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Cyclo-oxygenase 2

Patricia DE Cremoux, Anne-Sophie Hamy, Jacqueline Lehmann-Che, Véronique Scott, Brigitte Sigal, Marie-Christine Mathieu, Philippe Bertheau, Jean Marc Guinebretière, Jean Yves Pierga, Sylvie Giacchetti, Etienne Brain, Michel Marty, Bernard Asselain, Frédérique Spyratos, Ivan Bièche
BACKGROUND: The prognostic and predictive role of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) in breast cancer is still debated, and in particular, its role as a target of COX2 inhibitor (celecoxib) in neoadjuvant setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed a series of 156 breast cancer samples from patients of the COX2 inhibitor-treated arm included in the REMAGUS-02 randomized phase II trial. COX2 gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction using ribonucleic acid from frozen biopsies...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
Magda S S Moutinho, Sofia Aragão, Diogo Carmo, Fátima Casaca, Sandra Silva, Joana Ribeiro, Hugo Sousa, Isabel Pires, Felisbina Queiroga, Bruno Colaço, Rui Medeiros, Paula A Oliveira, Carlos Lopes, Margarida M S M Bastos, Rui M Gil DA Costa
AIM: Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) plays a prominent role in carcinogenesis. This study addresses the effects of two nutraceutical compounds on the expression of COX2 and tumor-associated inflammation in human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-transgenic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six-week-old FVB/n mice were supplemented with rutin or curcumin for 24 weeks: HPV16-/- no treatment, n=12; HPV16+/- no treatment, n=13; HPV16+/- rutin, n=12; HPV16+/- curcumin, n=13. HPV16-induced skin lesions and their inflammatory infiltrates were studied histologically...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
A Schaller, C Metz-Favre, L Guenard-Bilbaut, F De Blay
The Fernand Widal syndrome is a set of associations between asthma, nasal polyposis and aspirin sensitivity. Selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX 2) inhibitors are recognized as being a therapeutic alternative in cases needing analgesic or anti-inflammatory treatment. In a retrospective study, we have compiled data concerning oral provocation tests (OPT) undertaken with celecoxib, one of most the selective COX 2 inhibitors, in eight patients with the Fernand Widal syndrome. They were compared with twenty-seven control patients with sensitivity to aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, manifesting as asthma, urticaria or rhino-conjunctivitis...
February 17, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Foong Way David Tai, Mark E McAlindon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review describes the effects of NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity on the small bowel, wherein injury is as prevalent as in the gastroduodenum. This is well documented by capsule endoscopy, which also provides an endoscopic endpoint for novel treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Appreciation of the prevalence of NSAID enteropathy has grown with capsule endoscopy and the use of composite end points that include obscure haemoglobin decreases in clinical studies...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Jun Ho Lee, Jae Hee Suh, Soo Youn Choi, Hyun Je Kang, Hwan Hee Lee, Byeong Jin Ye, Gap Ryol Lee, Seok Won Jung, Chang Jae Kim, Whaseon Lee-Kwon, Jiyoung Park, Kyungjae Myung, Neung Hwa Park, Hyug Moo Kwon
OBJECTIVES: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer with high rate of recurrence and mortality. Diverse aetiological agents and wide heterogeneity in individual tumours impede effective and personalised treatment. Tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) is a transcriptional cofactor for the expression of proinflammatory genes. Although inflammation is intimately associated with the pathogenesis of HCC, the role of TonEBP is unknown. We aimed to identify function of TonEBP in HCC...
February 2, 2018: Gut
M Kolgazi, Z N Ozdemir-Kumral, C Cantali-Ozturk, E K Demirci, M Yuksel, S Sirvanci, B C Yegen
In order to elucidate the contribution of cycloxygenase (COX) enzymes in the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of nesfatin-1, which improves the healing process of chronic gastric ulcers, either acetic acid (80%; ulcer groups; n = 40) or saline (control groups; n = 40) was applied to the serosal surface of male Sprague Dawley rats' stomachs for 1 min. Both the control and ulcer groups were treated daily with either i.p. saline or nesfatin-1 (0.3 μg/kg; for 3 days). Nesfatin-1-treatment was preceded with i...
October 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Yo Han Hong, Donghyun Kim, Gibaeg Nam, Sulgi Yoo, Sang Yun Han, Seong-Gu Jeong, Eunji Kim, Deok Jeong, Keejung Yoon, Sunggyu Kim, Junseong Park, Jae Youl Cho
Background: BIOGF1K, a compound-K-rich fraction, has been shown to display anti-inflammatory activity. Although Panax ginseng is widely used for the prevention of photoaging events induced by UVB irradiation, the effect of BIOGF1K on photoaging has not yet been examined. In this study, we investigated the effects of BIOGF1K on UVB-induced photoaging events. Methods: We analyzed the ability of BIOGF1K to prevent UVB-induced apoptosis, enhance matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, upregulate anti-inflammatory activity, reduce sirtuin 1 expression, and melanin production using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, melanin content assay, tyrosinase assay, and flow cytometry...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Lydia Say Lee Pok, Fatiha Hana Shabaruddin, Maznah Dahlui, Sargunan Sockalingam, Mohd Shahrir Mohamed Said, Azmillah Rosman, Ing Soo Lau, Liza Mohd Isa, Heselynn Hussein, Chin Teck Ng, Sanjiv Mahadeva
AIM: To determine the incidence and direct costs of NSAID-induced upper GI adverse events in Malaysian rheumatology patients. METHODS: A retrospective, multi-centre, cohort study of rheumatology patients on long-term NSAIDs was conducted. Clinical data of patients treated between 2010 and 2013 were collected for a 24-month follow-up period. The costs of managing upper GI adverse events were based on patient level resource use data. RESULTS: Six hundred and thirty-four patients met the inclusion criteria: mean age 53...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Xuan-Zheng Shi
Intraluminal contents and their movement along the gastrointestinal tract create shear stress and mechanical stretch on the gut wall. While the shear stress is important in the initiation of immediate physiological responses, the circumferential mechanical stretch, such as that in obstructive bowel disorders, exerts long-lasting impacts on bowel functions by mainly affecting the deeper muscularis externae. Recent studies demonstrate that mechanical stretch alters gene transcription in gut smooth muscle cells (SMC), and the stretch-altered gene expression (mechano-transcription) may play a critical role in pathogenesis of motility dysfunction and abdominal pain in obstruction...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Rajeshwari H Patil, M Naveen Kumar, K M Kiran Kumar, Rashmi Nagesh, K Kavya, R L Babu, Govindarajan T Ramesh, S Chidananda Sharma
The production of inflammatory mediators by epithelial cells in inflammatory lung diseases may represent an important target for the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. Activator protein-1 (Khanapure et al.) is a major activator of inflammatory genes and has been proposed as a target for inhibition by glucocorticoids. We have used human pulmonary type-II A549 cells to examine the effect of dexamethasone on the phorbol ester (PMA)/Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and AP-1 factors...
December 14, 2017: Gene
Bartosz Olechowski, Vikram Khanna, Mark Mariathas, Alexander Ashby, Richard T Dalton, Ian Nordon, Nicola Englyst, Scott Harris, Zoe Nicholas, Kala Thayalasamy, Michael Mahmoudi, Nick Curzen
The role of platelets in ischaemic events is well established. Aspirin represents the default antiplatelet and blocks the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) at the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme (COX). AA is commonly used as a test of response to aspirin, but recent data raise uncertainty about the validity of this approach. Specifically, in some patients AA-induced clotting is not suppressed, but the level of COX-dependent AA metabolite, thromboxane B2 (TXB2 ) is negligible. Furthermore, AA-induced whole blood clotting varies dynamically in individuals, who are aspirin responsive according to TXB2 levels...
December 11, 2017: Platelets
Sree Lalitha, Ranjana W Minz, Bikash Medhi
Accumulating experimental data suggests a number of successful drug targets against epilepsy which eventually failed in the clinical setup. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, multi-drug resistance transporter inhibitors, cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, statins, etc. are the most promising and well studied among them. Drugs aiming at these targets produced beneficial response in most of the in vitro and in vivo seizure models. However, in certain situations, they have produced differential rather controversial results...
December 6, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Ola Ahmed Bakry, Shawky Mahmoud El Farargy, Noha Nour El Din El Kady, Hend Farag Abu Dawy
Introduction: Acne Vulgaris (AV) is a common inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous units. Liver X Receptor-α (LXR-α) is a ligand activated transcription factor. It controls transcription of genes involved in lipid and fatty acid synthesis. Cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) is a rate limiting enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis. It plays important role in inflammation. Aim: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of LXR-α and COX2 in acne vulgaris skin biopsies to explore their possible pathogenic role in this disease...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Kerry Layne, Timothy Goodman, Albert Ferro, Gabriella Passacquale
In atherosclerotic animal models, the cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-inhibitor aspirin counteracts downregulation of endothelial-derived netrin-1, thus reducing arterial inflammation. We here explored the effect of aspirin on netrin-1 in healthy subjects undergoing influenza immunisation, which is an established experimental model of inflammation-related endothelial dysfunction. Our data showed that netrin-1 undergoes reduction (-29.25% from baseline; p=0.0017) in the presence of endothelial activation (VCAM-1 rose by 9...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
Deepan Dalal, Maureen Dubreuil, Christine Peloquin, Tuhina Neogi, Yuqing Zhang, Hyon Choi, David Felson
Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), a risk linked to cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibition. There are limited studies assessing the risk of MI associated with meloxicam, an increasingly popular drug with COX-2 inhibiting properties. A nested matched case-control study using The Health Improvement Network, a UK population-based database was conducted. NSAID users between 35 and 89 years of age with at least 1 year enrollment in the cohort were included...
December 2017: Rheumatology International
Lauri Tuure, Mari Hämäläinen, Brendan J Whittle, Eeva Moilanen
Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is an inducible enzyme situated downstream of cyclo-oxygenase-2, promoting the excessive PGE2 production in inflammation. Dexamethasone is known to suppress mPGES-1 but the mechanisms regulating mPGES-1 expression remain poorly known. MKP-1 is a phosphatase controlling the proinflammatory MAP kinase pathways p38 and JNK, thus limiting the inflammatory responses. We have now investigated the role of MKP-1 and MAP kinases p38 and JNK in the regulation of mPGES-1 expression by dexamethasone...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jia-Yu Liu, Ya-Ling Hou, Rong Cao, Hong Xia Qiu, Guo-Hua Cheng, Ran Tu, Li Wang, Jun-Li Zhang, Dan Liu
Protective effect of protodioscin or methyl protodioscin against inflammation had been reported in various inflammation diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of protodioscin against Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis rats. Rats randomly divided into model groups were injected with CFA, companied with different dose of protodioscin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight). The histology, changes in biochemical parameters and inflammatory cytokines expression were detected for anti-inflammation effect evaluation of protodioscin...
September 15, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
L Muñoz Olmo, J Juan Armas, J J Gomariz García
BACKGROUND: Primary Care is the fundamental axis of our health system and obliges us to be consistent with our prescriptions. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk and increased risk of all causes of death, as well as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with a previous myocardial infarction. Pain and cardiac patient management are 2 basic pillars in our daily activity, and we must know the limitations of NSAIDs in patients with established cardiovascular risk...
September 4, 2017: Semergen
Marlies Schippers, Leonie Beljaars, Eduard Post, Sophie Lotersztajn, Catharina Reker-Smit, Bing Han, Pablo Munoz-Llancao, Martina Schmidt, Klaas Poelstra
Exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac-1) is an important signaling mechanism for cAMP-mediated effects, yet factors that change Epac-1 levels are unknown. Such factors are relevant because it has been postulated that Epac-1 directly affects fibrogenesis. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a well-known cAMP activator, and we therefore studied the effects of this cyclo-oxygenase product on Epac-1 expression and on fibrogenesis within the liver. Liver fibrosis was induced by 8 weeks carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) administration to mice...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Peter Jörg Rohdewald
The review summarizes the effects of the standardized proprietary bark extract of the French maritime pine (Pycnogenol(®)) in mild osteoarthritis (OA), stage 1 and 2. The extract exerts antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and chondroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. Its phenolic acids as well as catechin and taxifolin are quickly absorbed. Active metabolites, produced by gut microbiota in the intestinal tract from oligomeric procyanidins, appear in blood 6 h following ingestion and remain for at least 14 h, providing a long-lasting flow of anti-inflammatory substances for relief of OA symptoms...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
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