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Cyclo-oxygenase 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442060/kinetic-effect-of-oestrogen-on-secretion-of-prostaglandins-e2-and-f2%C3%AE-in-bovine-oviduct-epithelial-cells
#1
Zhiheng Dong, Nan Zhang, Wei Mao, Bo Liu, Na Huang, Peifeng Li, Changyou Li, Jinshan Cao
This study aimed to investigate the effect of oestrogen on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) secretion in bovine oviduct epithelial cells. Bovine oviduct epithelial cells were obtained from the lumen of fresh bovine oviducts. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and in-cell western assays were used to measure PGE2 and PGF2α synthase activity and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect the concentrations of the two prostaglandins in extracellular fluid. We observed that oestradiol caused a short-term increase in cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), which stimulated PGE2 and PGF2α secretion, and that a subsequent decrease in COX-2 and an increase in cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) produced a high PGE2:PGF2α ratio...
March 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430970/helicobacter-pylori-outer-membrane-vesicles-inhibit-human-t-cell-responses-via-induction-of-monocyte-cox-2-expression
#2
Barry D Hock, Judith L McKenzie, Jacqueline I Keenan
The modulation of T cell responses by Helicobacter pylori is thought to potentiate both H. pylori persistence and development of gastric pathologies including cancer. Release of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) by H. pylori provides a potential vehicle for modulation of the immune system. Although OMV are thought to have T cell suppressive activity this has not yet been demonstrated. Their suppressive activity was investigated in this study using the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to T cell stimuli as a readout...
April 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358376/rela-p65-inhibition-prevents-tendon-adhesion-by-modulating-inflammation-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis
#3
Shuai Chen, Shichao Jiang, Wei Zheng, Bing Tu, Shen Liu, Hongjiang Ruan, Cunyi Fan
Peritendinous tissue fibrosis which leads to poor tendon function is a worldwide clinical problem; however, its mechanism remains unclear. Transcription factor RelA/p65, an important subunit in the NF-κB complex, is known to have a critical role in many fibrotic diseases. Here, we show that RelA/p65 functions as a core fibrogenic regulator in tendon adhesion and that its inhibition exerts an anti-fibrogenic effect on peritendinous adhesion. We detected the upregulation of the NF-κB pathway in human tendon adhesion using a gene chip microarray assay and revealed the overexpression of p65 and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins Collagen I, Collagen III, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in human fibrotic tissues by immunohistochemistry and western blotting...
March 30, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358282/efficacy-of-a-film-forming-medical-device-containing-sunscreen-50-and-piroxicam-0-8-in-actinic-keratosis-and-field-cancerization-a-multicenter-assessor-blinded-3-month-trial
#4
Mario Puviani, Chiara Galloni, Silvia Marchetti, Paolo Sergio Pavone, Silvia Lovati, Giuseppe Pistone, Valentina Caputo, Giovanna Tilotta, Giuseppe Scarcella, Elena Campione, Laura Diluvio, Virginia Garofalo, Luca Bianchi, Massimo Milani
INTRODUCTION: Sunscreen protection in subjects with actinic keratosis (AK) is highly recommended to prevent clinical evolution of this in situ skin cancer condition. Use of topical anti-cyclooxygenase drugs such as diclofenac and piroxicam reduces the number of lesions and improves the cancerization field. A film-forming medical device in a cream formulation containing organic and inorganic sun-filters (50+ SPF) and piroxicam 0.8% (ACTX) has shown in a pilot, single-center, open trial to reduce AK lesions improving the cancerization field...
April 20, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345582/enhancing-titres-of-therapeutic-viral-vectors-using-the-transgene-repression-in-vector-production-trip-system
#5
H E Maunder, J Wright, B R Kolli, C R Vieira, T T Mkandawire, S Tatoris, V Kennedy, S Iqball, G Devarajan, S Ellis, Y Lad, N G Clarkson, K A Mitrophanous, D C Farley
A key challenge in the field of therapeutic viral vector/vaccine manufacturing is maximizing production. For most vector platforms, the 'benchmark' vector titres are achieved with inert reporter genes. However, expression of therapeutic transgenes can often adversely affect vector titres due to biological effects on cell metabolism and/or on the vector virion itself. Here, we exemplify the novel 'Transgene Repression In vector Production' (TRiP) system for the production of both RNA- and DNA-based viral vectors...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274156/folic-acid-ameliorates-celecoxib-cardiotoxicity-in-a-doxorubicin-heart-failure-rat-model
#6
Shafique Ahmad, Bibhu Prasad Panda, Kanchan Kohli, Mohammad Fahim, Kiran Dubey
CONTEXT: The cardiotoxic effect of selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors is well known. While rofecoxib and valdecoxib have been withdrawn, celecoxib remains on the market. Folic acid, a naturally occurring vitamin, has been shown to reduce myocardial ischemia and post-reperfusion injury in rats. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the cardiac effects of celecoxib and folic acid on doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiomyopathy was induced in male Wistar rats with six intraperitoneal injections of 2...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255339/use-of-febuxostat-in-the-management-of-gout-in-the-united-kingdom
#7
REVIEW
Arabella Waller, Kelsey M Jordan
Gout is the most common cause of inflammatory arthritis worldwide. Despite clinical cure being achievable and multiple evidence-based guidelines having been published, the incidence and prevalence continues to increase and the condition remains undertreated. Concerns regarding allopurinol have limited its use in those with renal impairment. Febuxostat, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor requiring no dose adjustment in mild-moderate renal impairment was launched in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2010. We review published data on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of febuxostat and provide an opinion on its place in the management of gout in the UK in the context of other published guidelines...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193316/polydatin-improves-the-developmental-competence-of-bovine-embryos-in-vitro-via-induction-of-sirtuin-1-sirt1
#8
Imran Khan, Sung Woo Kim, Kyung-Lim Lee, Seok-Hwan Song, Ayman Mesalam, M M R Chowdhury, Zia Uddin, Ki Hun Park, Il-Keun Kong
The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effect of polydatin (PD), the glycoside form of resveratrol, on embryo development in vitro. Oocytes were aspirated from ovaries of Korean Hanwoo cows and cultured until Day 8 in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air at 38.5°C. Protein and gene expression levels were determined through confocal microscopy and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction respectively, whereas the number of total and apoptotic cells in Day 8 blastocysts was determined using Hoechst 33342 staining and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling...
February 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108057/bani-polymorphism-of-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2-gene-and-somatic-symptoms-in-medication-free-acute-depressed-patients
#9
Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Ta-Wei Guu, Yi-Chih Chen, Piotr Gałecki, Anna Walczewska, Kuan-Pin Su
Somatic symptoms are commonly seen in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and might be associated with inflammatory activation. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) are the key enzymes in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which in turn may play an important role in inflammation and somatic symptoms in depression. This study investigated the effects of BanI polymorphism of cPLA2 gene and COX-2 rs4648308 genotypes on somatic symptoms and inflammatory marker in patients with MDD...
January 4, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025954/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-an-oxylipin-containing-lyophilised-biomass-from-a-microalga-in-a-murine-recurrent-colitis-model
#10
Javier Ávila-Román, Elena Talero, Azahara Rodríguez-Luna, Sofía García-Mauriño, Virginia Motilva
Diet and nutritional factors have emerged as possible interventions for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which are characterised by chronic uncontrolled inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Microalgal species are a promising source of n-3 PUFA and derived oxylipins, which are lipid mediators with a key role in the resolution of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an oxylipin-containing lyophilised biomass from Chlamydomonas debaryana on a recurrent 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mice model...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004841/the-citrus-flavonoid-naringenin-confers-protection-in-a-murine-endotoxaemia-model-through-ampk-atf3-dependent-negative-regulation-of-the-tlr4-signalling-pathway
#11
Xin Liu, Ning Wang, Shijun Fan, Xinchuan Zheng, Yongjun Yang, Yuanfeng Zhu, Yongling Lu, Qian Chen, Hong Zhou, Jiang Zheng
Excessive activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway is critical for inflammation-associated disorders, while negative regulators play key roles in restraining TLR4 from over-activation. Naringenin is a citrus flavonoid with remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, but the mechanisms underlying its inhibition of LPS/TLR4 signalling are less clear. This study investigated the molecular targets and therapeutic effects of naringenin in vitro and in vivo. In LPS-stimulated murine macrophages, naringenin suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, TLR4, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) and NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2)...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940550/cox-2-dependent-and-independent-effects-of-cox-2-inhibitors-and-nsaids-on-proatherogenic-changes-in-human-monocytes-macrophages
#12
Iryna Voloshyna, Lora J Kasselman, Steven E Carsons, Michael J Littlefield, Irving H Gomolin, Joshua De Leon, Allison B Reiss
It is the second decade of controversy regarding the cardiovascular effects of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. At this time, celecoxib is the only available COX-2-specific inhibitor for treatment of pain and inflammation. Therefore, the present study was designed primarily to determine the impact of celecoxib on cholesterol handling (uptake via scavenger receptors and efflux from the cells) and foam cell formation in human THP-1 macrophages, followed by comparison to rofecoxib and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
March 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887602/combination-of-aspirin-with-essential-fatty-acids-is-superior-to-aspirin-alone-to-prevent-or-ameliorate-sepsis-or-ards
#13
REVIEW
Undurti N Das
It has been suggested that aspirin may be of benefit in treating sepsis and ARDS in view of its ability to block cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 activities; inhibit nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB); enhance the production of endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). Our previous studies revealed that plasma phospholipid content of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is low in patients with sepsis. This implies that beneficial actions of aspirin in sepsis and ARDS is unlikely to be obtained in view of deficiency of AA and EPA, the precursors of LXA4 and resolvins respectively that are potent anti-inflammatory compounds and enhancers of eNO generation...
November 25, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862498/all-trans-retinoic-acid-preconditioning-enhances-proliferation-angiogenesis-and-migration-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-in-vitro-and-enhances-wound-repair-in-vivo
#14
M Pourjafar, M Saidijam, K Mansouri, H Ghasemibasir, F Karimi Dermani, R Najafi
OBJECTIVES: Stem cell therapy is considered to be a suitable alternative in treatment of a number of diseases. However, there are challenges in their clinical application in cell therapy, such as to reduce survival and loss of transplanted stem cells. It seems that chemical and pharmacological preconditioning enhances their therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we investigated effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on survival, angiogenesis and migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and in a wound-healing model...
February 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824861/identification-of-biomarkers-of-impaired-sensory-profiles-among-autistic-patients
#15
Afaf El-Ansary, Wail M Hassan, Hanan Qasem, Undurti N Das
BACKGROUND: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that displays significant heterogeneity. Comparison of subgroups within autism, and analyses of selected biomarkers as measure of the variation of the severity of autistic features such as cognitive dysfunction, social interaction impairment, and sensory abnormalities might help in understanding the pathophysiology of autism. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: In this study, two sets of biomarkers were selected. The first included 7, while the second included 6 biomarkers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799384/severe-asthma-exists-despite-suppressed-tissue-inflammation-findings-of-the-u-biopred-study
#16
Susan J Wilson, Jonathan A Ward, Ana R Sousa, Julie Corfield, Aruna T Bansal, Bertrand De Meulder, Diane Lefaudeux, Charles Auffray, Matthew J Loza, Frederic Baribaud, Neil Fitch, Peter J Sterk, Kian Fan Chung, David Gibeon, Kai Sun, Yi-Ke Guo, Ian Adcock, Ratko Djukanovic, Barbro Dahlen, Pascal Chanez, Dominick Shaw, Norbert Krug, Jens Hohlfeld, Thomas Sandström, Peter H Howarth
The U-BIOPRED study is a multicentre European study aimed at a better understanding of severe asthma. It included three steroid-treated adult asthma groups (severe nonsmokers (SAn group), severe current/ex-smokers (SAs/ex group) and those with mild-moderate disease (MMA group)) and healthy controls (HC group). The aim of this cross-sectional, bronchoscopy substudy was to compare bronchial immunopathology between these groups.In 158 participants, bronchial biopsies and bronchial epithelial brushings were collected for immunopathologic and transcriptomic analysis...
November 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780710/the-effects-of-baicalein-on-gastric-mucosal-ulcerations-in-mice-protective-pathways-and-anti-secretory-mechanisms
#17
Ana Roseli S Ribeiro, José Diego do Nascimento Valença, Jeferson da Silva Santos, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Ricardo L C Albuquerque-Júnior, Sara Maria Thomazzi
Many flavonoids have been shown to present good results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Baicalein, a bioactive flavonoid derived from the Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi root, possesses several biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. This study was conducted to assess the gastroprotective properties of baicalein. Anti-ulcerogenic assay was performed using the protocol of ulcer induced by ethanol/HCl in mice; then, the role of presynaptic α2-receptors, sulfhydryl (SH) compounds, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) and ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels in gastroprotection of baicalein was investigated...
December 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779652/-retracted-epidermal-growth-factor-stimulated-human-cervical-cancer-cell-growth-is-associated-with-egfr-and-cyclin-d1-activation-independent-of-cox-2-expression-levels
#18
Rajkishen Narayanan, Hye Na Kim, Narayanan K Narayanan, Dominick Nargi, Bhagavathi Narayanan
Following the publication of this article, which was concerned with the expression of phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR) and cyclin D1 activation independently of the expression levels of cyclo-oxygenase-2, an interested reader drew to our attention apparent anomalies associated with the western blot data shown in Fig. 2C. Following an internal investigation at the New York University School of Medicine, we were requested to produce the original film, or the scan of the image of the film, for verification...
January 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719647/cardiovascular-toxicity-of-cyclooxygenase-inhibitors-and-promising-natural-substitutes
#19
Mahmoud Bahmani, Amir Sarrafchi, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Sedigheh Asgari, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a group of drugs which are used for a wide variety of diseases including pain and inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders, and other comorbid complications. However, this group of drugs have undesirable effects such as peptic ulcer, bleeding and renal failure. Some of these side effects are associated with or caused by generation of oxidative stress. Following the withdrawal of a cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor drug, rofecoxib (VIOXX®) due to cardiovascular complications, scientists suggested that natural COX-2 inhibitors might provide valuable alternatives to COX inhibitors...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622014/immunomodulation-by-myb-is-associated-with-tumor-relapse-in-patients-with-early-stage-colorectal-cancer
#20
Rosemary Millen, Jordane Malaterre, Ryan S Cross, Sandra Carpinteri, Jayesh Desai, Ben Tran, Phillip Darcy, Peter Gibbs, Oliver Sieber, Nikolajs Zeps, Paul Waring, Stephen Fox, Lloyd Pereira, Robert G Ramsay
The presence of tumor immune infiltrating cells (TILs), particularly CD8(+) T-cells, is a robust predictor of outcome in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We revisited TIL abundance specifically in patients with microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC without evidence of lymph node or metastatic spread. Examination of the density of CD8(+) T-cells in primary tumors in the context of other pro-oncogenic markers was performed to investigate potential regulators of TILs. Two independent cohorts of patients with MSS T2-4N0M0 CRC, enriched for cases with atypical relapse, were investigated...
July 2016: Oncoimmunology
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