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Carlo Cattaneo, Jaime Kulisevsky, Viviana Tubazio, Paola Castellani
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain is an important yet overlooked non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), caused by an imbalance of the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. Safinamide has a multimodal mechanism of action, dopaminergic (reversible MAO-B inhibition) and non-dopaminergic (modulation of the abnormal glutamate release), that might be beneficial for both motor and non-motor symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the long-term (2-year) efficacy of safinamide on PD chronic pain and to confirm the positive effects observed after 6 months of treatment...
March 14, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Maryam Nabavi Nouri, Anne-Marie Lamhonwah, Ingrid Tein
We present a 16-year-old girl with a unique clinical phenotype characterized by rapidly progressive exercise intolerance, transient exertional weakness, and progressive muscle cramps involving all limbs and bulbar muscles, following a first myoglobinuric episode at age 15 years, arising from homozygosity for a novel missense mutation (c.281G>C) in PYGM .
March 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Diana A Olszewska, Terri McVeigh, Emer M Fallon, Gregory M Pastores, Tim Lynch
Genetics is the backbone of Neurology, where a number of disorders have a genetic aetiology and are complex, requiring a dedicated Neurogenetics clinic. Genetics in the Republic of Ireland is under-resourced, with the lowest number of consultants per million of population in Europe. In November 2014, we established the monthly adult Neurogenetics clinic in Ireland, staffed by 2 consultants and 2 registrars from each speciality. We see patients with complex rare neurological conditions that may potentially have an underlying genetic basis, in the presence or absence of a family history...
March 9, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Ayumi Imbe, Keiji Tanimoto, Yuiko Inaba, Satoshi Sakai, Kanako Shishikura, Hisashi Imbe, Yoshimi Tanimoto, Jungo Terasaki, Akihisa Imagawa, Toshiaki Hanafusa
Diabetic patients often suffer from muscle cramps. This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QOL) of diabetic patients with and without muscle cramps and to investigate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation in diabetic patients with muscle cramps. A total of 91 patients with diabetes were enrolled in this study: 69 patients with muscle cramps and 22 patients without muscle cramps. Muscle cramps and QOL were evaluated using the muscle cramp questionnaire and the Short Form 36 health survey version 2 (SF-36), respectively...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine Journal
Naveen Gupta, Roland Liu, Stephanie Shin, Ranjeet Sinha, Joseph Pogliano, Kit Pogliano, John H Griffin, Victor Nizet, Ross Corriden
Objectives: The role of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in the pathogenesis of pneumonia and sepsis is ambiguous given the existing literature. As PAR1 is classically activated by the coagulation-based protease thrombin and leads to vascular leakage, our hypothesis was that PAR1 blockade with SCH79797 would be therapeutically beneficial in an experimental model of murine Gram-negative pneumonia. Methods: In this study, we administered SCH79797 via the intrapulmonary route 6 h after the establishment of Escherichia coli pneumonia and observed a significant improvement in survival, lung injury, bacterial clearance and inflammation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Björn Oskarsson, Dan Moore, Tahseen Mozaffar, John Ravits, Martina Wiedau-Pazos, Nicholas Parziale, Nanette C Joyce, Ross Mandeville, Namita Goyal, Merit E Cudkowicz, Michael Weiss, Robert G Miller, Craig M McDonald
INTRODUCTION: More than 90% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients have muscle cramps, and evidence-based treatments have not been available. METHODS: A multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of mexiletine 150 mg twice daily was conducted of ALS patients requesting treatment of symptomatic muscle cramps. RESULTS: Muscle cramp frequency was reduced in 18 of 20 patients; 13 reductions were attributed to treatment (P<...
March 6, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Maria Cristina Angelici, Chiara Nardis, Riccardo Scarpelli, Paola Ade
In the reported case, a 41-year-old Italian man came to the clinician's observation reporting cramps, bloating and watery diarrhoea a few days after drinking water indicated as unpotable from a fountain in a farm area. The medical suspicion was directed at both gluten intolerance and enteric infection, eventually of waterborne origin. Gluten intolerance was investigated by intestinal biopsy and excluded, while stool analyses ruled out infective bacteriological or viral agents and parasites. Subsequently, a persistent eosinophilia was revealed and a parasitological analysis was again suggested, planning for a more sensitive molecular method...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
Qingjuan Shang, Qiankun Geng, Xuebing Zhang, Hongfang Xu, Chunbao Guo
This study was conducted to assess the clinical advantages of early enteral nutrition (EEN) in pediatric patients who underwent surgery with gastrointestinal (GI) anastomosis.EEN has been associated with clinical benefits in various aspect of surgical intervention, including GI function recovery and postoperative complications reduction. Evaluable data documenting clinical advantages with EEN for pediatric patients after surgery with GI anastomosis are limited.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 575 pediatric patients undergoing surgical intervention with GI anastomosis...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nicholas C Wu, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Sloughing maintains the skins integrity and critical functionality in amphibians. Given the behavioural, morphological and osmoregulatory changes that accompany sloughing, this process is likely to be physiologically costly. Chytridiomycosis, a cutaneous disease of amphibians caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), disrupts skin function and increases sloughing rates. Moreover, mortality rates from chytridiomycosis are significantly higher in juveniles and so we hypothesised that smaller individuals maybe more susceptible to chytridiomycosis because of allometric scaling effects on the energetic and osmoregulatory costs of sloughing...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael B Fawale, Isiaka A Ismaila, Abubakar A Kullima, Morenikeji A Komolafe, Omotade A Ijarotimi, Samuel Anu Olowookere, Rotimi Oluyombo, Tewogbade Adeoye Adedeji
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of RLS in pregnancy is higher when compared with the general population however it remains unknown among indigenous black Africans. Available data indicate that RLS is uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa. We embarked on this study to determine the prevalence and characteristics of RLS in an antenatal clinic sample of Nigerian pregnant women compared with a primary care sample of non-pregnant women. METHODS: A total of 310 pregnant women and non-pregnant women filled out a questionnaire which incorporated the 2014 minimal criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group...
March 2018: Sleep Medicine
Addison Williams Andrews, Richard Pine
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nocturnal lower limb cramps are sudden, intensely painful, and can decrease sleep, increase anxiety, and reduce quality of life. The purpose of this case report is to describe the effectiveness of an evidence-based physical therapy intervention for a person with lower limb cramps. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 34-year-old female who presented with idiopathic bilateral lower limb foot pain and cramps. INTERVENTION: Rehabilitation addressed muscle strength, joint mobility, soft tissue extensibility, and biomechanical influences during functional movement, for a total of seven sessions over seven weeks...
February 26, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Kamonwan Tangvoraphonkchai, Andrew Davenport
The choice of the ideal dialysate sodium concentration remains controversial. Most dialysis centers have a standard dialysate concentration. In theory, choosing a dialysate sodium concentration lower than serum sodium should result in an additional loss of sodium by diffusion with a reduction in the prevalence of hypertension and interdialytic weight gains (IDWGs) on one hand, but with potential increased risk of intradialytic hypotension and cramps on the other hand, and the opposite effects may accompany the choice of dialysate sodium concentrations greater than serum concentration...
February 26, 2018: Hemodialysis International
Graham R Foster, Kosh Agarwal, Matthew E Cramp, Sulleman Moreea, Stephen Barclay, Jane Collier, Ashley S Brown, Stephen D Ryder, Andrew Ustianowski, Daniel M Forton, Ray Fox, Fiona Gordon, William M Rosenberg, David J Mutimer, Jiejun Du, Christopher L Gilbert, Ernest Asante-Appiah, Janice Wahl, Michael N Robertson, Eliav Barr, Barbara Haber
Many direct-acting antiviral regimens have reduced activity in people with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)3 infection and cirrhosis. The C-ISLE study assessed the efficacy and safety of elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) plus sofosbuvir (SOF) with and without ribavirin (RBV) in compensated cirrhotic participants with GT3 infection. This was a phase 2, randomized, open-label study. Treatment-naive participants received EBR/GZR + SOF + RBV for 8 weeks or EBR/GZR + SOF for 12 weeks and peginterferon/RBV treatment-experienced participants received EBR/GZR + SOF ± RBV for 12 weeks or EBR/GZR + SOF for 16 weeks...
February 23, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Amanda K L Kwong, Tara L Fitzgerald, Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Alicia J Spittle
AIM: To systematically review the predictive validity of spontaneous early infant movements for later cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: Cohort studies with published data to calculate predictive validity of early spontaneous movements for later CP were searched in four electronic databases: CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. RESULTS: Forty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. The Prechtl General Movements Assessment (GMA) during the fidgety period (10-20wks corrected age) had the strongest sensitivity: 97 per cent (95% confidence interval [CI] 93-99) and specificity: 89% (95% CI 83-93)...
February 22, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Rattan L Mittal
AIM/PURPOSE: Extreme congenital club foot deformities are common in developing countries, presenting at birth, persisting in children, adolescents and adults; as untreated/under-corrected by conservative and/or surgical means. Scores of confusing names exist in literature for such deformities with no good treatment available; mostly advocating unacceptable arthrodesis. The author researched this grey area for more than 40 years and successfully innovated improved surgical corrections, more acceptable to patients...
February 17, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Sarah J MacEachern, Catherine M Keenan, Evangelia Papakonstantinou, Keith A Sharkey, Bhavik Anil Patel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by pain, bleeding, cramping and altered gastrointestinal (GI) function. Changes in mucosal serotonin (5-HT) signalling occur in animal models of colitis and in humans suffering from IBD. Melatonin is co-released with 5-HT from the mucosa and has a wide variety of actions in the GI tract. Here we examined how melatonin signalling is affected by colitis and determined how this relates to 5-HT signalling. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using electroanalytical approaches, we investigated how 5-HT release, reuptake and availability as well as melatonin availability are altered in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Teizo Yoshimura, Mairi H McLean, Amiran K Dzutsev, Xiaohong Yao, Keqiang Chen, Jiaqiang Huang, Wanghua Gong, Jiamin Zhou, Yi Xiang, Jonathan H Badger, Colm O'hUigin, Vishal Thovarai, Lino Tessarollo, Scott K Durum, Giorgio Trinchieri, Xiu-Wu Bian, Ji Ming Wang
Commensal bacteria are critical for physiological functions in the gut, and dysbiosis in the gut may cause diseases. In this article, we report that mice deficient in cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) were defective in the development of colon mucosa and highly sensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-elicited colitis, as well as azoxymethane-mediated carcinogenesis. Pretreatment of CRAMP-/-mice with antibiotics markedly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, suggesting CRAMP as a limiting factor on dysbiosis in the colon...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Fabiana Y Nakano, Daniela A Yela, Joao P L Pinto, Talita Riegas, Cristina L Benetti-Pinto, Adriana Orcesi Pedro, Lucia Helena Costa Paiva
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pain and determine the efficacy of misoprostol, compared with placebo, for postmenopausal women before diagnostic hysteroscopy. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial included 158 postmenopausal women who received either 200 μg of misoprostol or placebo through the vaginal route before diagnostic hysteroscopy (79 women/group). The primary outcome was pain assessment (presence and intensity) during the four steps of hysteroscopy: cervical grasping with a Pozzi tenaculum forceps immediately before hysteroscopy, during hysteroscopy, during performance of the endometrial biopsy, and postprocedure...
February 12, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Alejandra Vilanova-Sanchez, Alessandra C Gasior, Nicole Toocheck, Laura Weaver, Richard J Wood, Carlos A Reck, Andrea Wagner, Erin Hoover, Renae Gagnon, Jordon Jaggers, Tassiana Maloof, Onnalisa Nash, Charae Williams, Marc A Levitt
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Senna is a stimulant laxative commonly used by pediatricians, pediatric gastroenterologists, and pediatric surgeons. Many clinicians avoid Senna for reasons such as tolerance or side effects but this has little scientific justification. We recently found several patients we were caring for developed perineal blistering during the course of Senna treatment. Because of this we chose to review the literature to identify side effects in children taking this medication as well as to analyze our Center's experience with Senna's secondary effects...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Seyma Fadiloglu, B Dilbaz, E Fadiloglu, S Dilbaz
OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine device (IUD) is a widely used long-acting contraceptive method; however, the side-effects related to IUD may lead to method discontinuation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relation between the most common side-effects of IUD use; mainly dysmenorrhea, menorrhaghia, pelvic cramping and the relation of these complications with the position of the IUD device within the cavity and uterine dimensions evaluated by transvaginal ultrasonography. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Two hundred and eighty-four patients who had Cu-T380A IUD insertion at the Family Planning Clinic of a tertiary health center were evaluated at insertion and 6 and 12 weeks after the insertion...
February 10, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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