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leaf epidermis

Atul Kabra, Rohit Sharma, Shivali Singla, Ruchika Kabra, Uttam Singh Baghel
BACKGROUND: Myrica esculenta (Family: Myricaceae) commonly known as Kaiphala or Katphala is a widely used medicinal plant in Ayurveda. In spite of its numerous medicinal attributes, no published work is available till date on pharmacognostical characterization and HPTLC analysis of its leaves. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pharmacognostical, physicochemical, and HPTLC profiles of M. esculenta leaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The measures taken for pharmacognostical characterization were organoleptic study, macroscopy, microscopy, powder microscopy, leaf constant, fluorescence analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and HPTLC spectra profile...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Gea Guerriero, Chinnoi Law, Ian Stokes, Katie L Moore, Christopher Exley
Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) plants grew healthily for 10 weeks under both Si-deficient and Si-replete conditions. After 10 weeks, plants grown under Si-deficient conditions succumbed to fungal infection. We have used NanoSIMS and fluorescence microscopy to investigate silica deposition in the tissues of these plants. Horsetail grown under Si-deficient conditions did not deposit identifiable amounts of silica in their tissues. Plants grown under Si-replete conditions accumulated silica throughout their tissues and especially in the epidermis of the outer side of the leaf and the furrow region of the stem where it was continuous and often, as a double layer suggestive of a barrier function...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Shang-Hung Pao, Ping-Yun Tsai, Ching-I Peng, Pei-Ju Chen, Chi-Chu Tsai, En-Cheng Yang, Ming-Chih Shih, Jiannyeu Chen, Jun-Yi Yang, Peter Chesson, Chiou-Rong Sheue
Iridoplasts (modified plastids in adaxial epidermal cells) reported from Begonia were originally hypothesized to cause iridescence, which was broadly accepted for decades. However, several species of Begonia with iridoplasts are not iridescent causing confusion. Here chloroplast ultrastructure was observed in 40 taxa of Begoniaceae to explore the phenomenon of iridescence. However, 22 Begonias and Hillebrandia were found to have iridoplasts, but only nine display visually iridescent blue to blue-green leaves...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Anfal Alsharekh, Lucinda J Swatzell, Matthew T Moore
American bur-reed (Sparganium americanum Nutt.), a common aquatic plant in the middle and eastern United States and Canada, is often located in water-retaining drainage areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the leaf composition of S. americanum, paying attention to the cuticular waxes and the epidermis, and its ability to sorb pesticides. S. americanum leaves (n = 100) were collected in both early (June) and late (August) summer. Transverse sections of S. americanum were stained and studied with brightfield and fluorescence microscopy to estimate the structural and chemical nature of the leaf tissues cross sections...
February 26, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Barbara Neuffer, Christina Wesse, Ingo Voss, Renate Scheibe
For almost 100 years now, ecotypic differentiation of plant species has been a major topic of research. In changing environments, the question needs to be answered as to how long it takes to adapt, and which parameters are subject to this fast adaptation. Short-living colonizing plant species are excellent examples, especially when they are selfing. Shepherd's Purse Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae) is one of the most wide-spread flowering species on earth and avoids only the hot and humid tropics. Many studies demonstrated the ecotypic differentiation of C...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Yueyue Tian, Yunhe Zhao, Lixia Zhang, Wei Mu, Zhengqun Zhang
The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an economically important pest of tea crops, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Ericales: Theaceae), in China. The morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes of two tea cultivars, the normal green tea cultivar 'Fudingdabai' and the novel chlorophyll-deficient albino cultivar 'Huangjinya', infested by E. onukii were investigated to determine the tolerance of different tea cultivars to E. onukii attack. E.onukii infestation affected the growth of tea plants, and decreased the shoot length, leaf area, leaf thickness, and stem diameter...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Makoto T Fujiwara, Mana Yasuzawa, Kei H Kojo, Yasuo Niwa, Tomoko Abe, Shigeo Yoshida, Takeshi Nakano, Ryuuichi D Itoh
Chloroplasts, or photosynthetic plastids, multiply by binary fission, forming a homogeneous population in plant cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the division apparatus (or division ring) of mesophyll chloroplasts includes an inner envelope transmembrane protein ARC6, a cytoplasmic dynamin-related protein ARC5 (DRP5B), and members of the FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 families of proteins, which co-assemble in the stromal mid-plastid division ring (FtsZ ring). FtsZ ring placement is controlled by several proteins, including a stromal factor MinE (AtMinE1)...
2018: PloS One
Caio Guilherme Pereira, Peta L Clode, Rafael S Oliveira, Hans Lambers
Plants allocate nutrients to specific leaf cell types, with commelinoid monocots preferentially allocating phosphorus (P) to the mesophyll and calcium (Ca) to the epidermis, whereas the opposite is thought to occur in eudicots. However, Proteaceae from severely P-impoverished habitats present the same P-allocation pattern as monocots. This raises the question of whether preferential P allocation to mesophyll cells is a phylogenetically conserved trait, exclusive to commelinoid monocots and a few Proteaceae, or a trait that has evolved multiple times to allow plants to cope with very low soil P availability...
February 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Nicia E G Junqueira, Bianca Ortiz-Silva, Marcos Vinícius Leal-Costa, Márcio Alves-Ferreira, Hugh G Dickinson, Jane A Langdale, Fernanda Reinert
Background and Aims: Setaria viridis is being promoted as a model C4 photosynthetic plant because it has a small genome (~515 Mb), a short life cycle (~60 d) and it can be transformed. Unlike other C4 grasses such as maize, however, there is very little information about how C4 leaf anatomy (Kranz anatomy) develops in S. viridis. As a foundation for future developmental genetic studies, we provide an anatomical and ultrastructural framework of early shoot development in S. viridis, focusing on the initiation of Kranz anatomy in seed leaves...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Cíntia Maria Teixeira Lins, Edivan Rodrigues de Souza, Hidelblandi Farias de Melo, Martha Katharinne Silva Souza Paulino, Pablo Rugero Dourado Magalhães, Lucas Yago de Carvalho Leal, Hugo Rafael Bentzen Santos
The survival of Atriplex nummularia plants in saline environments is possible mainly due to the presence of salt-accumulating epidermal vesicles. Commonly, destructive methods, such as plant material maceration and subsequent reading in osmometers, are employed in studies on water relations and osmotic adjustment and are inconvenient due to their underestimation of the total water potential inside the cells, which can cause overestimation of an osmotic adjustment that is not present. As a result, methods that preserve leaf structure, such as pressure-volume (P-V) curves, which take into consideration only the salts that compose the symplastic solution, are more adequate...
January 25, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Shayan Jamshed, Asad Ullah, Raees Khan, Altaf Hussain
Common mulberry weed (Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai) and creeping amaranth (Amaranthus crassipes Schlecht) are reported for the first time in Pakistan's flora as these were not listed in any other literature nor identified before in Pakistan. Plants were found as a result of taxonomic studies performed in 2013 in Peshawar, Pakistan. Detail study was performed for the exact identification. Morphological results were compared with Flora of China and Flora of North America. Plant distribution along with its habitat and adjacent species was also recorded...
January 31, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Wonseok Lee, Jongsang Son, Seonghyun Kim, Dongmin Yang, Seungyeop Choi, Rodrigo Akira Watanabe, Kyo Seon Hwang, Sang Woo Lee, Gyudo Lee, Dae Sung Yoon
Here, we report a new concept of both the adhesive manner and material, named "adhesive leaf (AL)," based on the leaf of the plant Heteropanax fragrans. The treatment of the corona discharge on the leaf surface can cause the nano-/microdestruction of the leaf epidermis, resulting in an outward release of sap. The glucose-containing sap provided the AL with a unique ability to stick to various substrates such as steel, polypropylene, and glass. Moreover, we reveal that the AL adhesion strength depends on the AL size, as well as the corona-discharge intensity...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tingxiang Yan, Ling Li, Lihui Xie, Minghui Chen, Qian Shen, Qifang Pan, Xueqing Fu, Pu Shi, Yueli Tang, Huayi Huang, Yiwen Huang, Youran Huang, Kexuan Tang
Glandular trichomes and cuticles are both specialized structures that cover the epidermis of aerial plant organs. The former are commonly regarded as 'biofactories' for producing valuable natural products. The latter are generally considered as natural barriers for defending plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. However, the regulatory network for their formation and relationship remains largely elusive. Here we identify a homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) IV transcription factor, AaHD8, directly promoting the expression of AaHD1 for glandular trichome initiation in Artemisia annua...
January 29, 2018: New Phytologist
Xiaohui Yu, Guoping Chen, Boyan Tang, Jianling Zhang, Shengen Zhou, Zongli Hu
JAZ (Jasmonate ZIM-domain) proteins are important repressors in JA signaling pathway. JAZs were proved taking part in various development processes and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabiodopsis. However, in tomato, the functional study of JAZs is rare, especially on plant growth and development. Here, a typical tomato JAZ gene, SlJAZ2 was isolated. Tomato plants overexpressing SlJAZ2 exhibited quicker leaf initiation, reduced plant height and internode length, decreasing trichomes, earlier lateral bud emergence and advanced flowering transition...
February 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Mingli Yong, Yijia Liu, Tianqi Chen, Linlin Fan, Zhengyi Wang, Dongwei Hu
In recent years, false smut disease of rice has been one of the most important diseases of cultivated rice in China. Ustilaginoidea virens is an ascomycete fungal pathogen that causes false smut in rice. There is always controversy about whether the pathogen can infect the rice root and cause the occurrence of false smut, mainly due to lack direct cytological evidence. In our study, we observed the cytological structure of rice root invaded by U. virens. The results showed that U. virens could attach to the surface of young roots and penetrate into the intercellular space of the root epidermis...
January 22, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Haifei Chen, Quan Zhang, Hongmei Cai, Wei Zhou, Fangsen Xu
The uptake of nitrate by plant roots causes a pH increment in rhizosphere and leads to iron (Fe) deficiency in rice. However, little is known about the mechanism how the nitrate uptake-induced high rhizosphere pH causes Fe deficiency. Here, we found that rice showed severe leaf chlorosis and large amounts of Fe plaque were aggregated on the root surface and intercellular space outside the exodermis in a form of ferrihydrite under alkaline conditions. In this case, there was significantly decreased Fe concentration in shoots and the Fe deficiency responsive genes were strongly induced in the roots...
January 16, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Hehe Wang, Christine McTavish, William W Turechek
Xanthomonas fragariae causes angular leaf spot of strawberry, an important disease in strawberry growing regions worldwide. To better understand how X. fragariae multiplies and moves in strawberry plants, a GFP-labelled strain was constructed and used to monitor the pathogen's presence in leaf, petiole, and crown tissue with fluorescence microscopy following natural and wound inoculation in three strawberry cultivars. Taqman PCR was used to quantify bacterial densities in these same tissues regardless of the presence of GFP signal...
January 3, 2018: Phytopathology
Marisia Pannia Esposito, Ricardo Keiichi Nakazato, Andrea Nunes Vaz Pedroso, Marcos Enoque Leite Lima, Maurílio Assis Figueiredo, Adriana Pedrosa Diniz, Alessandra Rodrigues Kozovits, Marisa Domingos
The extensive land occupation in Southeast Brazil has resulted in climatic disturbances and environmental contamination by air pollutants, threatening the Atlantic forest remnants that still exist in that region. Based on previous results, we assumed that pioneer tree species are potentially more tolerant against environmental oxidative stress than non-pioneer tree species from that Brazilian biome. We also assumed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are accumulated in higher proportions in leaves of non-pioneer trees, resulting in changes in the oxidant-antioxidant balance and in more severe oxidative damage at the cellular level than in the leaves of pioneer trees...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jessica L Erickson, Norman Adlung, Christina Lampe, Ulla Bonas, Martin H Schattat
Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria type III secreted effectors were screened for candidates influencing plant cell processes relevant to the formation and maintenance of stromules in Nicotiana benthamiana lower leaf epidermis. Transient expression of XopL, a unique type of E3 ubiquitin ligase, led to a nearly complete elimination of stromules and the relocation of plastids to the nucleus. Further characterization of XopL revealed that the E3 ligase activity is essential for the two plastid phenotypes. In contrast to XopL wild type, a mutant XopL lacking E3 ligase activity specifically localized to microtubules...
December 29, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Nguyen Manh Linh, Carla Verna, Enrico Scarpella
During development, the behavior of cells in tissues is coordinated along specific orientations or directions by coordinating the polar localization of components in those cells. The coordination of such cell polarity is perhaps nowhere more spectacular than in developing leaves, where the polarity of hundreds of cells is coordinated in the leaf epidermis and inner tissue to pattern vein networks. Available evidence suggests that the spectacular coordination of cell polarity that patterns vein networks is controlled by auxin transport and levels, and by genes that have been implicated in the polar localization of auxin transporters...
December 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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