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Cyclo-oxygenase 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887602/combination-of-aspirin-with-essential-fatty-acids-is-superior-to-aspirin-alone-to-prevent-or-ameliorate-sepsis-or-ards
#1
EDITORIAL
Undurti N Das
It has been suggested that aspirin may be of benefit in treating sepsis and ARDS in view of its ability to block cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 activities; inhibit nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB); enhance the production of endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). Our previous studies revealed that plasma phospholipid content of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is low in patients with sepsis. This implies that beneficial actions of aspirin in sepsis and ARDS is unlikely to be obtained in view of deficiency of AA and EPA, the precursors of LXA4 and resolvins respectively that are potent anti-inflammatory compounds and enhancers of eNO generation...
November 25, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862498/all-trans-retinoic-acid-preconditioning-enhances-proliferation-angiogenesis-and-migration-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-in-vitro-and-enhances-wound-repair-in-vivo
#2
M Pourjafar, M Saidijam, K Mansouri, H Ghasemibasir, F Karimi Dermani, R Najafi
OBJECTIVES: Stem cell therapy is considered to be a suitable alternative in treatment of a number of diseases. However, there are challenges in their clinical application in cell therapy, such as to reduce survival and loss of transplanted stem cells. It seems that chemical and pharmacological preconditioning enhances their therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we investigated effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on survival, angiogenesis and migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and in a wound-healing model...
November 10, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824861/identification-of-biomarkers-of-impaired-sensory-profiles-among-autistic-patients
#3
Afaf El-Ansary, Wail M Hassan, Hanan Qasem, Undurti N Das
BACKGROUND: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that displays significant heterogeneity. Comparison of subgroups within autism, and analyses of selected biomarkers as measure of the variation of the severity of autistic features such as cognitive dysfunction, social interaction impairment, and sensory abnormalities might help in understanding the pathophysiology of autism. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: In this study, two sets of biomarkers were selected. The first included 7, while the second included 6 biomarkers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799384/severe-asthma-exists-despite-suppressed-tissue-inflammation-findings-of-the-u-biopred-study
#4
Susan J Wilson, Jonathan A Ward, Ana R Sousa, Julie Corfield, Aruna T Bansal, Bertrand De Meulder, Diane Lefaudeux, Charles Auffray, Matthew J Loza, Frederic Baribaud, Neil Fitch, Peter J Sterk, Kian Fan Chung, David Gibeon, Kai Sun, Yi-Ke Guo, Ian Adcock, Ratko Djukanovic, Barbro Dahlen, Pascal Chanez, Dominick Shaw, Norbert Krug, Jens Hohlfeld, Thomas Sandström, Peter H Howarth
The U-BIOPRED study is a multicentre European study aimed at a better understanding of severe asthma. It included three steroid-treated adult asthma groups (severe nonsmokers (SAn group), severe current/ex-smokers (SAs/ex group) and those with mild-moderate disease (MMA group)) and healthy controls (HC group). The aim of this cross-sectional, bronchoscopy substudy was to compare bronchial immunopathology between these groups.In 158 participants, bronchial biopsies and bronchial epithelial brushings were collected for immunopathologic and transcriptomic analysis...
November 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780710/the-effects-of-baicalein-on-gastric-mucosal-ulcerations-in-mice-protective-pathways-and-anti-secretory-mechanisms
#5
Ana Roseli S Ribeiro, José Diego do Nascimento Valença, Jeferson da Silva Santos, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Ricardo L C Albuquerque-Júnior, Sara Maria Thomazzi
Many flavonoids have been shown to present good results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Baicalein, a bioactive flavonoid derived from the Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi root, possesses several biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. This study was conducted to assess the gastroprotective properties of baicalein. Anti-ulcerogenic assay was performed using the protocol of ulcer induced by ethanol/HCl in mice; then, the role of presynaptic α2-receptors, sulfhydryl (SH) compounds, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) and ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels in gastroprotection of baicalein was investigated...
October 22, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779652/-retracted-epidermal-growth-factor-stimulated-human-cervical-cancer-cell-growth-is-associated-with-egfr-and-cyclin-d1-activation-independent-of-cox-2-expression-levels
#6
Rajkishen Narayanan, Hye Na Kim, Narayanan K Narayanan, Dominick Nargi, Bhagavathi Narayanan
Following the publication of this article, which was concerned with the expression of phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR) and cyclin D1 activation independently of the expression levels of cyclo-oxygenase-2, an interested reader drew to our attention apparent anomalies associated with the western blot data shown in Fig. 2C. Following an internal investigation at the New York University School of Medicine, we were requested to produce the original film, or the scan of the image of the film, for verification...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719647/cardiovascular-toxicity-of-cyclooxygenase-inhibitors-and-promising-natural-substitutes
#7
Mahmoud Bahmani, Amir Sarrafchi, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Sedigheh Asgari, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a group of drugs which are used for a wide variety of diseases including pain and inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders, and other comorbid complications. However, this group of drugs have undesirable effects such as peptic ulcer, bleeding and renal failure. Some of these side effects are associated with or caused by generation of oxidative stress. Following the withdrawal of a cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor drug, rofecoxib (VIOXX®) due to cardiovascular complications, scientists suggested that natural COX-2 inhibitors might provide valuable alternatives to COX inhibitors...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622014/immunomodulation-by-myb-is-associated-with-tumor-relapse-in-patients-with-early-stage-colorectal-cancer
#8
Rosemary Millen, Jordane Malaterre, Ryan S Cross, Sandra Carpinteri, Jayesh Desai, Ben Tran, Phillip Darcy, Peter Gibbs, Oliver Sieber, Nikolajs Zeps, Paul Waring, Stephen Fox, Lloyd Pereira, Robert G Ramsay
The presence of tumor immune infiltrating cells (TILs), particularly CD8(+) T-cells, is a robust predictor of outcome in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We revisited TIL abundance specifically in patients with microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC without evidence of lymph node or metastatic spread. Examination of the density of CD8(+) T-cells in primary tumors in the context of other pro-oncogenic markers was performed to investigate potential regulators of TILs. Two independent cohorts of patients with MSS T2-4N0M0 CRC, enriched for cases with atypical relapse, were investigated...
July 2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608893/correlation-of-multiple-proteins-with-clinic-pathological-features-and-its-prognostic-significance-in-colorectal-cancer-with-signet-ring-cell-component
#9
X Cai, W-X Qi, L Wang, Z Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Primary colorectal cancer (CRC) with signet-ring cell (SRC) component is a distinct tumor of colon and rectum, and its prognosis is very poor. Reliable markers to predict the poor clinical outcome of this subgroup cancer remains undetermined. Therefore, we perform this study to investigate the prognosis value of seven proteins in CRC with SRC component . PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study involved 117 patients diagnosed with CRC with SRC component between January 2008 and August 2015 at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center...
August 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605230/coxibrain-results-of-the-prospective-randomised-phase-ii-iii-study-for-the-selective-cox-2-inhibition-in-chronic-subdural-haematoma-patients
#10
A Schaumann, W Klene, Chr Rosenstengel, F Ringel, J Tüttenberg, P Vajkoczy
BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural haematomas (cSDHs) have shown an increasing incidence in an ageing population over the last 20 years, while unacceptable recurrence rates of up to 30 % persist. The recurrence rate of cSDH seems to be related to the excessive neoangiogenesis in the parietal membrane, which is mediated via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This is found to be elevated in the haematoma fluid and is dependent on eicosanoid/prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis via cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
November 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562754/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-phyllanthus-emblica-l-on-benzopyrene-induced-precancerous-lung-lesion-by-regulating-the-il-1%C3%AE-mir-101-lin28b-signaling-pathway
#11
Cheng-Cheng Wang, Jia-Rui Yuan, Chun-Fei Wang, Nan Yang, Juan Chen, Dan Liu, Jie Song, Liang Feng, Xiao-Bin Tan, Xiao-Bin Jia
BACKGROUND: Phyllanthus emblica L (PEL), a well-known medical plant, has been used in Asian countries for a long time. Increasing evidence suggests that it can prevent the tumorigenesis of cancer associated with nonresolving inflammation. However, the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism responsible for preventing tumorigenesis of precancerous lung lesions is not well elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male A/J mice were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 mice in each group: (1) blank group (saline), (2) benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] group, (3) and (4) B(a)P + PEL (5 g/kg/d, 10 g/kg/d, administered by gavage), (5) B(a)P + celecoxib (30 mg/kg/d, administered by gavage)...
August 24, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561157/beneficial-effect-of-aspirin-against-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-induced-depressive-behavior-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#12
Shailendra Bhatt, Kilambi Pundarikakshudu, Paresh Patel, Nirav Patel, Ashish Panchal, Gaurang Shah, Sunita Goswami
Accumulating data advocates that inflammatory mediators may contribute to depression in experimental models as well as in humans. Nonetheless, whether anti-inflammatory treatments can prevent depression still remains controversial. To substantiate our hypothesis, we used an interferon-α-2b model of depression using Sprague Dawley rats. Interferon-α-2b is a cytokine which activates immune response and also produces depression. The animals were treated for 21 days with aspirin (10 mg/kg, per oral (p.o.)) dexamethasone (1 mg/kg p...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530729/effect-of-pioglitazone-on-metabolic-features-in-endotoxemia-model-in-obese-diabetic-db-db-mice
#13
Manoranjan Sharma, Jogeswar Mohapatra, Umar Malik, Jignesh Nagar, Abhijit Chatterjee, Balaraman Ramachandran, Mukul R Jain
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are more frequent in diabetic patients, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Endotoxemia affects glucose metabolism and lipolytic capacity. The aims of the present study were to determine whether endotoxemia exacerbates metabolic features (adipose inflammation, adipogenesis, and insulin resistance [IR]) in an animal model of diabetes (i.e. db/db mice) after acute infection and the effects of pioglitazone. METHODS: Female db/db mice treated with pioglitazone (3 and 30 mg/kg, p...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460781/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-suppress-rsv-infection-and-alleviate-virus-induced-airway-inflammation
#14
Qiuqin Feng, Zhonglan Su, Shiyu Song, Hui Χu, Bin Zhang, Long Yi, Man Tian, Hongwei Wang
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. However, the majority of RSV-infected patients only show mild symptoms. Different severities of infection and responses among the RSV-infected population indicate that epigenetic regulation as well as personal genetic background may affect RSV infectivity. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is an important epigenetic regulator in lung diseases. The present study aimed to explore the possible connection between HDAC expression and RSV-induced lung inflammation...
September 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385366/a-mir-335-cox-2-pten-axis-regulates-the-secretory-phenotype-of-senescent-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#15
Tasnuva D Kabir, Ross J Leigh, Hataitip Tasena, Massimiliano Mellone, Ricardo D Coletta, Eric K Parkinson, Stephen S Prime, Gareth J Thomas, Ian C Paterson, Donghui Zhou, John McCall, Paul M Speight, Daniel W Lambert
Senescent cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) develop a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that is believed to contribute to cancer progression. The mechanisms underlying SASP development are, however, poorly understood. Here we examined the functional role of microRNA in the development of the SASP in normal fibroblasts and CAF. We identified a microRNA, miR-335, up-regulated in the senescent normal fibroblasts and CAF and able to modulate the secretion of SASP factors and induce cancer cell motility in co-cultures, at least in part by suppressing the expression of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)...
August 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380619/anti-ulcerogenic-effect-of-cavidine-against-ethanol-induced-acute-gastric-ulcer-in-mice-and-possible-underlying-mechanism
#16
Weifeng Li, Xiumei Wang, Hailin Zhang, Zehong He, Wenbing Zhi, Fang Liu, Yu Wang, Xiaofeng Niu
Cavidine, a major alkaloid compound isolated from Corydalis impatiens, has various pharmacological effects but its effect on gastric ulcer has not been previously explored. The current study aimed to investigate the possible anti-ulcerogenic potential of cavidine in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Mice received cavidine (1, 5 or 10mg/kg, ig), cimetidine (CMD, 100mg/kg, ig) or vehicle at 12h and 1h before absolute ethanol administration (0.5mL/100g), and animals were euthanized 3h after ethanol ingestion...
September 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324045/optimising-recovery-after-surgery-predictors-of-early-discharge-and-hospital-readmission
#17
Jonathan Carter, Shannon Philp, King M Wan
BACKGROUND: Fast track surgery (FTS) programs minimise the stress response after surgery and allow for enhanced recovery. AIMS: To document the frequency and incidence of adverse events in patients enrolled on a FTS program and to investigate factors associated with shorter length of stay and readmission to hospital. METHODS: A seven-year updated surgical audit of patients undergoing laparotomy for suspected or confirmed malignancy on a FTS program...
June 21, 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301070/cox-2-induces-breast-cancer-stem-cells-via-ep4-pi3k-akt-notch-wnt-axis
#18
Mousumi Majumder, Xiping Xin, Ling Liu, Elena Tutunea-Fatan, Mauricio Rodriguez-Torres, Krista Vincent, Lynne-Marie Postovit, David Hess, Peeyush K Lala
Cancer stem-like cells (SLC) resist conventional therapies, necessitating searches for SLC-specific targets. We established that cyclo-oxygenase(COX)-2 expression promotes human breast cancer progression by activation of the prostaglandin(PG)E-2 receptor EP4. Present study revealed that COX-2 induces SLCs by EP4-mediated NOTCH/WNT signaling. Ectopic COX-2 over-expression in MCF-7 and SKBR-3 cell lines resulted in: increased migration/invasion/proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), elevated SLCs (spheroid formation), increased ALDH activity and colocalization of COX-2 and SLC markers (ALDH1A, CD44, β-Catenin, NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX-2) in spheroids...
September 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27290646/analysis-of-obesity-related-factors-and-their-association-with-aromatase-expression-in-canine-malignant-mammary-tumours
#19
J-I Shin, H-Y Lim, H-W Kim, B-J Seung, J-H Ju, J-H Sur
This study was designed to investigate the role of obesity in canine malignant mammary tumours (CMMTs), by assessing aromatase expression and the regulatory roles of immune mediators such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and adipokines (i.e. leptin) in lean, optimal body weight, overweight and obese animals. Clinicopathological data, including the breed, body weight, body condition score and age and neutering status, were collected, together with histopathological characteristics (i...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281478/vnn1-promotes-atherosclerosis-progression-in-apoe-mice-fed-a-high-fat-high-cholesterol-diet
#20
Yan-Wei Hu, Shao-Guo Wu, Jing-Jing Zhao, Xin Ma, Jing-Bo Lu, Jian-Cheng Xiu, Yuan Zhang, Chuan Huang, Yu-Rong Qiu, Yan-Hua Sha, Ji-Juan Gao, Yan-Chao Wang, Shu-Fen Li, Jia-Yi Zhao, Lei Zheng, Qian Wang
Accumulated evidence shows that vanin-1 (VNN1) plays a key part in glucose metabolism. We explored the effect of VNN1 on cholesterol metabolism, inflammation, apoptosis in vitro, and progression of atherosclerotic plaques in apoE(-/-) mice. Oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) significantly induced VNN1 expression through an ERK1/2/cyclooxygenase-2/PPARα signaling pathway. VNN1 significantly increased cellular cholesterol content and decreased apoAI and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)-mediated efflux by 25.16% and 23.13%, respectively, in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells (P < 0...
August 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
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