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obesity and genetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777226/genetic-contribution-to-waist-to-hip-ratio-in-mexican-children-and-adolescents-based-on-12-loci-validated-in-european-adults
#1
Michelle Turcotte, Arkan Abadi, Jesus Peralta-Romero, Fernando Suarez, Hudson Reddon, Jaime Gomez-Zamudio, Ana I Burguete-Garcia, Miguel Cruz, David Meyre
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of abdominal obesity in Mexican children has risen dramatically in the past decade. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) performed predominantly in European descent adult  populations have identified multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with larger effects in women. The contribution of these SNPs to WHR in non-European children is unknown. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Mexican children and adolescents (N = 1421, 5-17 years) were recruited in Mexico City...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777057/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-gsk-3-activity-regulates-mrna-methylation-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#2
Kelsie J Faulds, Jennifer N Egelston, Laura J Sedivy, Matthew K Mitchell, Sanjana Garimella, Hanna Kozlowski, Angelo D'Alessandro, Kirk C Hansen, Jeremy L Balsbaugh, Christopher J Phiel
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) activity regulates multiple signal transduction pathways, and is also a key component of the network responsible for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Genetic deletion of Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β or inhibition of Gsk-3 activity via small molecules promotes stem cell pluripotency, yet the mechanism underlying the role for Gsk-3 in this process remains ambiguous. Another cellular process that has been shown to affect stem cell pluripotency is mRNA methylation (m6 A). Here, we describe an intersection between these components - the regulation of m6 A by Gsk-3...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775755/whole-genome-sequencing-and-bioinformatics-analysis-of-two-egyptian-genomes
#3
Mahmoud ElHefnawi, Sungwon Jeon, Youngjune Bhak, Asmaa ElFiky, Ahmed Horaiz, JeHoon Jun, Hyunho Kim, Jong Bhak
We report two Egyptian male genomes (EGP1 and EGP2) sequenced at ~ 30× sequencing depths. EGP1 had 4.7 million variants, where 198,877 were novel variants while EGP2 had 209,109 novel variants out of 4.8 million variants. The mitochondrial haplogroup of the two individuals were identified to be H7b1 and L2a1c, respectively. We also identified the Y haplogroup of EGP1 (R1b) and EGP2 (J1a2a1a2 > P58 > FGC11). EGP1 had a mutation in the NADH gene of the mitochondrial genome ND4 (m.11778 G > A) that causes Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775496/young-adult-s-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-cardiovascular-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Ronald Trejo, Wendy Cross, John Stephenson, Karen-Leigh Edward
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore young adult's knowledge and attitudes of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease morbidity is rising and mortality is declining among young adults. However, the knowledge of cardiovascular disease by young adults is not well known. DESIGN: A systematic review with meta-analysis was used. METHODS: The databases of CINHAL, Medline Complete, PsychINFO and Psycharticles were searched for all studies published before June 2016...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774533/analysis-of-type-2-diabetes-and-obesity-genetic-variants-in-mexican-pima-indians-marked-allelic-differentiation-among-amerindians-at-hla
#5
Wen-Chi Hsueh, Peter H Bennett, Julian Esparza-Romero, Rene Urquidez-Romero, Mauro E Valencia, Eric Ravussin, Robert C Williams, William C Knowler, Leslie J Baier, Leslie O Schulz, Robert L Hanson
Prevalence of diabetes and obesity in Mexican Pima Indians is low, while prevalence in US Pima Indians is high. Although lifestyle likely accounts for much of the difference, the role of genetic factors is not well explored. To examine this, we genotyped 359 single nucleotide polymorphisms, including established type 2 diabetes and obesity variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 96 random markers, in 342 Mexican Pimas. A multimarker risk score of obesity variants was associated with body mass index (BMI; β = 0...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773828/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-5-grk5-gene-are-associated-with-plasma-ldl-cholesterol-levels-in-humans
#6
Stefan Z Lutz, Mathias Falcenberg, Fausto Machicao, Andreas Peter, Martin Kächele, Elko Randrianarisoa, Angela Lehn-Stefan, Robert Wagner, Jürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Martin Heni, Axel Ullrich, Andreas Fritsche, Norbert Stefan, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Harald Staiger, Konstantinos Kantartzis
Genetically modified mice models suggest an important role for G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) in the pathophysiology of obesity and related disorders. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding GRK5 affect cardiometabolic traits in humans. We genotyped 3 common SNPs in intron 1 (rs1980030, rs10466210, rs9325562) and one SNP in intron 3 (rs10886471) of GRK5 in 2332 subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes. Total- and visceral fat mass were measured by magnetic resonance (MR) tomography and liver fat content by 1 H-MR spectroscopy...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772309/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obesity-a-review-and-model-of-current-hypotheses-explaining-their-comorbidity
#7
REVIEW
Tomasz Hanć, Samuele Cortese
Available meta-analyses point to a significant association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. The possible mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Here, we overview the studies aimed at identifying the factors contributing to the comorbidity between ADHD and obesity, including genetic factors, fetal programming, executive dysfunctions, psychosocial stress, factors directly related to energy balance, and sleep patterns alterations. The bulk of current research has focused on reduced physical activity and abnormal eating patterns as possible causes of weight gain in individuals with ADHD...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771759/finding-treatable-genetic-obesity-strategies-for-success
#8
Kristin Dayton, Jennifer Miller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic obesity is responsible for up to 7% of severe childhood obesity. Although current Pediatric Endocrine Society guidelines recommend assessment of children with early-onset morbid obesity and hyperphagia for underlying genetic disorders, a vast majority of patients are not being appropriately screened for genetic obesity syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: With advances in genetic testing, more genetic causes of obesity are being identified. Treatments are likely to be individualized, depending on the cause of the obesity, and must be targeted at addressing the underlying cause...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769702/fine-mapping-of-98-obesity-loci-in-mexican-children
#9
Hsin Yen Liu, Akram Alyass, Arkan Abadi, Jesus Peralta-Romero, Fernando Suarez, Jaime Gomez-Zamudio, Astride Audirac, Esteban J Parra, Miguel Cruz, David Meyre
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mexico has one of the highest prevalence of childhood obesity in the world. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for obesity have identified multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in populations of European, East Asian, and African descent. The contribution of these loci to obesity in Mexican children is unclear. We assessed the transferability of 98 obesity loci in Mexican children and fine-mapped the association signals. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 405 and 390 Mexican children with normal weight and obesity...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769355/role-of-obesity-in-smoking-behaviour-mendelian-randomisation-study-in-uk-biobank
#10
Robert Carreras-Torres, Mattias Johansson, Philip C Haycock, Caroline L Relton, George Davey Smith, Paul Brennan, Richard M Martin
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist circumference influence smoking status and intensity. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation study. SETTING: UK Biobank, with replication of results from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium. PARTICIPANTS: European descent participants from the UK Biobank cohort (n=372 791) and the TAG consortium (n=74 035). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of current and past smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, age of smoking initiation...
May 16, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766469/proteinuric-glomerulopathy-in-an-adolescent-with-a-distal-partial-trisomy-chromosome-1
#11
Takaya Sasaki, Masahiro Okabe, Takeshi Tosaki, Yu Honda, Masahiro Ishikawa, Nobuo Tsuboi, Takashi Yokoo
We report a case of distal partial trisomy 1 from q32.1 to 41 that have exhibited proteinuric glomerulopathy. The patient was a 17-year-old adolescent with clinical features of low birth weight, mild mental retardation and mild deafness, from the birth. He exhibited non-nephrotic range proteinuria with the mild obesity since the age of sixteen. Image studies did not reveal morphological abnormalities of the kidneys. Renal biopsy findings showed no definitive evidence of primary glomerular diseases, and were characterized by a very low glomerular density, glomerulomegaly and focal effacement of podocyte foot processes...
May 16, 2018: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765988/genetic-variability-of-the-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-peptide-gene-is-involved-in-the-premature-coronary-artery-disease-in-a-chinese-population-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Xiaowei Ma, Jia Huang, Difei Lu, Nan Gu, Ran Lu, Jianwei Zhang, Hong Zhang, Jianping Li, Junqing Zhang, Xiaohui Guo
Background: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is closely related to diabetes and obesity, both of which are confirmed to increase the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Our study aimed to investigate whether the polymorphisms in GIP genes could affect the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients in the Chinese Han population. Methods: We selected and genotyped two haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) (rs2291725 C>T, rs8078510 G>A) of GIP gene based on CHB data in HapMap Phase II database ( r 2 < 0...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765047/tip60-mediated-lipin-1-acetylation-and-er-translocation-determine-triacylglycerol-synthesis-rate
#13
Terytty Yang Li, Lintao Song, Yu Sun, Jingyi Li, Cong Yi, Sin Man Lam, Dijin Xu, Linkang Zhou, Xiaotong Li, Ying Yang, Chen-Song Zhang, Changchuan Xie, Xi Huang, Guanghou Shui, Shu-Yong Lin, Karen Reue, Sheng-Cai Lin
Obesity is characterized by excessive fatty acid conversion to triacylglycerols (TAGs) in adipose tissues. However, how signaling networks sense fatty acids and connect to the stimulation of lipid synthesis remains elusive. Here, we show that homozygous knock-in mice carrying a point mutation at the Ser86 phosphorylation site of acetyltransferase Tip60 (Tip60 SA/SA ) display remarkably reduced body fat mass, and Tip60 SA/SA females fail to nurture pups to adulthood due to severely reduced milk TAGs. Mechanistically, fatty acids stimulate Tip60-dependent acetylation and endoplasmic reticulum translocation of phosphatidic acid phosphatase lipin 1 to generate diacylglycerol for TAG synthesis, which is repressed by deacetylase Sirt1...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764479/effect-of-fto-rs9939609-variant-on-insulin-resistance-in-obese-female-adolescents
#14
Kristy Iskandar, Suryono Yudha Patria, Emy Huriyati, Harry Freitag Luglio, Madarina Julia, Rina Susilowati
OBJECTIVES: FTO rs9939609 variant has been shown to be associated with insulin resistance in Caucasian children. However, studies in Asia show inconsistent findings. We investigated the association between FTO rs9939609 polymorphisms and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents in Indonesia, a genetically distinct group within Asia. RESULTS: A total of 78 obese female adolescents participated in this study. The risk allele (A) frequency of FTO rs9939609 variant in Indonesian obese female adolescence was 44...
May 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764441/case-report-identification-of-an-hnf1b-p-arg527gln-mutation-in-a-maltese-patient-with-atypical-early-onset-diabetes-and-diabetic-nephropathy
#15
Nikolai Paul Pace, Johann Craus, Alex Felice, Josanne Vassallo
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of atypical non-autoimmune forms of diabetes mellitus, such as maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) presents several challenges, in view of the extensive clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disease. In this report we describe a case of atypical non autoimmune diabetes associated with a damaging HNF1β mutation. This is distinguished by a number of uncharacteristic clinical features, including early-onset obesity, the absence of renal cysts and diabetic nephropathy...
May 15, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762199/physical-activity-modifies-genetic-susceptibility-to-obesity-in-postmenopausal-women
#16
Heather M Ochs-Balcom, Leah Preus, Jing Nie, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Linda Agyemang, Marian L Neuhouser, Lesley Tinker, Cheng Zheng, Rasa Kazlauskaite, Lihong Qi, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a gene-environment interaction study to evaluate whether the association of body mass index (BMI) associated meta genome-wide association study single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (as a genetic risk score) and BMI is modified by physical activity and age. METHODS: In 8,206 women of European ancestry from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), we used linear regression to examine main effects of the 95 SNP BMI genetic risk score (GRS) and physical activity on BMI, and evaluated whether genetic associations are modified by physical activity (two-way interaction) and age (three-way interaction)...
May 14, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761170/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate-reduced-oxidase-2-modulates-inflammatory-vigor-during-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression-in-mice
#17
Rajib Mukherjee, Maria E Moreno-Fernandez, Daniel A Giles, Monica Cappelletti, Traci E Stankiewicz, Calvin C Chan, Senad Divanovic
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a disease spectrum ranging from benign steatosis to life-threatening cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbated inflammatory responses have been implicated in NAFLD progression. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) oxidase 2 (NOX2; also known as gp91Phox ), the main catalytic subunit of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) oxidase complex, modulates ROS production, immune responsiveness, and pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic derangements...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759973/enhanced-glucose-control-following-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-does-not-require-a-%C3%AE-cell-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor
#18
Jonathan D Douros, Alfor G Lewis, Eric P Smith, JingJing Niu, Megan Capozzi, April Wittmann, Jonathan Campbell, Jenny Tong, Constance Wagner, Parinaz Mahbod, Randy Seeley, David A D'Alessio
Bariatric surgeries, including vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), resolve diabetes in 40-50% of patients. Studies examining the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have centered on the role of the insulinotropic glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in great part because of the ∼10-fold rise in its circulating levels after surgery. However, there is currently debate over the role of direct β-cell signaling by GLP-1 to mediate improved glucose tolerance following surgery. In order to assess the importance of β-cell GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) for improving glucose control after VSG, a mouse model of this procedure was developed and combined with a genetically modified mouse line allowing an inducible, β-cell specific Glp1r knockdown ( Glp1r β-cell-ko )...
May 14, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758564/monogenic-diabetes-in-overweight-and-obese-youth-diagnosed-with-type-2-diabetes-the-today-clinical-trial
#19
Jeffrey W Kleinberger, Kenneth C Copeland, Rachelle G Gandica, Morey W Haymond, Lynne L Levitsky, Barbara Linder, Alan R Shuldiner, Sherida Tollefsen, Neil H White, Toni I Pollin
PurposeMonogenic diabetes accounts for 1-2% of diabetes cases. It is often undiagnosed, which may lead to inappropriate treatment. This study was performed to estimate the prevalence of monogenic diabetes in a cohort of overweight/obese adolescents diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D).MethodsSequencing using a custom monogenic diabetes gene panel was performed on a racially/ethnically diverse cohort of 488 overweight/obese adolescents with T2D in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial...
October 12, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758481/kaempferol-alleviates-palmitic-acid-induced-lipid-stores-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-through-ampk-mtor-mediated-lipophagy
#20
Ritu Varshney, Rajat Varshney, Rutusmita Mishra, Sumeet Gupta, Debabrata Sircar, Partha Roy
Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has the beneficial effects of preserving pancreatic β-cell mass and function, but its action on β-cell lipid metabolism still remains elusive. Recently, autophagy has been reported to play a major role in lipid metabolism in various cell types, but its role in pancreatic β-cell's lipid metabolism is rarely reported. Here, we investigated the role of kaempferol-induced autophagy in inhibition of lipid stores, ER stress and β-cell dysfunction in palmitic acid-challenged RIN-5F cells and isolated pancreatic islets...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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