Read by QxMD icon Read

leaf epidermis

Zi Juan Liu, Zong Peng Yang, Ping Li, Yu Zheng Zong, Qi Dong, Xing Yu Hao
We used an OTC (open top chamber) system to study the effects of elevated CO2 concentration (atmospheric CO2 concentration + 200 #x03BC;mol·mol-1 ) on the growth and photosynthetic physiology of Hylotelephium erythrostictum. Elevated CO2 concentration decreased the leaf stomatal density of the upper and lower epidermis of H. erythrostictum by 16.1% and 16.7%, respectively. Elevated CO2 concentration increased the vascular bundle in leaves and the cell volume near the upper epidermis. Elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the photosynthetic pigments content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of H...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Scott A M McAdam, Timothy John Brodribb
The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role in enhancing plant survival during water deficit. Recent molecular evidence suggests that ABA is synthesized in the phloem companion cells and guard cells. However, the nature of cell turgor and water status in these two cell types cannot easily account for the rapid, water status-triggered ABA biosynthesis observed in leaves. Here we utilize the unique foliar anatomies of an angiosperm (Hakea lissosperma) and of four conifer species (Saxegothaea conspicua, Podocarpus latifolius, Cephalotaxus harringtonii, and Amentotaxus formosana) in which the mesophyll can be isolated from the vascular tissue to identify the main site of ABA biosynthesis in water-stressed leaves...
May 7, 2018: Plant Physiology
Nor Zuliana Yusof, Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan, Zainab Idris
Many types of phytochemicals have been found to be present in oil palm leaf and could potentially be used as functional ingredients for skincare product. However, as of today, there is no published report on hazard identification and safety assessment of oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis) leaf extract (OPLE), particularly on skin and eye irritation. In this study, potential hazard of OPLE on skin and eye irritation was evaluated as an initial step to the safety assessment of OPLE. In vitro cell viability study of OPLE on normal human dermal fibroblasts showed that OPLE was nontoxic to the cells with percentage viability more than 90% after 24 and 48 hours of incubation...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Sujung Kim, Nobuyoshi Mochizuki, Ayumi Deguchi, Atsushi J Nagano, Tomomi Suzuki, Akira Nagatani
Plants sense and respond to light via multiple photoreceptors including phytochrome. The decreased ratio of red to far-red light that occurs under a canopy triggers shade avoidance responses, which allow plants to compete with neighbouring plants. The leaf acts as a photoperceptive organ in this response. In the present study, we investigated how the shade stimulus is spatially processed within the cotyledon. We performed transcriptome analysis on micro-tissue samples collected from vascular and non-vascular regions of Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons...
May 4, 2018: Plant Physiology
Janet M Paper, Thiya Mukherjee, Kathrin Schrick
Background: Phospholipids are important structural and signaling molecules in plant membranes. Some fluorescent dyes can stain general lipids of membranes, but labeling and visualization of specific lipid classes have yet to be developed for most components of the membrane. New techniques for visualizing membrane lipids are needed to further delineate their dynamic structural and signaling roles in plant cells. In this study we examined whether propargylcholine, a bioortholog of choline, can be used to label the major membrane lipid, phosphatidylcholine, and other choline phospholipids in plants...
2018: Plant Methods
Gülay Ecevit-Genç, Betül Büyükkılıç-Altınbaşak, Taner Özcan, Tuncay Dirmenci
Teucrium alyssifolium Stapf (endemic), Teucrium pestalozzae Boiss. (endemic) and Teucrium brevifolium Schreb. are three closely related taxa in Teucrium sect. Teucrium. The obtained data from the anatomical studies revealed that these three taxa represent the general anatomical characteristics of the Lamiaceae family. Leaves, anatomical features such as thick cuticle, abundant trichomes, rich palisade parenchyma layer in the mesophyll provide evidence that these three species are xeromorphic structures. Leaf and stem anatomy showed that the taxa have generally similar anatomical features...
2018: PhytoKeys
Dominik Novák, Pavol Vadovič, Miroslav Ovečka, Olga Šamajová, George Komis, Jean Colcombet, Jozef Šamaj
Phospholipase D alpha 1 (PLDα1, At3g15730) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) are involved in a variety of cellular and physiological processes, such as cytoskeletal remodeling, regulation of stomatal closure and opening, as well as biotic and abiotic stress signaling. Here we aimed to study developmental expression patterns and subcellular localization of PLDα1 in Arabidopsis using advanced microscopy methods such as light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) and structured illumination microscopy (SIM)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xuehui Yao, Wenchao Zhao, Rui Yang, Jianli Wang, Fukuan Zhao, Shaohui Wang
Background: Guard cell protoplasts (GCPs) isolated from various plants have proven to be especially useful for studies of signal transduction pathways and plant development. But it is not easy to isolate highly purified preparations of large numbers of GCPs from plants. In this research, our focus is on a method to isolate large numbers of guard cells from tomato leaves. The protocols described yield millions of highly purified, viable GCPs, which are also suitable for studies on guard cell physiology...
2018: Plant Methods
Joanna Elsner, Marcin Lipowczan, Dorota Kwiatkowska
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In numerous vascular plants, pavement cells of the leaf epidermis are shaped like a jigsaw-puzzle piece. Knowledge about the subcellular pattern of growth that accompanies morphogenesis of such a complex shape is crucial for studies of the role of the cytoskeleton, cell wall and phytohormones in plant cell development. Because the detailed growth pattern of the anticlinal and periclinal cell walls remains unknown, our aim was to measure pavement cell growth at a subcellular resolution...
February 2018: American Journal of Botany
Satomi Shimano, Ken-Ichiro Hibara, Tomoyuki Furuya, Shin-Ichi Arimura, Hirokazu Tsukaya, Jun-Ichi Itoh
Regulation of cell proliferation is crucial for establishing the shape of plant leaves. We have identified MAKIBA3 ( MKB3 ), a loss-of-function mutant of which exhibits a narrowed- and rolled-leaf phenotype in rice. MKB3 was found to be an ortholog of Arabidopsis ANGUSTIFOLIA3 ( AN3 ), which positively regulates cell proliferation. The reduced leaf size of mkb3 plants with enlarged cells and the increased size of MKB3- overexpressing leaves with normal-sized cells indicate that MKB3 is a positive regulator of leaf proliferation and that mkb3 mutation triggers a compensation syndrome, as does Arabidopsis an3 Expression analysis revealed that MKB3 is predominantly expressed on the epidermis of leaf primordia, which is different from the location of AN3 A protein movement assay demonstrated that MKB3 moves from an MKB3- expressing domain to a non-expressing domain, which is required for normal leaf development...
April 5, 2018: Development
Ashish Agnihotri, Praveen Gupta, Anuj Dwivedi, Chandra Shekhar Seth
Salicylic acid alleviates lead toxicity in Brassica juncea (L.) by promoting growth under non-stress and activating stress-defense mechanism (s) under lead stress conditions. It also boosts the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and thus helps in minimizing oxidative and DNA damage. Brassica juncea plants were exposed to different concentrations (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1 ) of lead (Pb) and subsequently sprayed with 0.5 mM of salicylic acid (SA) to check for morphological and leaf gas exchange parameters like transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (GH2 O), net photosynthetic rate (A) and maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv /Fm )...
March 21, 2018: Planta
Atul Kabra, Rohit Sharma, Shivali Singla, Ruchika Kabra, Uttam Singh Baghel
BACKGROUND: Myrica esculenta (Family: Myricaceae) commonly known as Kaiphala or Katphala is a widely used medicinal plant in Ayurveda. In spite of its numerous medicinal attributes, no published work is available till date on pharmacognostical characterization and HPTLC analysis of its leaves. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pharmacognostical, physicochemical, and HPTLC profiles of M. esculenta leaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The measures taken for pharmacognostical characterization were organoleptic study, macroscopy, microscopy, powder microscopy, leaf constant, fluorescence analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and HPTLC spectra profile...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Gea Guerriero, Chinnoi Law, Ian Stokes, Katie L Moore, Christopher Exley
Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) plants grew healthily for 10 weeks under both Si-deficient and Si-replete conditions. After 10 weeks, plants grown under Si-deficient conditions succumbed to fungal infection. We have used NanoSIMS and fluorescence microscopy to investigate silica deposition in the tissues of these plants. Horsetail grown under Si-deficient conditions did not deposit identifiable amounts of silica in their tissues. Plants grown under Si-replete conditions accumulated silica throughout their tissues and especially in the epidermis of the outer side of the leaf and the furrow region of the stem where it was continuous and often, as a double layer suggestive of a barrier function...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Shang-Hung Pao, Ping-Yun Tsai, Ching-I Peng, Pei-Ju Chen, Chi-Chu Tsai, En-Cheng Yang, Ming-Chih Shih, Jiannyeu Chen, Jun-Yi Yang, Peter Chesson, Chiou-Rong Sheue
Iridoplasts (modified plastids in adaxial epidermal cells) reported from Begonia were originally hypothesized to cause iridescence, which was broadly accepted for decades. However, several species of Begonia with iridoplasts are not iridescent causing confusion. Here chloroplast ultrastructure was observed in 40 taxa of Begoniaceae to explore the phenomenon of iridescence. However, 22 Begonias and Hillebrandia were found to have iridoplasts, but only nine display visually iridescent blue to blue-green leaves...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Anfal Alsharekh, Lucinda J Swatzell, Matthew T Moore
American bur-reed (Sparganium americanum Nutt.), a common aquatic plant in the middle and eastern United States and Canada, is often located in water-retaining drainage areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the leaf composition of S. americanum, paying attention to the cuticular waxes and the epidermis, and its ability to sorb pesticides. S. americanum leaves (n = 100) were collected in both early (June) and late (August) summer. Transverse sections of S. americanum were stained and studied with brightfield and fluorescence microscopy to estimate the structural and chemical nature of the leaf tissues cross sections...
April 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Barbara Neuffer, Christina Wesse, Ingo Voss, Renate Scheibe
For almost 100 years now, ecotypic differentiation of plant species has been a major topic of research. In changing environments, the question needs to be answered as to how long it takes to adapt, and which parameters are subject to this fast adaptation. Short-living colonizing plant species are excellent examples, especially when they are selfing. Shepherd's Purse Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae) is one of the most wide-spread flowering species on earth and avoids only the hot and humid tropics. Many studies demonstrated the ecotypic differentiation of C...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Yueyue Tian, Yunhe Zhao, Lixia Zhang, Wei Mu, Zhengqun Zhang
The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an economically important pest of tea crops, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Ericales: Theaceae), in China. The morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes of two tea cultivars, the normal green tea cultivar 'Fudingdabai' and the novel chlorophyll-deficient albino cultivar 'Huangjinya', infested by E. onukii were investigated to determine the tolerance of different tea cultivars to E. onukii attack. E.onukii infestation affected the growth of tea plants, and decreased the shoot length, leaf area, leaf thickness, and stem diameter...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Makoto T Fujiwara, Mana Yasuzawa, Kei H Kojo, Yasuo Niwa, Tomoko Abe, Shigeo Yoshida, Takeshi Nakano, Ryuuichi D Itoh
Chloroplasts, or photosynthetic plastids, multiply by binary fission, forming a homogeneous population in plant cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the division apparatus (or division ring) of mesophyll chloroplasts includes an inner envelope transmembrane protein ARC6, a cytoplasmic dynamin-related protein ARC5 (DRP5B), and members of the FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 families of proteins, which co-assemble in the stromal mid-plastid division ring (FtsZ ring). FtsZ ring placement is controlled by several proteins, including a stromal factor MinE (AtMinE1)...
2018: PloS One
Caio Guilherme Pereira, Peta L Clode, Rafael S Oliveira, Hans Lambers
Plants allocate nutrients to specific leaf cell types, with commelinoid monocots preferentially allocating phosphorus (P) to the mesophyll and calcium (Ca) to the epidermis, whereas the opposite is thought to occur in eudicots. However, Proteaceae from severely P-impoverished habitats present the same P-allocation pattern as monocots. This raises the question of whether preferential P allocation to mesophyll cells is a phylogenetically conserved trait, exclusive to commelinoid monocots and a few Proteaceae, or a trait that has evolved multiple times to allow plants to cope with very low soil P availability...
May 2018: New Phytologist
Nicia E G Junqueira, Bianca Ortiz-Silva, Marcos Vinícius Leal-Costa, Márcio Alves-Ferreira, Hugh G Dickinson, Jane A Langdale, Fernanda Reinert
Background and Aims: Setaria viridis is being promoted as a model C4 photosynthetic plant because it has a small genome (~515 Mb), a short life cycle (~60 d) and it can be transformed. Unlike other C4 grasses such as maize, however, there is very little information about how C4 leaf anatomy (Kranz anatomy) develops in S. viridis. As a foundation for future developmental genetic studies, we provide an anatomical and ultrastructural framework of early shoot development in S. viridis, focusing on the initiation of Kranz anatomy in seed leaves...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"