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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345597/pediatric-markers-of-adult-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Micah Olson, Melissa Chambers, Gabe Shaibi
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the United States . Atherosclerotic CV events do not occur until adulthood, except in the context of rare genetic disorders such as homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. However, the atherogenic process that leads to CVD begins in childhood and progresses throughout the lifespan . The degree of atherosclerosis early in life is associated with established risk factors for CVD (e.g. family history, obesity, dyslipidemia), indicating that the development and progression of atherosclerosis in childhood is driven by genetic as well as environmental factors...
January 16, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344005/biological-clocks-their-relevance-to-immune-allergic-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Roberto Paganelli, Claudia Petrarca, Mario Di Gioacchino
The 2017 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for the discoveries made in the past 15 years on the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating many physiological functions, has renewed the attention to the importance of circadian rhythms. These originate from a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, photoentrained via direct connection with melanopsin containing, intrinsically light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells, and it projects to periphery, thus creating an inner circadian rhythm...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343214/establishing-a-genetic-link-between-fto-and-vdr-gene-polymorphisms-and-obesity-in-the-emirati-population
#3
Saad Mahmud Khan, Sarah El Hajj Chehadeh, Mehera Abdulrahman, Wael Osman, Habiba Al Safar
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a metabolic disease that is widely prevalent with approximately 600 million people classified as obese worldwide. Its etiology is multifactorial and involves a complex interplay between genes and the environment. Over the past few decades, obesity rates among the Emirati population have been increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely FTO (rs9939609) and VDR (rs1544410), with obesity in the UAE population...
January 17, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341867/genetic-and-microbiome-influence-on-lipid-metabolism-and-dyslipidemia
#4
Maria Matey Hernandez, Frances Mk Mk Williams, Tilly Potter, Ana M Valdes, Tim Spector, Cristina Menni
Disruption in the metabolism of lipids is broadly classified under dyslipidemias and relate to the concentration of lipids in the blood. Dyslipidemia is a predictor of cardio-metabolic disease including obesity. Traditionally, the large inter-individual variation has been related to genetic factors and diet. Genome-wide association studies have identified over 150 loci related to abnormal lipid levels, explaining approximately 40% of the total variation. Part of the unexplained variance has been attributed to environmental factors including diet, but the extent of the dietary contribution remains unquantified...
December 20, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341865/evidence-of-genetic-predisposition-for-metabolically-healthy-obesity-and-metabolically-obese-normal-weight
#5
Lam Opal Huang, Ruth Loos, Tuomas Oskari Kilpeläinen
Obesity has evolved into a global pandemic, which constitutes a major threat to public health. The majority of obesity-related health care costs are due to cardiometabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which are risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, many obese individuals, often called metabolically healthy obese (MHO), seem to be protected from these cardiometabolic complications. Conversely, there is a group of individuals who suffer from cardiometabolic complications despite being of normal weight; a condition termed metabolically obese normal weight (MONW)...
December 20, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341863/distinct-gene-signatures-predict-insulin-resistance-in-young-mice-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#6
Katherine Chen, Alice Jih, Olivia Osborn, Sarah T Kavaler, Wenxian Fu, Roman Sasik, Rintaro Saito, Jane J Kim
Highly inbred C57BL/6 mice show wide variation in their degree of insulin resistance in response to diet-induced obesity even though they are almost genetically identical. Here we employed transcriptional profiling by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver in young mice to determine how gene expression patterns correlate with the later development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in adulthood. To accomplish this goal, we partially removed and banked tissues from pubertal mice...
January 8, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341862/identification-of-three-genetic-variants-as-novel-susceptibility-loci-for-body-mass-index-in-a-japanese-population
#7
Yoshiki Yasukochi, Jun Sakuma, Ichiro Takeuchi, Kimihiko Kato, Mitsutoshi Oguri, Tetsuo Fujimaki, Hideki Horibe, Yoshiji Yamada
Recent genome-wide association studies have identified various obesity or metabolic syndrome (MetS) susceptibility loci. However, most studies were conducted in a cross-sectional manner. To address this gap, we performed a longitudinal exome-wide association study to identify susceptibility loci for obesity and MetS in a Japanese population. We traced clinical data of 6022 Japanese who had annual health check-ups for several years (mean follow-up period, 5 years), and genotyped ~244,000 genetic variants. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with body mass index (BMI) or the prevalence of obesity and MetS was examined using a generalized estimating equation model...
January 12, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340849/risk-factors-associated-with-feline-urolithiasis
#8
REVIEW
Veridiane da Rosa Gomes, Paula Costa Ariza, Naida Cristina Borges, Francisco Jorge Schulz, Maria Clorinda Soares Fioravanti
Urinary tract diseases are among the main reasons for consultation in veterinary clinics and hospitals. It affects animals of any age, breed and gender. Among the diseases that affect this system, urolithiasis is the second largest cause of clinical signs compatible with feline urinary tract disease. The term urolithiasis refers to the presence of uroliths in any region of the urinary tract, but it is more commonly seen in the bladder and urethra. Uroliths are classified based on the type of mineral present in their composition, therefore, quantitative and qualitative analyzes are important for a better therapeutic approach...
January 16, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340030/increased-efficacy-of-metformin-corresponds-to-differential-metabolic-effects-in-the-ovarian-tumors-from-obese-versus-lean-mice
#9
Jianjun Han, Weiya Z Wysham, Yan Zhong, Hui Guo, Lu Zhang, Kim M Malloy, Hallum K Dickens, Gene Huh, Douglas Lee, Liza Makowski, Chunxiao Zhou, Victoria L Bae-Jump
Obesity is a significant risk factor for ovarian cancer (OC) and associated with worse outcomes for this disease. We assessed the anti-tumorigenic effects of metformin in human OC cell lines and a genetically engineered mouse model of high grade serous OC under obese and lean conditions. Metformin potently inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner in all four human OC cell lines through AMPK/mTOR pathways. Treatment with metformin resulted in G1 arrest, induction of apoptosis, reduction of invasion and decreased hTERT expression...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339975/genetic-polymorphisms-of-antioxidant-enzymes-cat-and-sod-affect-the-outcome-of-clinical-biochemical-and-anthropometric-variables-in-people-with-obesity-under-a-dietary-intervention
#10
César Hernández-Guerrero, Alicia Parra-Carriedo, Diana Ruiz-de-Santiago, Oscar Galicia-Castillo, Mario Buenrostro-Jáuregui, Carmen Díaz-Gutiérrez
Background: Genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT, GPX, and SOD are involved in the etiology of obesity and its principal comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of aforementioned SNPs over the output of several variables in people with obesity after a nutritional intervention. The study included 92 Mexican women, which received a dietary intervention by 3 months. Participants were genotyped and stratified into two groups: (1) carriers; mutated homozygous plus heterozygous (CR) and (2) homozygous wild type (WT)...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338921/faster-progression-from-mci-to-probable-ad-for-carriers-of-a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-associated-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
Hugo Girard, Olivier Potvin, Scott Nugent, Caroline Dallaire-Théroux, Stephen Cunnane, Simon Duchesne
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), as opposed to its autosomal dominant form, is likely caused by a complex interaction of genetic, environmental, and health lifestyle factors. Twin studies indicate that sporadic AD heritability could be between 58% and 79%, around half of which is explained by the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE4). We hypothesized that genes associated with known risk factors for AD, namely hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, would contribute significantly to the remaining heritability...
December 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338565/associations-of-the-lipid-genetic-variants-thr54-fabp2-and-493t-mttp-with-total-cholesterol-and-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-levels-in-mexican-subjects
#12
Karina Gonzalez-Becerra, Omar Ramos-Lopez, Mary Lolis Garcia-Cazarin, Elisa Barron-Cabrera, Arturo Panduro, Erika Martinez-Lopez
Objective Mexico has one of the world's highest rates of obesity, which is influenced by lipid-genetic and lifestyle factors. This study aimed to determine whether FABP2 (Ala54Thr) and MTTP (-493 G/T) genetic polymorphisms are associated with metabolic disorders in Mexican subjects. Methods A total of 523 subjects participated in a cross-sectional study. Genotyping for FABP2 and MTTP was performed using real-time RT-PCR. Biochemical and anthropometric data were evaluated. Results The genetically at-risk group (Thr54/-493T) was associated with significantly higher total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (difference between genetically at-risk group and wild-type group: 10...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334686/fat-mass-and-obesity-related-gene-variants-rs9939609-and-rs7185735-are-associated-with-second-generation-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#13
Charlotte Schröder, Fabian Czerwensky, Stefan Leucht, Werner Steimer
INTRODUCTION: Weight gain is a limiting and frequent adverse effect of second-generation antipsychotic therapy. Identifying genetic risk factors would significantly improve pharmacotherapy. METHODS: We focused on rs7185735 and rs9939609, 2 common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene reported to be associated with obesity. Three-hundred fifty Caucasian inpatients were included in a naturalistic study. RESULTS: After 4 weeks of treatment, we did not observe any significant association of polymorphisms with weight change in the whole study population (p>0...
January 15, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332861/epicardial-fat-thickness-and-bone-mineral-content-the-healthy-twin-study-in-korea
#14
Dong-Won Lee, Min Soo Cho, Eun Yeong Choe, Seung Woo Park, Yun-Mi Song, Sang-Chol Lee, Joohon Sung
BACKGROUND: The conventional concept of positive association between general obesity and bone health was challenged in recent studies reporting the different effects of specific fat deposition on bone health. In the present study, we investigated the association between epicardial fat and bone health. METHODS: We measured echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and bone mineral content (BMC) in a twin-family cohort of Koreans (n = 1,198; 525 men, 460 pre- and 213 post-menopausal women)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331600/a-real-world-study-on-the-genetic-cognitive-and-psychopathological-differences-of-obese-patients-clustered-according-to-eating-behaviours
#15
Mariarita Caroleo, Amedeo Primerano, Marianna Rania, Matteo Aloi, Valentina Pugliese, Fabio Magliocco, Gilda Fazia, Andrea Filippo, Flora Sinopoli, Marco Ricchio, Franco Arturi, Susana Jimenez-Murcia, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Pasquale De Fazio, Cristina Segura-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Considering that specific genetic profiles, psychopathological conditions and neurobiological systems underlie human behaviours, the phenotypic differentiation of obese patients according to eating behaviours should be investigated. The aim of this study was to classify obese patients according to their eating behaviours and to compare these clusters in regard to psychopathology, personality traits, neurocognitive patterns and genetic profiles. METHODS: A total of 201 obese outpatients seeking weight reduction treatment underwent a dietetic visit, psychological and psychiatric assessment and genotyping for SCL6A2 polymorphisms...
December 14, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#16
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327328/genetic-analysis-of-very-obese-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Herman D Cortes, Rachel Wevrick
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by the triad of deficits in social interactions, deficits in communication, and repetitive behaviors. Common co-morbidities in syndromic forms of ASD include intellectual disability, seizures, and obesity. We asked whether very obese children with ASD had different behavioral, physical and genetic characteristics compared to children with ASD who were not obese. We found that very obese children with ASD had significantly poorer scores on standardized behavioral tests...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325734/fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-gene-rs9939609-polymorphism-is-a-potential-biomarker-of-recurrent-venous-thromboembolism-in-male-but-not-in-female-patients
#18
Abrar Ahmad, Ashfaque A Memon, Jan Sundquist, Peter J Svensson, Bengt Zöller, Kristina Sundquist
Multiple genetic variations have been identified in FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) gene. Among them, FTO rs9939609 polymorphism is shown to be associated with the risk of primary venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, its role in recurrent VTE is not known. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and the risk of VTE recurrence in a prospective follow-up study in both male and female patients. FTO rs9939609 polymorphism (T/A) was analyzed in the Malmö thrombophilia study (MATS, followed for ~10 years) by using TaqMan PCR...
January 8, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321841/reversed-gender-ratio-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-smith-magenis-syndrome
#19
Heidi Elisabeth Nag, Ann Nordgren, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Terje Nærland
Background: A substantial amount of research shows a higher rate of autistic type of problems in males compared to females. The 4:1 male to female ratio is one of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Lately, the interest in studying ASD in genetic disorders has increased, and research has shown a higher prevalence of ASD in some genetic disorders than in the general population.Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare and complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321156/improving-adherence-to-healthy-dietary-patterns-genetic-risk-and-long-term-weight-gain-gene-diet-interaction-analysis-in-two-prospective-cohort-studies
#20
Tiange Wang, Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Tao Huang, Wenjie Ma, Eric B Rimm, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu, Walter C Willett, Lu Qi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether improving adherence to healthy dietary patterns interacts with the genetic predisposition to obesity in relation to long term changes in body mass index and body weight. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Health professionals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 8828 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 5218 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. EXPOSURE: Genetic predisposition score was calculated on the basis of 77 variants associated with body mass index...
January 10, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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