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leaf epidermis

Thomas N Buckley, Grace P John, Christine Scoffoni, Lawren Sack
The sites of evaporation within leaves are unknown, but have drawn attention for decades due to their perceived implications for many factors, including patterns of leaf isotopic enrichment, maintenance of mesophyll water status, stomatal regulation and interpretation of leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal conductance. We used a spatially explicit model of coupled water and heat transport outside the xylem, MOFLO 2.0, to map the distribution of net evaporation across leaf tissues in relation to anatomy and environmental parameters...
February 2, 2017: Plant Physiology
Yotam Zait, Or Shapira, Amnon Schwartz
Stomatal oscillations are cyclic opening and closing of stomata, presumed to initiate from hydraulic mismatch between leaf water supply and transpiration rate. To test this assumption, mismatches between water supply and transpiration were induced using manipulations of VPD (vapor pressure deficit) and light spectrum in banana (Musa acuminata). Simultaneous measurements of gas exchange with changes in leaf turgor pressure were used to describe the hydraulic mismatches. An increase of VPD above a certain threshold, caused stomatal oscillations with variable amplitudes...
January 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Tianyi Hao, Sanfeng Chen
Paenibacillus polymyxa WLY78 is a nitrogen fixer and it can be potentially applied to biofertilizer in agriculture. In this study, P. polymyxa WLY78 is labelled with gfp gene. The GFP-labelled P. polymyxa WLY78 is used to inoculate wheat, maize and cucumber seedlings grown in the gnotobiotic system and in soil, respectively. Observation by confocal laser scanning microscope reveals that the GFP-labeled bacterial cells are mainly located on the root surface and epidermis of wheat, and only a few cells are present within cortical cells...
2017: PloS One
Michelle Schollert, Minna Kivimäenpää, Anders Michelsen, Daan Blok, Riikka Rinnan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate change in the Arctic is projected to increase temperature, precipitation and snowfall. This may alter leaf anatomy and gas exchange either directly or indirectly. Our aim was to assess whether increased snow depth and warming modify leaf anatomy and affect biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and CO2 exchange of the widespread arctic shrubs Betula nana and Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum METHODS: Measurements were conducted in a full-factorial field experiment in Central West Greenland, with passive summer warming by open-top chambers and snow addition using snow fences...
February 2017: Annals of Botany
Robert L Baker, Yulia Yarkhunova, Katherine Vidal, Brent E Ewers, Cynthia Weinig
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is well studied from a genetic and genomic perspective, but the morphological, anatomical, and physiological consequences of polyploidy remain relatively uncharacterized. Whether these potential changes bear on functional integration or are idiosyncratic remains an open question. Repeated allotetraploid events and multiple genomic combinations as well as overlapping targets of artificial selection make the Brassica triangle an excellent system for exploring variation in the connection between plant structure (anatomy and morphology) and function (physiology)...
January 5, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Cheng Peng, Xiu Liang, E-E Liu, Jian-Jun Zhang, Xin-Xiang Peng
Oxalic acid is widely distributed in biological systems and known to play functional roles in plants. The gene AAE3 was recently identified to encode an oxalyl-CoA synthetase (OCS) in Arabidopsis that catalyzes the conversion of oxalate and CoA into oxalyl-CoA. It will be even particularly significant to characterize the homologous gene in rice since rice is not only a monocotyledonous model plant, but also a staple food crop. Our current study firstly defined that AAE3 in the rice genome (OsAAE3) also encodes an OCS enzyme...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
Ulyana Zubairova, Sergey Nikolaev, Aleksey Penenko, Nikolay Podkolodnyy, Sergey Golushko, Dmitry Afonnikov, Nikolay Kolchanov
Understanding the principles and mechanisms of cell growth coordination in plant tissue remains an outstanding challenge for modern developmental biology. Cell-based modeling is a widely used technique for studying the geometric and topological features of plant tissue morphology during growth. We developed a quasi-one-dimensional model of unidirectional growth of a tissue layer in a linear leaf blade that takes cell autonomous growth mode into account. The model allows for fitting of the visible cell length using the experimental cell length distribution along the longitudinal axis of a wheat leaf epidermis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
L F da S Constantino, L B Dos S Nascimento, L M Casanova, N Dos S Moreira, E A Menezes, R L Esteves, S S Costa, E S Tavares
Crepis japonica (L.) D.C. (Asteraceae), a weed with antioxidant, antiallergenic, antiviral and antitumor properties displays both medicinal properties and nutritional value. This study aims to assess the effects of a supplementation of blue light and UV-A radiation on the growth, leaf anatomical structure and phenolic profile of the aerial parts of Crepis japonica. Plants were grown under two light treatments: W (control - white light), W + B (white light supplemented with blue light) and W + UV-A (white light supplemented with UV-A radiation)...
December 23, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Yun-Shiuan Chen, Peter Chesson, Ho-Wei Wu, Shang-Hung Pao, Jian-Wei Liu, Lee-Feng Chien, Jean W H Yong, Chiou-Rong Sheue
The presence of foliar variegation challenges perceptions of leaf form and functioning. But variegation is often incorrectly identified and misinterpreted. The striking variegation found in juvenile Blastus cochinchinensis (Melastomataceae) provides an instructive case study of mechanisms and their ecophysiological implications. Variegated (white and green areas, vw and vg) and non-variegated leaves (normal green leaves, ng) of seedlings of Blastus were compared structurally with microtechniques, and characterized for chlorophyll content and fluorescence...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Kai Tang, Jin-Yuan Liu
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes phospholipids to generate a free polar head group (e.g., choline) and a second messenger phosphatidic acid and plays diverse roles in plant growth and development, including seed germination, leaf senescence, root hair growth, and hypocotyl elongation. However, the function of PLD in cotton remains largely unexplored. Here, the comprehensive molecular characterization of GhPLDα1 was explored with its role in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development. The GhPLDα1 gene was cloned successfully, and a sequence alignment showed that GhPLDα1 contains one C2 domain and two HKD (HxKxxxxD) domains...
January 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
E S Assis, A Rubio Neto, P D S Cabral, F G Silva, L R Lima, S C Vasconcelos Filho
Mouriri elliptica (Mart.) is a genetic resource of the Cerrado domain, which has potential for food and medicinal use. A few studies have been performed on its in vitro propagation, and no studies have examined dissimilarities between plants of this species when cultivated in situ or in vitro. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to identify in vitro cultivation conditions that permit the formation of plantlets with leaf anatomical features that are less dissimilar to those of plants grown in situ...
October 6, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Hugo J de Boer, Paul L Drake, Erin Wendt, Charles A Price, Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Neil C Turner, Dean Nicolle, Erik J Veneklaas
Leaf veins supply the mesophyll with water that evaporates when stomata are open to allow CO2 uptake for photosynthesis. Theoretical analyses suggest that water is optimally distributed in the mesophyll when the lateral distance between veins (dx) is equal to the distance from these veins to the epidermis (dy), expressed as dx:dy ≈ 1. Although this theory is supported by observations of many derived angiosperms, we hypothesize that plants in arid environments may reduce dx:dy below unity owing to climate-specific functional adaptations of increased leaf thickness and increased vein density...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
Dhika Amanda, Monika S Doblin, Roberta Galletti, Antony Bacic, Gwyneth C Ingram, Kim L Johnson
The plant epidermis is crucial to survival, regulating interactions with the environment and controlling plant growth. The phytocalpain DEFECTIVE KERNEL1 (DEK1) is a master regulator of epidermal differentiation and maintenance, acting upstream of epidermis-specific transcription factors, and is required for correct cell adhesion. It is currently unclear how changes in DEK1 lead to cellular defects in the epidermis and the pathways through which DEK1 acts. We have combined growth kinematic studies, cell wall analysis, and transcriptional analysis of genes downstream of DEK1 to determine the cause of phenotypic changes observed in DEK1-modulated lines of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
Juan Chen, Zhi-Jun Shen, Wei-Zhi Lu, Xiang Liu, Fei-Hua Wu, Gui-Feng Gao, Yi-Ling Liu, Chun-Sheng Wu, Chong-Ling Yan, Hang-Qing Fan, Yi-Hui Zhang, Hai-Lei Zheng
Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh is a widespread mangrove species along the southeast coasts of China. Recently, the outbreak of herbivorous insect, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, a leaf miner, have impacted on the growth of A. marina Little is reported about the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection at the biochemical, physiological and molecular levels. Here, we reported the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection from the aspects of leaf structure, photosynthesis, and antioxidant system and miner responsive genes expression...
October 13, 2016: Tree Physiology
Lucas Busta, Daniela Hegebarth, Edward Kroc, Reinhard Jetter
Wax coverage on developing Arabidopsis leaf epidermis cells is constant and thus synchronized with cell expansion. Wax composition shifts from fatty acid to alkane dominance, mediated by CER6 expression. Epidermal cells bear a wax-sealed cuticle to hinder transpirational water loss. The amount and composition of the cuticular wax mixture may change as organs develop, to optimize the cuticle for specific functions during growth. Here, morphometrics, wax chemical profiling, and gene expression measurements were integrated to study developing Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and, thus, further our understanding of cuticular wax ontogeny...
October 11, 2016: Planta
Yi Xiao, Danny Tholen, Xin-Guang Zhu
Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Oliver Binks, Patrick Meir, Lucy Rowland, Antonio Carlos Lola da Costa, Steel Silva Vasconcelos, Alex Antonio Ribeiro de Oliveira, Leandro Ferreira, Maurizio Mencuccini
Dry periods are predicted to become more frequent and severe in the future in some parts of the tropics, including Amazonia, potentially causing reduced productivity, higher tree mortality and increased emissions of stored carbon. Using a long-term (12 year) through-fall exclusion (TFE) experiment in the tropics, we test the hypothesis that trees produce leaves adapted to cope with higher levels of water stress, by examining the following leaf characteristics: area, thickness, leaf mass per area, vein density, stomatal density, the thickness of palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and both of the epidermal layers, internal cavity volume and the average cell sizes of the palisade and spongy mesophyll...
December 2016: Tree Physiology
Triratnesh Gajbhiye, Sudhir Kumar Pandey, Ki-Hyun Kim, Jan E Szulejko, Satgur Prasad
In order to investigate possible foliar transfer of toxic heavy metals, concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe were measured in samples of: Cassia siamea leaves (a common tree) Cassia siamea foliar dust, nearby road dust, and soil (Cassia siamea tree roots) at six different sites in/around the Bilaspur industrial area and a control site on the university campus. Bilaspur is located in a subtropical central Indian region. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Pb and Cd, when derived using the crustal and measured soil Fe data as reference, indicated significant anthropogenic contributions to Pb and Cd regional pollution...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Chih-Pin Chiang, Won C Yim, Ying-Hsuan Sun, Miwa Ohnishi, Tetsuro Mimura, John C Cushman, Hungchen E Yen
The halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common or crystalline ice plant) is a useful model for studying molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance. The morphology, physiology, metabolism, and gene expression of ice plant have been studied and large-scale analyses of gene expression profiling have drawn an outline of salt tolerance in ice plant. A rapid root growth to a sudden increase in salinity was observed in ice plant seedlings. Using a fluorescent dye to detect Na(+), we found that ice plant roots respond to an increased flux of Na(+) by either secreting or storing Na(+) in specialized cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Maria Kendziorek, Maria Klimecka, Anna Barabasz, Sören Borg, Justyna Rudzka, Paweł Szczęsny, Danuta Maria Antosiewicz
BACKGROUND: To increase the Zn level in shoots, AtHMA4 was ectopically expressed in tomato under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. However, the Zn concentration in the shoots of transgenic plants failed to increase at all tested Zn levels in the medium. Modification of Zn root/shoot distribution in tomato expressing 35S::AtHMA4 depended on the concentration of Zn in the medium, thus indicating involvement of unknown endogenous metal-homeostasis mechanisms. To determine these mechanisms, those metal-homeostasis genes that were expressed differently in transgenic and wild-type plants were identified by microarray and RT-qPCR analysis using laser-assisted microdissected RNA isolated from two root sectors: (epidermis + cortex and stele), and leaf sectors (upper epidermis + palisade parenchyma and lower epidermis + spongy parenchyma)...
2016: BMC Genomics
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