistance-and-motor-function-in-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy
#8
Hideaki Nakatsuji, Amane Araki, Atsushi Hashizume, Yasuhiro Hijikata, Shinichiro Yamada, Tomonori Inagaki, Keisuke Suzuki, Haruhiko Banno, Noriaki Suga, Yohei Okada, Manabu Ohyama, Tohru Nakagawa, Ken Kishida, Tohru Funahashi, Iichiro Shimomura, Hideyuki Okano, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
This study aimed to evaluate various metabolic parameters in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), to investigate the association between those indices and disease severity, and to explore the underlying molecular pathogenesis. We compared the degree of obesity, metabolic parameters, and blood pressure in 55 genetically confirmed SBMA patients against those in 483 age- and sex-matched healthy control. In SBMA patients, we investigated the correlation between these factors and motor functional indices...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226599/identifying-glaucoma-patients-by-applying-multivariate-analyses-of-cardiovascular-signals
#9
Andreas Voss, Claudia Fischer, Cristina Gonzalez Martinez, Eva Koch, Niklas Plange, Kathleen Kunert, Andreas Voss, Claudia Fischer, Cristina Gonzalez Martinez, Eva Koch, Niklas Plange, Kathleen Kunert, Claudia Fischer, Kathleen Kunert, Niklas Plange, Cristina Gonzalez Martinez, Eva Koch, Andreas Voss
Glaucoma is a disease that damages the eye's optic nerve. However, the exact cause of this optic nerve damage is not yet fully understood. Besides the factors of age, genetics and others, such as obesity, medication and migraines, a vascular dysfunction is believed to be a significant factor leading to glaucoma. This study's objective was to investigate whether these vascular dysfunctions could be recognized by analyzing cardiovascular regulation in glaucoma patients. Linear and nonlinear methods were applied to the extracted heart rate (HR), and systolic/ diastolic blood pressure (DBP) time series to discriminate between 35 healthy controls and 20 glaucoma patients...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226326/psoriasis-and-obesity
#10
Peter Jensen, Lone Skov
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis consisting of a genetic component, immune dysfunction, and environmental factors. It is associated with numerous comorbidities including psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Evidence suggests that obesity is a risk factor for incident psoriasis, aggravates existing psoriasis, and that weight reduction may improve the severity of psoriasis in overweight individuals. Excess body weight may interfere with the medical treatment used in psoriasis and adds to the cardiovascular risk profile in these patients, which underscores the importance of effective weight control regimens...
February 23, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225947/health-workers-cohort-study-methods-and-study-design
#11
Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Yvonne N Flores, Katia Gallegos-Carrillo, Paula Ramírez-Palacios, Berenice Rivera-Paredez, Paloma Muñoz-Aguirre, Rafael Velázquez-Cruz, Leticia Torres-Ibarra, Joacim Meneses-León, Pablo Méndez-Hernández, Rubí Hernández-López, Eduardo Salazar-Martínez, Juan O Talavera, Juan Tamayo, Susana Castañón, Ignacio Osuna-Ramírez, Leith León-Maldonado, Mario Flores, Nayeli Macías, Daniela Antúnez, Gerardo Huitrón-Bravo, Jorge Salmerón
Objective: To examine different health outcomes that are associated with specific lifestyle and genetic factors. Materials and methods: From March 2004 to April 2006, a sample of employees from three different health and academic institutions, as well as their family members, were enrolled in the study after providing informed consent. At baseline and follow-up (2010-2013), participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, a physical examination, and provided blood samples...
November 2016: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224759/genomic-variants-at-20p11-associated-with-body-fat-mass-in-the-european-population
#12
Yu-Fang Pei, Hai-Gang Ren, Lu Liu, Xiao Li, Chen Fang, Yun Huang, Wen-Zhu Hu, Wei-Wen Kong, An-Ping Feng, Xin-Yi You, Wen Zhao, Hui Shen, Qing Tian, Yong-Hong Zhang, Hong-Wen Deng, Lei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Body fat mass (BFM) is more homogeneous and accurate than body total mass in measuring obesity but has rarely been studied. Aiming to uncover the genetic basis of fat-induced obesity, a genome-wide association meta-analysis of BFM, after adjustment by body lean mass, was performed in the European population. METHODS: Three samples of European ancestry were included in the meta-analysis: the Framingham Heart Study (N = 6,004), the Kansas City osteoporosis study (N = 2,207), and the Omaha osteoporosis study (N = 968)...
February 22, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223291/ctrp7-deletion-attenuates-obesity-linked-glucose-intolerance-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-hepatic-stress
#13
Pia S Petersen, Xia Lei, Risa M Wolf, Susana Rodriguez, Stefanie Y Tan, Hannah C Little, Michael A Schweitzer, Thomas H Magnuson, Kimberley E Steele, G William Wong
Chronic low-grade inflammation and cellular stress are important contributors to obesity-linked metabolic dysfunction. Here, we uncover an immune-metabolic role for C1q/TNF-related protein 7 (CTRP7), a secretory protein of the C1q family with previously unknown function. In obese humans, circulating CTRP7 levels were markedly elevated and positively correlated with BMI, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance index, hemoglobin A1c, and triglyceride levels. Expression of CTRP7 in liver was also significantly upregulated in obese humans and positively correlated with gluconeogenic genes...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219716/genetic-regulation-of-differentially-methylated-genes-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-severely-obese-men-discordant-for-the-metabolic-syndrome
#14
Frédéric Guénard, André Tchernof, Yves Deshaies, Simon Biron, Odette Lescelleur, Laurent Biertho, Simon Marceau, Louis Pérusse, Marie-Claude Vohl
A genetic influence on methylation levels has been reported and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL) have been identified in various tissues. The contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has also been noted. To pinpoint candidate genes for testing the association of SNPs with MetS and its components, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of genetic variations to differentially methylated CpG sites in severely obese men discordant for MetS. A genome-wide differential methylation analysis was conducted in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of 31 severely obese men discordant for MetS (16 with and 15 without MetS) and identified ∼17,800 variable CpG sites...
February 2, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214526/recent-advances-in-human-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-adiposity-pathway-to-precision-medicine
#15
Tove Fall, Michael Mendelson, Elizabeth K Speliotes
Obesity is a heritable trait that contributes to substantial global morbidity and mortality. Here, we summarize findings from the last decade of genetic and epigenetic research focused on unravelling the underpinnings of adiposity. More than 140 genetic regions are now known to influence adiposity traits. The genetics of general adiposity, as measured by body mass index, and that of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist to hip ratio, have distinct biological backgrounds. Expression of genes associated with general adiposity are enriched in the nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213398/foxo-integration-of-insulin-signaling-with-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#16
Sojin Lee, Henry H Dong
The forkhead box O family consists of FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4 and FoxO6 proteins in mammals. Expressed ubiquitously in the body, the four FoxO isoforms share in common the amino DNA binding domain, known as "forkhead box" domain. They mediate the inhibitory action of insulin or insulin-like growth factor on key functions involved in cell metabolism, growth, differentiation, oxidative stress, senescence, autophagy and aging. Genetic mutations in FoxO genes or abnormal expression of FoxO proteins are associated with metabolic disease, cancer or altered lifespan in humans and animals...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210884/energy-balance-and-obesity-what-are-the-main-drivers
#17
Isabelle Romieu, Laure Dossus, Simón Barquera, Hervé M Blottière, Paul W Franks, Marc Gunter, Nahla Hwalla, Stephen D Hursting, Michael Leitzmann, Barrie Margetts, Chizuru Nishida, Nancy Potischman, Jacob Seidell, Magdalena Stepien, Youfa Wang, Klaas Westerterp, Pattanee Winichagoon, Martin Wiseman, Walter C Willett
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the association between energy balance and obesity. METHODS: In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). RESULTS: The global epidemic of obesity and the double burden, in LMICs, of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition) are both related to poor quality diet and unbalanced energy intake...
March 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208657/fto-genotype-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-spatial-analysis-and-meta-analysis-of-62-case-control-studies-from-different-regions
#18
Ying Yang, Boyang Liu, Wei Xia, Jing Yan, Huan-Yu Liu, Ling Hu, Song-Mei Liu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health problem that results from the interaction of environmental factors with genetic variants. Although a number of studies have suggested that genetic polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are associated with T2DM risk, the results have been inconsistent. To investigate whether FTO polymorphisms associate with T2DM risk and whether this association is region-related, we performed this spatial analysis and meta-analysis. More than 60,000 T2DM patients and 90,000 controls from 62 case-control studies were included in this study...
February 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207798/altered-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-mice-lacking-both-the-melanocortin-type-4-receptor-and-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor
#19
Vera Lede, Andrej Meusel, Antje Garten, Yulia Popkova, Melanie Penke, Christin Franke, Albert Ricken, Angela Schulz, Wieland Kiess, Daniel Huster, Torsten Schöneberg, Jürgen Schiller
Obesity is often associated with dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. A number of animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are established but they significantly differ in the molecular and biochemical changes depending on the genetic modification and diet used. Mice deficient for melanocortin type 4 receptor (Mc4rmut) develop hyperphagia, obesity, and subsequently NAFLD already under regular chow and resemble more closely the energy supply-driven obesity found in humans. This animal model was used to assess the molecular and biochemical consequences of hyperphagia-induced obesity on hepatic lipid metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207535/an-investigation-of-obesity-susceptibility-genes-in-northern-han-chinese-by-targeted-resequencing
#20
Yili Wu, Weijing Wang, Wenjie Jiang, Jie Yao, Dongfeng Zhang
Our earlier genome-wide linkage study of body mass index (BMI) showed strong signals from 7q36.3 and 8q21.13. This case-control study set to investigate 2 genomic regions which may harbor variants contributed to development of obesity.We employed targeted resequencing technology to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7q36.3 and 8q21.13 from 16 individuals with obesity. These were compared with 504 East Asians in the 1000 Genomes Project as a reference panel. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) block analysis was performed for the significant SNPs located near the same gene...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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