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Cyclo-oxygenase 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314744/clinical-and-economic-implications-of-upper-gastrointestinal-adverse-events-in-asian-rheumatological-patients-on-long-term-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#1
Lydia Say Lee Pok, Fatiha Hana Shabaruddin, Maznah Dahlui, Sargunan Sockalingam, Mohd Shahrir Mohamed Said, Azmillah Rosman, Ing Soo Lau, Liza Mohd Isa, Heselynn Hussein, Chin Teck Ng, Sanjiv Mahadeva
AIM: To determine the incidence and direct costs of NSAID-induced upper GI adverse events in Malaysian rheumatology patients. METHODS: A retrospective, multi-centre, cohort study of rheumatology patients on long-term NSAIDs was conducted. Clinical data of patients treated between 2010 and 2013 were collected for a 24-month follow-up period. The costs of managing upper GI adverse events were based on patient level resource use data. RESULTS: Six hundred and thirty-four patients met the inclusion criteria: mean age 53...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259559/mechanical-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-gut-smooth-muscle-cells
#2
REVIEW
Xuan-Zheng Shi
Intraluminal contents and their movement along the gastrointestinal tract create shear stress and mechanical stretch on the gut wall. While the shear stress is important in the initiation of immediate physiological responses, the circumferential mechanical stretch, such as that in obstructive bowel disorders, exerts long-lasting impacts on bowel functions by mainly affecting the deeper muscularis externae. Recent studies demonstrate that mechanical stretch alters gene transcription in gut smooth muscle cells (SMC), and the stretch-altered gene expression (mechano-transcription) may play a critical role in pathogenesis of motility dysfunction and abdominal pain in obstruction...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248584/dexamethasone-inhibits-inflammatory-response-via-down-regulation-of-ap-1-transcription-factor-in-human-lung-epithelial-cells
#3
Rajeshwari H Patil, M Naveen Kumar, K M Kiran Kumar, Rashmi Nagesh, K Kavya, R L Babu, Govindarajan T Ramesh, S Chidananda Sharma
The production of inflammatory mediators by epithelial cells in inflammatory lung diseases may represent an important target for the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. Activator protein-1 (Khanapure et al.) is a major activator of inflammatory genes and has been proposed as a target for inhibition by glucocorticoids. We have used human pulmonary type-II A549 cells to examine the effect of dexamethasone on the phorbol ester (PMA)/Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and AP-1 factors...
December 14, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227173/changes-in-platelet-function-with-inflammation-in-patients-undergoing-vascular-surgery
#4
Bartosz Olechowski, Vikram Khanna, Mark Mariathas, Alexander Ashby, Richard T Dalton, Ian Nordon, Nicola Englyst, Scott Harris, Zoe Nicholas, Kala Thayalasamy, Michael Mahmoudi, Nick Curzen
The role of platelets in ischaemic events is well established. Aspirin represents the default antiplatelet and blocks the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) at the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme (COX). AA is commonly used as a test of response to aspirin, but recent data raise uncertainty about the validity of this approach. Specifically, in some patients AA-induced clotting is not suppressed, but the level of COX-dependent AA metabolite, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) is negligible. Furthermore, AA-induced whole blood clotting varies dynamically in individuals, who are aspirin responsive according to TXB2 levels...
December 11, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211683/understanding-the-controversial-drug-targets-in-epilepsy-and-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#5
Sree Lalitha, Ranjana W Minz, Bikash Medhi
Accumulating experimental data suggests a number of successful drug targets against epilepsy which eventually failed in the clinical setup. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, multi-drug resistance transporter inhibitors, cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, statins, etc. are the most promising and well studied among them. Drugs aiming at these targets produced beneficial response in most of the in vitro and in vivo seizure models. However, in certain situations, they have produced differential rather controversial results...
December 6, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207817/immunohistochemical-expression-of-cyclo-oxygenase-2-and-liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-in-acne-vulgaris
#6
Ola Ahmed Bakry, Shawky Mahmoud El Farargy, Noha Nour El Din El Kady, Hend Farag Abu Dawy
Introduction: Acne Vulgaris (AV) is a common inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous units. Liver X Receptor-α (LXR-α) is a ligand activated transcription factor. It controls transcription of genes involved in lipid and fatty acid synthesis. Cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) is a rate limiting enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis. It plays important role in inflammation. Aim: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of LXR-α and COX2 in acne vulgaris skin biopsies to explore their possible pathogenic role in this disease...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156815/the-effect-of-aspirin-on-circulating-netrin-1-levels-in-humans-is-dependent-on-the-inflammatory-status-of-the-vascular-endothelium
#7
Kerry Layne, Timothy Goodman, Albert Ferro, Gabriella Passacquale
In atherosclerotic animal models, the cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-inhibitor aspirin counteracts downregulation of endothelial-derived netrin-1, thus reducing arterial inflammation. We here explored the effect of aspirin on netrin-1 in healthy subjects undergoing influenza immunisation, which is an established experimental model of inflammation-related endothelial dysfunction. Our data showed that netrin-1 undergoes reduction (-29.25% from baseline; p=0.0017) in the presence of endothelial activation (VCAM-1 rose by 9...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030657/meloxicam-and-risk-of-myocardial-infarction-a-population-based-nested-case-control-study
#8
Deepan Dalal, Maureen Dubreuil, Christine Peloquin, Tuhina Neogi, Yuqing Zhang, Hyon Choi, David Felson
Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), a risk linked to cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibition. There are limited studies assessing the risk of MI associated with meloxicam, an increasingly popular drug with COX-2 inhibiting properties. A nested matched case-control study using The Health Improvement Network, a UK population-based database was conducted. NSAID users between 35 and 89 years of age with at least 1 year enrollment in the cohort were included...
December 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983247/microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-expression-in-inflammatory-conditions-is-downregulated-by-dexamethasone-seminal-role-of-the-regulatory-phosphatase-mkp-1
#9
Lauri Tuure, Mari Hämäläinen, Brendan J Whittle, Eeva Moilanen
Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is an inducible enzyme situated downstream of cyclo-oxygenase-2, promoting the excessive PGE2 production in inflammation. Dexamethasone is known to suppress mPGES-1 but the mechanisms regulating mPGES-1 expression remain poorly known. MKP-1 is a phosphatase controlling the proinflammatory MAP kinase pathways p38 and JNK, thus limiting the inflammatory responses. We have now investigated the role of MKP-1 and MAP kinases p38 and JNK in the regulation of mPGES-1 expression by dexamethasone...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916869/protodioscin-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-histology-outcome-in-complete-freund-s-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-rats
#10
Jia-Yu Liu, Ya-Ling Hou, Rong Cao, Hong Xia Qiu, Guo-Hua Cheng, Ran Tu, Li Wang, Jun-Li Zhang, Dan Liu
Protective effect of protodioscin or methyl protodioscin against inflammation had been reported in various inflammation diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of protodioscin against Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis rats. Rats randomly divided into model groups were injected with CFA, companied with different dose of protodioscin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight). The histology, changes in biochemical parameters and inflammatory cytokines expression were detected for anti-inflammation effect evaluation of protodioscin...
September 15, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882733/-risk-of-fatal-non-fatal-events-in-patients-with-previous-coronary-heart-disease-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-treatment-with-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#11
REVIEW
L Muñoz Olmo, J Juan Armas, J J Gomariz García
BACKGROUND: Primary Care is the fundamental axis of our health system and obliges us to be consistent with our prescriptions. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk and increased risk of all causes of death, as well as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with a previous myocardial infarction. Pain and cardiac patient management are 2 basic pillars in our daily activity, and we must know the limitations of NSAIDs in patients with established cardiovascular risk...
September 4, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864467/upregulation-of-epac-1-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-by-prostaglandin-e2-in-liver-fibrosis-is-associated-with-reduced-fibrogenesis
#12
Marlies Schippers, Leonie Beljaars, Eduard Post, Sophie Lotersztajn, Catharina Reker-Smit, Bing Han, Pablo Munoz-Llancao, Martina Schmidt, Klaas Poelstra
Exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac-1) is an important signaling mechanism for cAMP-mediated effects, yet factors that change Epac-1 levels are unknown. Such factors are relevant because it has been postulated that Epac-1 directly affects fibrogenesis. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a well-known cAMP activator, and we therefore studied the effects of this cyclo-oxygenase product on Epac-1 expression and on fibrogenesis within the liver. Liver fibrosis was induced by 8 weeks carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) administration to mice...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836883/review-on-sustained-relief-of-osteoarthritis-symptoms-with-a-proprietary-extract-from-pine-bark-pycnogenol
#13
Peter Jörg Rohdewald
The review summarizes the effects of the standardized proprietary bark extract of the French maritime pine (Pycnogenol(®)) in mild osteoarthritis (OA), stage 1 and 2. The extract exerts antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and chondroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. Its phenolic acids as well as catechin and taxifolin are quickly absorbed. Active metabolites, produced by gut microbiota in the intestinal tract from oligomeric procyanidins, appear in blood 6 h following ingestion and remain for at least 14 h, providing a long-lasting flow of anti-inflammatory substances for relief of OA symptoms...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752370/post-hypoxic-constriction-of-retinal-arterioles-is-impaired-during-nitric-oxide-and-cyclo-oxygenase-inhibition-and-in-diabetic-patients-without-retinopathy
#14
Line Petersen, Toke Bek
Occlusion of retinal vessels leads to retinal ischaemia and hypoxia, which induces vasodilatation in adjacent retinal areas in order to normalize retinal oxygenation. Previous studies have shown that NO and COX products are involved in hypoxia-induced dilatation of retinal arterioles in vitro and in vivo, and that this response is disturbed in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, it is unknown to what extent post-hypoxic recovery of the diameter of retinal arterioles depends on NO and COX products in normal persons and in diabetic patients...
October 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735448/inhibitory-effects-of-andrographolide-on-activated-macrophages-and-adjuvant-induced-arthritis
#15
Swati Gupta, Kamla Prasad Mishra, Shashi Bala Singh, Lilly Ganju
Andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone obtained from plant Andrographis paniculata, is used in South Asian countries to relieve various inflammatory symptoms. To study the effects of this agent, the impact of andrographolide on production of inflammatory mediators were delineated in mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMϕ). Inflammatory mediators like nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 and related molecular mechanisms of andrographolide-mediated inhibition of enzymes/transcription factors were studied...
July 22, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668885/interactive-analysis-of-tx-1123-with-cyclo-oxygenase-design-of-cox2-selective-tx-analogs
#16
Kazuto Ohkura, Yohei Tatematsu, Yuki Kawaguchi, Yoshihiro Uto, Hitoshi Hori
BACKGROUND: To date, two cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isoforms, COX1 and COX2, have been identified. In the present study, the COX-inhibitory activities of TX-1123 derivatives with the 2-hydroxyarylidene-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione structure were examined, and the binding profiles of TX-1123 to COXs were analyzed using docking simulations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: X-Ray data on COX1 [protein data bank (PDB) ID=1PGG] and COX2 (PDB ID=3LN1) were used for molecular interactive simulations...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646254/cytoprotective-effects-of-diallyl-trisulfide-against-valproate-induced-hepatotoxicity-new-anticonvulsant-strategy
#17
Ahmed A Shaaban, Dina S El-Agamy
Sodium valproate (VP) is an important antiepileptic drug, although it can produce deleterious hepatotoxic reactions. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is the principle component of garlic oil that possesses antioxidant properties. This study explored the potential hepatoprotective activity of DATS against VP-induced hepatic damage and its underlying mechanisms. In addition, the study assessed the effect of DATS on VP antiepileptic activity. Rats were given DATS once daily at two different doses along with VP for 2 weeks...
June 23, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636803/atorvastatin-attenuates-testosterone-induced-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-in-rats-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-and-cyclo-oxygenase-2
#18
Ismail O Ishola, Habeeb K Tijani, Olufunke O Dosumu, Charles C Anunobi, Tolulope O Oshodi
Diabetes and obesity have been reported to alter sex steroid hormone metabolism. In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the protective effect of atorvastatin (ATR) in combination with celecoxib (CEL) or pioglitazone (PIO) on testosterone-induced BPH in rats. Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into nine groups (n = 8) and orally treated as follows for 28 consecutive days: group 1: vehicle control (10 mL/kg); group 2: vehicle testosterone (10 mL/kg); groups 3 - 5: ATR (0.5, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg, respectively); group 6: CEL (20 mg/kg); group 7: PIO (20 mg/kg); and groups 8-9: ATR 0...
June 21, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620011/dietary-restriction-but-not-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade-improves-dna-damage-related-vasodilator-dysfunction-in-rapidly-aging-ercc1-%C3%AE-mice
#19
Haiyan Wu, Bibi S van Thiel, Paula K Bautista-Niño, Erwin Reiling, Matej Durik, Frank P J Leijten, Yanto Ridwan, Renata M C Brandt, Harry van Steeg, Martijn E T Dollé, Wilbert P Vermeij, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Jeroen Essers, Ingrid van der Pluijm, A H Jan Danser, Anton J M Roks
DNA damage is an important contributor to endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular disease. Recently, we demonstrated in a DNA repair-deficient, prematurely aging mouse model (Ercc1(Δ/-) mice) that dietary restriction (DR) strongly increases life- and health span, including ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, by preserving genomic integrity. In this mouse mutant displaying prominent accelerated, age-dependent endothelial dysfunction we investigated the signaling pathways involved in improved endothelium-mediated vasodilation by DR, and explore the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611577/the-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-lipoxygenase-and-cyclo-oxygenase-inhibitors-in-inflammation-induced-human-fetal-glia-cells-and-the-a%C3%AE-degradation-capacity-of-human-fetal-astrocytes-in-an-ex-vivo-assay
#20
Rea Pihlaja, Merja Haaparanta-Solin, Juha O Rinne
Chronic inflammation is a common phenomenon present in the background of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The arachidonic acid pathway overproduces proinflammatory eicosanoids during these states and glial cells in the brain gradually lose their vital functions of protecting and supporting neurons. In this study, the role of different key enzymes of the eicosanoid pathway mediating inflammatory responses was examined in vitro and ex vivo using human fetal glial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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