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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136456/the-intimate-talk-between-plants-and-microorganisms-at-the-leaf-surface
#1
Wendy Aragón, José Juan Reina-Pinto, Mario Serrano, Eva Dominguez
The plant epidermis or cuticle is constantly exposed to external and internal environmental factors, including an enriched and diverse community of bacteria, yeast, fungi, viruses, and mites. It is not only where the plant has its first physical barrier, but also where organisms can be recognized and potentially where the plant defense responses can be triggered. The plant cuticle is a polymeric composite formed by an array of structurally and chemically heterogeneous compounds, including cutin and wax. A few studies have shown that cuticular components are essential and important drivers of the structure and size of the bacterial community...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112850/mechanochemical-polarization-of-contiguous-cell-walls-shapes-plant-pavement-cells
#2
Mateusz Majda, Peter Grones, Ida-Maria Sintorn, Thomas Vain, Pascale Milani, Pawel Krupinski, Beata Zagórska-Marek, Corrado Viotti, Henrik Jönsson, Ewa J Mellerowicz, Olivier Hamant, Stéphanie Robert
The epidermis of aerial plant organs is thought to be limiting for growth, because it acts as a continuous load-bearing layer, resisting tension. Leaf epidermis contains jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells whose shape has been proposed to be a result of subcellular variations in expansion rate that induce local buckling events. Paradoxically, such local compressive buckling should not occur given the tensile stresses across the epidermis. Using computational modeling, we show that the simplest scenario to explain pavement cell shapes within an epidermis under tension must involve mechanical wall heterogeneities across and along the anticlinal pavement cell walls between adjacent cells...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112846/adding-a-piece-to-the-leaf-epidermal-cell-shape-puzzle
#3
Daniel von Wangenheim, Darren M Wells, Malcolm J Bennett
The jigsaw puzzle-shaped pavement cells in the leaf epidermis collectively function as a load-bearing tissue that controls organ growth. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Majda et al. (2017) shed light on how the jigsaw shape can arise from localized variations in wall stiffness between adjacent epidermal cells.
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065171/alleviatory-effects-of-silicon-on-the-foliar-micromorphology-and-anatomy-of-rice-oryza-sativa-l-seedlings-under-simulated-acid-rain
#4
Shuming Ju, Liping Wang, Cuiying Zhang, Tingchao Yin, Siliang Shao
Silicon (Si) is a macroelement in plants. The biological effects and mitigation mechanisms of silicon under environmental stress have become hot topics. The main objectives of this study were to elucidate the roles of Si in alleviating the effects on the phenotype, micromorphology and anatomy of the leaves of rice seedlings under acid rain stress. The results indicated that the combined or single effects of Si and simulated acid rain (SAR) stress on rice roots depended on the concentration of Si and the intensity of the SAR stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052022/udp-arabinopyranose-mutase-gene-expressions-are-required-for-the-biosynthesis-of-the-arabinose-side-chain-of-both-pectin-and-arabinoxyloglucan-and-normal-leaf-expansion-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#5
Hideyuki Honta, Takuya Inamura, Teruko Konishi, Shinobu Satoh, Hiroaki Iwai
Plant cell walls are composed of polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins, whose location and function differ depending on plant type. Arabinose is a constituent of many different cell wall components, including pectic rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and II (RG-II), glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAX), and arabinoxyloglucan (AXG). Arabinose is found predominantly in the furanose rather than in the thermodynamically more stable pyranose form. The UDP-arabinopyranose mutases (UAMs) have been demonstrated to convert UDP-arabinopyranose (UDP-Arap) to UDP-arabinofuranose (UDP-Araf) in rice (Oryza sativa L...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032386/biomonitoring-of-urban-pollution-using-silicon-accumulating-species-phyllostachys-aureosulcata-aureocaulis
#6
Filis Morina, Marija Vidović, Tatjana Srećković, Vesela Radović, Sonja Veljović-Jovanović
We investigated metal accumulation in bamboo leaves during three seasons at three urban locations differing in pollution levels. The higher content of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the leaves was in correlation with the highest bioavailable content of these elements in the soil at the most polluted location. The content of leaf trace elements was higher in summer and autumn compared to spring. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that Si accumulation in bamboo leaves was the highest in epidermis and vascular tissue, and was co-localized with trace metals...
October 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021692/cytohistological-study-of-the-leaf-structures-of-panax-ginseng-meyer-and-panax-quinquefolius-l
#7
Ok Ran Lee, Ngoc Quy Nguyen, Kwang Ho Lee, Young Chang Kim, Jiho Seo
BACKGROUND: Both Panax ginseng Meyer and Panax quinquefolius are obligate shade-loving plants whose natural habitats are broadleaved forests of Eastern Asia and North America. Panax species are easily damaged by photoinhibition when they are exposed to high temperatures or insufficient shade. In this study, a cytohistological study of the leaf structures of two of the most well-known Panax species was performed to better understand the physiological processes that limit photosynthesis...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994038/clusia-hilariana-and-eugenia-uniflora-as-bioindicators-of-atmospheric-pollutants-emitted-by-an-iron-pelletizing-factory-in-brazil
#8
Luzimar Campos da Silva, Talita Oliveira de Araújo, Advanio Inácio Siqueira-Silva, Tiago Augusto Rodrigues Pereira, Letícia Nalon Castro, Eduardo Chagas Silva, Marco Antonio Oliva, Aristéa Alves Azevedo
The objectives of this work were to evaluate if the pollution emitted by the pelletizing factory causes visual symptoms and/or anatomical changes in exposed Eugenia uniflora and Clusia hilariana, in active biomonitoring, at different distances from a pelletizing factory. We characterize the symptomatology, anatomical, and histochemistry alterations induced in the two species. There was no difference in the symptomatology in relation to the different distances of the emitting source. The foliar symptoms found in C...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985389/water-retained-in-tall-cryptomeria-japonica-leaves-as-studied-by-infrared-micro-spectroscopy
#9
Wakana Azuma, Satoru Nakashima, Eri Yamakita, H Roaki Ishii, Keiko Kuroda
Recent studies in the tallest tree species suggest that physiological and anatomical traits of tree-top leaves are adapted to water-limited conditions. In order to examine water retention mechanism of leaves in a tall tree, infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy was conducted on mature leaf cross-sections of tall Cryptomeria japonica D. Don from four different heights (51, 43, 31 and 19 m). We measured IR transmission spectra and mainly analyzed OH (3700-3000 cm-1) and C-O (1190-845 cm-1) absorption bands, indicating water molecules and sugar groups, respectively...
October 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984364/isolation-and-analysis-of-a-stromule-overproducing-arabidopsis-mutant-suggest-the-role-of-parc6-in-plastid-morphology-maintenance-in-the-leaf-epidermis
#10
Ryuuichi D Itoh, Hiroki Ishikawa, Kohdai P Nakajima, Shota Moriyama, Makoto T Fujiwara
Stromules, or stroma-filled tubules, are thin extensions of the plastid envelope membrane that are most frequently observed in undifferentiated or non-mesophyll cells. The formation of stromules is developmentally regulated and responsive to biotic and abiotic stress; however, the physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of the stromule formation remain enigmatic. Accordingly, we attempted to obtain Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with aberrant stromule biogenesis in the leaf epidermis. Here, we characterize one of the obtained mutants...
October 6, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983304/acetolactate-synthase-inhibiting-gametocide-amidosulfuron-causes-chloroplast-destruction-tissue-autophagy-and-elevation-of-ethylene-release-in-rapeseed
#11
Xi-Qiong Liu, Cheng-Yu Yu, Jun-Gang Dong, Sheng-Wu Hu, Ai-Xia Xu
Background: Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides amidosulfuron (Hoestar) is an efficient gametocide that can induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). We conducted an integrated study of cytological, transcriptomic, and physiological analysis to decipher the gametocidal effect of amidosulfuron. Results: In the first several days after exposure to amidosulfuron at a gametocidal dose of ca. 1 μg per plant, the plants showed the earliest symptoms including short retard of raceme elongation, slight chlorosis on leaf, and decrease of photosynthesis rate...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960566/cld1-srl1-modulates-leaf-rolling-by-affecting-cell-wall-formation-epidermis-integrity-and-water-homeostasis-in-rice
#12
Wen-Qiang Li, Min-Juan Zhang, Peng-Fei Gan, Lei Qiao, Shuai-Qi Yang, Hai Miao, Gang-Feng Wang, Mao-Mao Zhang, Wen-Ting Liu, Hai-Feng Li, Chun-Hai Shi, Kun-Ming Chen
Leaf rolling is considered as one of the most important agronomic traits in rice breeding. It has been previously reported that SEMI-ROLLED LEAF 1 (SRL1) modulates leaf rolling by regulating the formation of bulliform cells in rice (Oryza sativa); however, the regulatory mechanism underlying SRL1 has yet to be further elucidated. Here, we report the functional characterization of a novel leaf-rolling mutant, curled leaf and dwarf 1 (cld1), with multiple morphological defects. Map-based cloning revealed that CLD1 is allelic with SRL1, and loses function in cld1 through DNA methylation...
September 28, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931626/pacequant-a-tool-for-high-throughput-quantification-of-pavement-cell-shape-characteristics
#13
Birgit Möller, Yvonne Poeschl, Romina Plötner, Katharina Bürstenbinder
Pavement cells (PCs) are the most frequently occurring cell type in the leaf epidermis and play important roles in leaf growth and function. In many plant species, PCs form highly complex jigsaw-puzzle-shaped cells with interlocking lobes. Understanding of their development is of high interest for plant science research because of their importance for leaf growth and hence for plant fitness and crop yield. Studies of PC development, however, are limited, because robust methods are lacking that enable automatic segmentation and quantification of PC shape parameters suitable to reflect their cellular complexity...
November 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929679/-identification-of-six-species-of-medicinal-diospyros-plants-based-on-leaf-macro-and-micro-morphology
#14
Ze Yi, Juan-Juan Qiao, Geng-Yu Lu, Gang Wu, Guo-Yong Xie, Min-Jian Qin
To establish a method for the identification of five species and one variety of medicinal plants from Diospyros, their leaf veins, epidermis, anatomic and powder characters were observed and compared with macro-morphological and microscopic methods. The results indicated the differences of secondary and tertiary veins among those Diospyros species. The single cell non-glandular hair and glandular hair exist in most species' epidermis while stone cells were only found in the leaf powders of two species. Through the study, the main differences of leaf macro- and micro-morphology of these species were obtained and practical keys were also established, which can provide scientific base not only for identification of these species during their vegetative stages, but also for accuracy authentication of the source of Kaki Folium...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922762/three-myb-genes-co-regulate-the-phloem-based-defence-against-english-grain-aphid-in-wheat
#15
Yan Zhai, Ping Li, Yu Mei, Mingye Chen, Xiaochen Chen, Heng Xu, Xuan Zhou, Hansong Dong, Chunling Zhang, Weihua Jiang
Plant phloem-based defence (PBD) against phloem-feeding insects is characteristic of the sieve occlusion by phloem lectins and β-1,3-glucan callose, both of which are produced under regulation by ethylene and MYB transcription factors. Wheat PBD requires β-1,3-glucan synthase-like proteins GSL2, GSL10, and GSL12, and may also require insect-resistant mannose-binding lectins Hfr-1 and Wci-1, which can accumulate in the phloem upon aphid feeding. This study elucidates whether any of the 73 MYB genes identified previously in the common wheat Triticum aestivum genome plays a role in wheat PBD activation with regard to the GSLs and lectins...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914360/adaptive-variation-in-vein-placement-underpins-diversity-in-a-major-neotropical-plant-radiation
#16
Jamie Males
Vein placement has been hypothesised to control leaf hydraulic properties, but the ecophysiological significance of variation in vein placement in the angiosperms has remained poorly understood. The highly diverse Neotropical Bromeliaceae offers an excellent system for exploring understudied relationships between leaf vein placement, physiological functions, and species ecology. To test key hypotheses regarding the links between vein placement, functional type divergences, and ecological diversity in the Bromeliaceae, I characterised the ratio of interveinal distance (IVD) to vein-epidermis distance (VED) in 376 species, representing all major functional types and 10% of the species diversity in the family, as well as bioclimatic properties and key leaf traits for subsets of species...
November 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901804/histological-and-antimicrobial-study-of-ononis-arvensis-l
#17
Tünde Dénes, Sámuel Gergely Bartha, Mónika Kerényi, Erzsébet Varga, Viktória Lilla Balázs, Rita Csepregi, Nóra Papp
In this study field restharrow (Ononis arvensis) was investigated for histological and antimicrobial features. The aerial part and the root were embedded in synthetic resin and investigated following sectioning by a rotation microtome. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of the solvent fractions of the aerial part were studied against four bacterial strains and one fungus. According to histology, the root covered by rhizodermis contains contiguous vascular elements, which are surrounded by sclerenchyma cells...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898654/plant-cell-walls
#18
Herman Höfte, Aline Voxeur
Plants are able to generate large leaf surfaces that act as two-dimensional solar panels with a minimum investment in building material, thanks to a hydrostatic skeleton. This requires high intracellular pressures (up to 1 MPa), which depend on the presence of strong cell walls. The walls of growing cells (also called primary walls), are remarkably able to reconcile extreme tensile strength (up to 100 MPa) with the extensibility necessary for growth. All walled organisms are confronted with this dilemma - the need to balance strength and extensibility - and bacteria, fungi and plants have evolved independent solutions to cope...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857671/effect-of-cuscuta-campestris-parasitism-on-the-physiological-and-anatomical-changes-in-untreated-and-herbicide-treated-sugar-beet
#19
Marija M Saric-Krsmanovic, Dragana M Bozic, Ljiljana M Radivojevic, Jelena S Gajic Umiljendic, Sava P Vrbnicanin
The effects of field dodder on physiological and anatomical processes in untreated sugar beet plants and the effects of propyzamide on field dodder were examined under controlled conditions. The experiment included the following variants: N-noninfested sugar beet plants (control); I - infested sugar beet plants (untreated), and infested plants treated with propyzamide (1500 g a.i. ha(-1) (T1) and 2000 g a.i. ha(-1)(T2)). The following parameters were checked: physiological-pigment contents (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total carotenoids); anatomical -leaf parameters: thickness of epidermis, parenchyma and spongy tissue, mesophyll and underside leaf epidermis, and diameter of bundle sheath cells; petiole parameters: diameter of tracheid, petiole hydraulic conductance, xylem surface, phloem cell diameter and phloem area in sugar beet plants...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776293/effects-of-an-oil-spill-on-the-leaf-anatomical-characteristics-of-a-beach-plant-terminalia-catappa-l
#20
Paramita Punwong, Yotin Juprasong, Paweena Traiperm
This study investigated the short-term impacts of an oil spill on the leaf anatomical structures of Terminalia catappa L. from crude oil leakage in Rayong province, Thailand, in 2013. Approximately 3 weeks after the oil spill, leaves of T. catappa were collected along the coastline of Rayong from one affected site, five adjacent sites, and a control site. Slides of the leaf epidermis were prepared by the peeling method, while leaf and petiole transverse sections were prepared by paraffin embedding. Cell walls of adaxial epidermal cell on leaves in the affected site were straight instead of the jigsaw shape found in leaves from the adjacent and control sites...
September 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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