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Cyclo-oxygenase 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752370/post-hypoxic-constriction-of-retinal-arterioles-is-impaired-during-nitric-oxide-and-cyclo-oxygenase-inhibition-and-in-diabetic-patients-without-retinopathy
#1
Line Petersen, Toke Bek
Occlusion of retinal vessels leads to retinal ischaemia and hypoxia, which induces vasodilatation in adjacent retinal areas in order to normalize retinal oxygenation. Previous studies have shown that NO and COX products are involved in hypoxia-induced dilatation of retinal arterioles in vitro and in vivo, and that this response is disturbed in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, it is unknown to what extent post-hypoxic recovery of the diameter of retinal arterioles depends on NO and COX products in normal persons and in diabetic patients...
July 27, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735448/inhibitory-effects-of-andrographolide-on-activated-macrophages-and-adjuvant-induced-arthritis
#2
Swati Gupta, Kamla Prasad Mishra, Shashi Bala Singh, Lilly Ganju
Andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone obtained from plant Andrographis paniculata, is used in South Asian countries to relieve various inflammatory symptoms. To study the effects of this agent, the impact of andrographolide on production of inflammatory mediators were delineated in mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMϕ). Inflammatory mediators like nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 and related molecular mechanisms of andrographolide-mediated inhibition of enzymes/transcription factors were studied...
July 22, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668885/interactive-analysis-of-tx-1123-with-cyclo-oxygenase-design-of-cox2-selective-tx-analogs
#3
Kazuto Ohkura, Yohei Tatematsu, Yuki Kawaguchi, Yoshihiro Uto, Hitoshi Hori
BACKGROUND: To date, two cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isoforms, COX1 and COX2, have been identified. In the present study, the COX-inhibitory activities of TX-1123 derivatives with the 2-hydroxyarylidene-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione structure were examined, and the binding profiles of TX-1123 to COXs were analyzed using docking simulations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: X-Ray data on COX1 [protein data bank (PDB) ID=1PGG] and COX2 (PDB ID=3LN1) were used for molecular interactive simulations...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646254/cytoprotective-effects-of-diallyl-trisulfide-against-valproate-induced-hepatotoxicity-new-anticonvulsant-strategy
#4
Ahmed A Shaaban, Dina S El-Agamy
Sodium valproate (VP) is an important antiepileptic drug, although it can produce deleterious hepatotoxic reactions. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is the principle component of garlic oil that possesses antioxidant properties. This study explored the potential hepatoprotective activity of DATS against VP-induced hepatic damage and its underlying mechanisms. In addition, the study assessed the effect of DATS on VP antiepileptic activity. Rats were given DATS once daily at two different doses along with VP for 2 weeks...
June 23, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636803/atorvastatin-attenuates-testosterone-induced-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-in-rats-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-and-cyclo-oxygenase-2
#5
Ismail O Ishola, Habeeb K Tijani, Olufunke O Dosumu, Charles C Anunobi, Tolulope O Oshodi
Diabetes and obesity have been reported to alter sex steroid hormone metabolism. In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the protective effect of atorvastatin (ATR) in combination with celecoxib (CEL) or pioglitazone (PIO) on testosterone-induced BPH in rats. Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 9 groups (n=8) and orally treated as follows for 28 consecutive days; Group 1: vehicle (10 ml/kg), group 2: vehicle (10 ml/kg), groups 3 - 5: ATR (0.5, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, respectively); group 6: CEL (20 mg/kg); Group 7: PIO (20 mg/kg); Groups 8-9: ATR 0...
June 21, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620011/dietary-restriction-but-not-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade-improves-dna-damage-related-vasodilator-dysfunction-in-rapidly-aging-ercc1-%C3%AE-mice
#6
Haiyan Wu, Bibi S van Thiel, Paula K Bautista-Niño, Erwin Reiling, Matej Durik, Frank P J Leijten, Yanto Ridwan, Renata M C Brandt, Harry van Steeg, Martijn E T Dollé, Wilbert P Vermeij, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Jeroen Essers, Ingrid van der Pluijm, A H Jan Danser, Anton J M Roks
DNA damage is an important contributor to endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular disease. Recently, we demonstrated in a DNA repair-deficient, prematurely aging mouse model (Ercc1(Δ/-) mice) that dietary restriction (DR) strongly increases life- and health span, including ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, by preserving genomic integrity. In this mouse mutant displaying prominent accelerated, age-dependent endothelial dysfunction we investigated the signaling pathways involved in improved endothelium-mediated vasodilation by DR, and explore the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611577/the-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-lipoxygenase-and-cyclo-oxygenase-inhibitors-in-inflammation-induced-human-fetal-glia-cells-and-the-a%C3%AE-degradation-capacity-of-human-fetal-astrocytes-in-an-ex-vivo-assay
#7
Rea Pihlaja, Merja Haaparanta-Solin, Juha O Rinne
Chronic inflammation is a common phenomenon present in the background of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The arachidonic acid pathway overproduces proinflammatory eicosanoids during these states and glial cells in the brain gradually lose their vital functions of protecting and supporting neurons. In this study, the role of different key enzymes of the eicosanoid pathway mediating inflammatory responses was examined in vitro and ex vivo using human fetal glial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487435/risk-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-with-nsaids-in-real-world-use-bayesian-meta-analysis-of-individual-patient-data
#8
REVIEW
Michèle Bally, Nandini Dendukuri, Benjamin Rich, Lyne Nadeau, Arja Helin-Salmivaara, Edeltraut Garbe, James M Brophy
Objective To characterise the determinants, time course, and risks of acute myocardial infarction associated with use of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).Design Systematic review followed by a one stage bayesian individual patient data meta-analysis.Data sources Studies from Canadian and European healthcare databases.Review methods Eligible studies were sourced from computerised drug prescription or medical databases, conducted in the general or an elderly population, documented acute myocardial infarction as specific outcome, studied selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors (including rofecoxib) and traditional NSAIDs, compared risk of acute myocardial infarction in NSAID users with non-users, allowed for time dependent analyses, and minimised effects of confounding and misclassification bias...
May 9, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442060/kinetic-effect-of-oestrogen-on-secretion-of-prostaglandins-e2-and-f2%C3%AE-in-bovine-oviduct-epithelial-cells
#9
Zhiheng Dong, Nan Zhang, Wei Mao, Bo Liu, Na Huang, Peifeng Li, Changyou Li, Jinshan Cao
This study aimed to investigate the effect of oestrogen on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) secretion in bovine oviduct epithelial cells. Bovine oviduct epithelial cells were obtained from the lumen of fresh bovine oviducts. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and in-cell western assays were used to measure PGE2 and PGF2α synthase activity and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect the concentrations of the two prostaglandins in extracellular fluid. We observed that oestradiol caused a short-term increase in cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), which stimulated PGE2 and PGF2α secretion, and that a subsequent decrease in COX-2 and an increase in cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) produced a high PGE2:PGF2α ratio...
March 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430970/helicobacter-pylori-outer-membrane-vesicles-inhibit-human-t-cell-responses-via-induction-of-monocyte-cox-2-expression
#10
Barry D Hock, Judith L McKenzie, Jacqueline I Keenan
The modulation of T cell responses by Helicobacter pylori is thought to potentiate both H. pylori persistence and development of gastric pathologies including cancer. Release of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) by H. pylori provides a potential vehicle for modulation of the immune system. Although OMV are thought to have T cell suppressive activity, this has not yet been demonstrated. Their suppressive activity was investigated in this study using the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to T cell stimuli as a readout...
June 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358376/rela-p65-inhibition-prevents-tendon-adhesion-by-modulating-inflammation-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis
#11
Shuai Chen, Shichao Jiang, Wei Zheng, Bing Tu, Shen Liu, Hongjiang Ruan, Cunyi Fan
Peritendinous tissue fibrosis which leads to poor tendon function is a worldwide clinical problem; however, its mechanism remains unclear. Transcription factor RelA/p65, an important subunit in the NF-κB complex, is known to have a critical role in many fibrotic diseases. Here, we show that RelA/p65 functions as a core fibrogenic regulator in tendon adhesion and that its inhibition exerts an anti-fibrogenic effect on peritendinous adhesion. We detected the upregulation of the NF-κB pathway in human tendon adhesion using a gene chip microarray assay and revealed the overexpression of p65 and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins Collagen I, Collagen III, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in human fibrotic tissues by immunohistochemistry and western blotting...
March 30, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358282/efficacy-of-a-film-forming-medical-device-containing-sunscreen-50-and-piroxicam-0-8-in-actinic-keratosis-and-field-cancerization-a-multicenter-assessor-blinded-3-month-trial
#12
Mario Puviani, Chiara Galloni, Silvia Marchetti, Paolo Sergio Pavone, Silvia Lovati, Giuseppe Pistone, Valentina Caputo, Giovanna Tilotta, Giuseppe Scarcella, Elena Campione, Laura Diluvio, Virginia Garofalo, Luca Bianchi, Massimo Milani
INTRODUCTION: Sunscreen protection in subjects with actinic keratosis (AK) is highly recommended to prevent clinical evolution of this in situ skin cancer condition. Use of topical anti-cyclooxygenase drugs such as diclofenac and piroxicam reduces the number of lesions and improves the cancerization field. A film-forming medical device in a cream formulation containing organic and inorganic sun-filters (50+ SPF) and piroxicam 0.8% (ACTX) has shown in a pilot, single-center, open trial to reduce AK lesions improving the cancerization field...
April 20, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345582/enhancing-titres-of-therapeutic-viral-vectors-using-the-transgene-repression-in-vector-production-trip-system
#13
H E Maunder, J Wright, B R Kolli, C R Vieira, T T Mkandawire, S Tatoris, V Kennedy, S Iqball, G Devarajan, S Ellis, Y Lad, N G Clarkson, K A Mitrophanous, D C Farley
A key challenge in the field of therapeutic viral vector/vaccine manufacturing is maximizing production. For most vector platforms, the 'benchmark' vector titres are achieved with inert reporter genes. However, expression of therapeutic transgenes can often adversely affect vector titres due to biological effects on cell metabolism and/or on the vector virion itself. Here, we exemplify the novel 'Transgene Repression In vector Production' (TRiP) system for the production of both RNA- and DNA-based viral vectors...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274156/folic-acid-ameliorates-celecoxib-cardiotoxicity-in-a-doxorubicin-heart-failure-rat-model
#14
Shafique Ahmad, Bibhu Prasad Panda, Kanchan Kohli, Mohammad Fahim, Kiran Dubey
CONTEXT: The cardiotoxic effect of selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors is well known. While rofecoxib and valdecoxib have been withdrawn, celecoxib remains on the market. Folic acid, a naturally occurring vitamin, has been shown to reduce myocardial ischemia and post-reperfusion injury in rats. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the cardiac effects of celecoxib and folic acid on doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiomyopathy was induced in male Wistar rats with six intraperitoneal injections of 2...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255339/use-of-febuxostat-in-the-management-of-gout-in-the-united-kingdom
#15
REVIEW
Arabella Waller, Kelsey M Jordan
Gout is the most common cause of inflammatory arthritis worldwide. Despite clinical cure being achievable and multiple evidence-based guidelines having been published, the incidence and prevalence continues to increase and the condition remains undertreated. Concerns regarding allopurinol have limited its use in those with renal impairment. Febuxostat, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor requiring no dose adjustment in mild-moderate renal impairment was launched in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2010. We review published data on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of febuxostat and provide an opinion on its place in the management of gout in the UK in the context of other published guidelines...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193316/polydatin-improves-the-developmental-competence-of-bovine-embryos-in-vitro-via-induction-of-sirtuin-1-sirt1
#16
Imran Khan, Sung Woo Kim, Kyung-Lim Lee, Seok-Hwan Song, Ayman Mesalam, M M R Chowdhury, Zia Uddin, Ki Hun Park, Il-Keun Kong
The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effect of polydatin (PD), the glycoside form of resveratrol, on embryo development in vitro. Oocytes were aspirated from ovaries of Korean Hanwoo cows and cultured until Day 8 in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air at 38.5°C. Protein and gene expression levels were determined through confocal microscopy and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction respectively, whereas the number of total and apoptotic cells in Day 8 blastocysts was determined using Hoechst 33342 staining and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling...
February 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108057/bani-polymorphism-of-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2-gene-and-somatic-symptoms-in-medication-free-acute-depressed-patients
#17
Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Ta-Wei Guu, Yi-Chih Chen, Piotr Gałecki, Anna Walczewska, Kuan-Pin Su
Somatic symptoms are commonly seen in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and might be associated with inflammatory activation. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) are the key enzymes in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which in turn may play an important role in inflammation and somatic symptoms in depression. This study investigated the effects of BanI polymorphism of cPLA2 gene and COX-2 rs4648308 genotypes on somatic symptoms and inflammatory marker in patients with MDD...
January 4, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025954/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-an-oxylipin-containing-lyophilised-biomass-from-a-microalga-in-a-murine-recurrent-colitis-model
#18
Javier Ávila-Román, Elena Talero, Azahara Rodríguez-Luna, Sofía García-Mauriño, Virginia Motilva
Diet and nutritional factors have emerged as possible interventions for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which are characterised by chronic uncontrolled inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Microalgal species are a promising source of n-3 PUFA and derived oxylipins, which are lipid mediators with a key role in the resolution of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an oxylipin-containing lyophilised biomass from Chlamydomonas debaryana on a recurrent 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mice model...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004841/the-citrus-flavonoid-naringenin-confers-protection-in-a-murine-endotoxaemia-model-through-ampk-atf3-dependent-negative-regulation-of-the-tlr4-signalling-pathway
#19
Xin Liu, Ning Wang, Shijun Fan, Xinchuan Zheng, Yongjun Yang, Yuanfeng Zhu, Yongling Lu, Qian Chen, Hong Zhou, Jiang Zheng
Excessive activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway is critical for inflammation-associated disorders, while negative regulators play key roles in restraining TLR4 from over-activation. Naringenin is a citrus flavonoid with remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, but the mechanisms underlying its inhibition of LPS/TLR4 signalling are less clear. This study investigated the molecular targets and therapeutic effects of naringenin in vitro and in vivo. In LPS-stimulated murine macrophages, naringenin suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, TLR4, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) and NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2)...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940550/cox-2-dependent-and-independent-effects-of-cox-2-inhibitors-and-nsaids-on-proatherogenic-changes-in-human-monocytes-macrophages
#20
Iryna Voloshyna, Lora J Kasselman, Steven E Carsons, Michael J Littlefield, Irving H Gomolin, Joshua De Leon, Allison B Reiss
It is the second decade of controversy regarding the cardiovascular effects of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. At this time, celecoxib is the only available COX-2-specific inhibitor for treatment of pain and inflammation. Therefore, the present study was designed primarily to determine the impact of celecoxib on cholesterol handling (uptake via scavenger receptors and efflux from the cells) and foam cell formation in human THP-1 macrophages, followed by comparison to rofecoxib and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
March 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
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