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leaf epidermis

Kai Tang, Jin-Yuan Liu
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes phospholipids to generate a free polar head group (e.g., choline) and a second messenger phosphatidic acid and plays diverse roles in plant growth and development, including seed germination, leaf senescence, root hair growth, and hypocotyl elongation. However, the function of PLD in cotton remains largely unexplored. Here, the comprehensive molecular characterization of GhPLDα1 was explored with its role in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development. The GhPLDα1 gene was cloned successfully, and a sequence alignment showed that GhPLDα1 contains one C2 domain and two HKD (HxKxxxxD) domains...
November 17, 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
E S Assis, A Rubio Neto, P D S Cabral, F G Silva, L R Lima, S C Vasconcelos Filho
Mouriri elliptica (Mart.) is a genetic resource of the Cerrado domain, which has potential for food and medicinal use. A few studies have been performed on its in vitro propagation, and no studies have examined dissimilarities between plants of this species when cultivated in situ or in vitro. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to identify in vitro cultivation conditions that permit the formation of plantlets with leaf anatomical features that are less dissimilar to those of plants grown in situ...
October 6, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Hugo J de Boer, Paul L Drake, Erin Wendt, Charles A Price, Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Neil C Turner, Dean Nicolle, Erik J Veneklaas
Leaf veins supply the mesophyll with water that evaporates when stomata are open to allow CO2 uptake for photosynthesis. Theoretical analyses suggest that water is optimally distributed in the mesophyll when the lateral distance between veins (dx) is equal to the distance from these veins to the epidermis (dy), expressed as dx:dy ≈ 1. Although this theory is supported by observations of many derived angiosperms, we hypothesize that plants in arid environments may reduce dx:dy below unity owing to climate-specific functional adaptations of increased leaf thickness and increased vein density...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
Dhika Amanda, Monika S Doblin, Roberta Galletti, Antony Bacic, Gwyneth C Ingram, Kim L Johnson
The plant epidermis is crucial to survival, regulating interactions with the environment and controlling plant growth. The phytocalpain DEFECTIVE KERNEL1 (DEK1) is a master regulator of epidermal differentiation and maintenance, acting upstream of epidermis-specific transcription factors, and is required for correct cell adhesion. It is currently unclear how changes in DEK1 lead to cellular defects in the epidermis and the pathways through which DEK1 acts. We have combined growth kinematic studies, cell wall analysis, and transcriptional analysis of genes downstream of DEK1 to determine the cause of phenotypic changes observed in DEK1-modulated lines of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
Juan Chen, Zhi-Jun Shen, Wei-Zhi Lu, Xiang Liu, Fei-Hua Wu, Gui-Feng Gao, Yi-Ling Liu, Chun-Sheng Wu, Chong-Ling Yan, Hang-Qing Fan, Yi-Hui Zhang, Hai-Lei Zheng
Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh is a widespread mangrove species along the southeast coasts of China. Recently, the outbreak of herbivorous insect, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, a leaf miner, have impacted on the growth of A. marina Little is reported about the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection at the biochemical, physiological and molecular levels. Here, we reported the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection from the aspects of leaf structure, photosynthesis, and antioxidant system and miner responsive genes expression...
October 13, 2016: Tree Physiology
Lucas Busta, Daniela Hegebarth, Edward Kroc, Reinhard Jetter
Wax coverage on developing Arabidopsis leaf epidermis cells is constant and thus synchronized with cell expansion. Wax composition shifts from fatty acid to alkane dominance, mediated by CER6 expression. Epidermal cells bear a wax-sealed cuticle to hinder transpirational water loss. The amount and composition of the cuticular wax mixture may change as organs develop, to optimize the cuticle for specific functions during growth. Here, morphometrics, wax chemical profiling, and gene expression measurements were integrated to study developing Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and, thus, further our understanding of cuticular wax ontogeny...
October 11, 2016: Planta
Yi Xiao, Danny Tholen, Xin-Guang Zhu
Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Oliver Binks, Patrick Meir, Lucy Rowland, Antonio Carlos Lola da Costa, Steel Silva Vasconcelos, Alex Antonio Ribeiro de Oliveira, Leandro Ferreira, Maurizio Mencuccini
Dry periods are predicted to become more frequent and severe in the future in some parts of the tropics, including Amazonia, potentially causing reduced productivity, higher tree mortality and increased emissions of stored carbon. Using a long-term (12 year) through-fall exclusion (TFE) experiment in the tropics, we test the hypothesis that trees produce leaves adapted to cope with higher levels of water stress, by examining the following leaf characteristics: area, thickness, leaf mass per area, vein density, stomatal density, the thickness of palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and both of the epidermal layers, internal cavity volume and the average cell sizes of the palisade and spongy mesophyll...
September 10, 2016: Tree Physiology
Triratnesh Gajbhiye, Sudhir Kumar Pandey, Ki-Hyun Kim, Jan E Szulejko, Satgur Prasad
In order to investigate possible foliar transfer of toxic heavy metals, concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe were measured in samples of: Cassia siamea leaves (a common tree) Cassia siamea foliar dust, nearby road dust, and soil (Cassia siamea tree roots) at six different sites in/around the Bilaspur industrial area and a control site on the university campus. Bilaspur is located in a subtropical central Indian region. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Pb and Cd, when derived using the crustal and measured soil Fe data as reference, indicated significant anthropogenic contributions to Pb and Cd regional pollution...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Chih-Pin Chiang, Won C Yim, Ying-Hsuan Sun, Miwa Ohnishi, Tetsuro Mimura, John C Cushman, Hungchen E Yen
The halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common or crystalline ice plant) is a useful model for studying molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance. The morphology, physiology, metabolism, and gene expression of ice plant have been studied and large-scale analyses of gene expression profiling have drawn an outline of salt tolerance in ice plant. A rapid root growth to a sudden increase in salinity was observed in ice plant seedlings. Using a fluorescent dye to detect Na(+), we found that ice plant roots respond to an increased flux of Na(+) by either secreting or storing Na(+) in specialized cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Maria Kendziorek, Maria Klimecka, Anna Barabasz, Sören Borg, Justyna Rudzka, Paweł Szczęsny, Danuta Maria Antosiewicz
BACKGROUND: To increase the Zn level in shoots, AtHMA4 was ectopically expressed in tomato under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. However, the Zn concentration in the shoots of transgenic plants failed to increase at all tested Zn levels in the medium. Modification of Zn root/shoot distribution in tomato expressing 35S::AtHMA4 depended on the concentration of Zn in the medium, thus indicating involvement of unknown endogenous metal-homeostasis mechanisms. To determine these mechanisms, those metal-homeostasis genes that were expressed differently in transgenic and wild-type plants were identified by microarray and RT-qPCR analysis using laser-assisted microdissected RNA isolated from two root sectors: (epidermis + cortex and stele), and leaf sectors (upper epidermis + palisade parenchyma and lower epidermis + spongy parenchyma)...
2016: BMC Genomics
Daniela Hegebarth, Christopher Buschhaus, May Wu, David Bird, Reinhard Jetter
To protect plants against biotic and abiotic stress, the waxy cuticle must coat all epidermis cells. Here, two independent approaches addressed whether cell-type-specific differences exist between wax compositions on trichomes and other epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, possibly with different protection roles. First, the total waxes from a mutant lacking trichomes (gl1) were compared to waxes from wild type and a trichome-rich mutant (cpc tcl1 etc1 etc3). In the stem wax, compounds with aliphatic chains longer than 31 carbons (derived from C32 precursors) increased in relative abundance in cpc tcl1 etc1 etc3 over gl1...
August 6, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Giulia Castorina, Samantha Fox, Chiara Tonelli, Massimo Galbiati, Lucio Conti
BACKGROUND: Guard cells (GCs) are specialised cells within the plant epidermis which form stomatal pores, through which gas exchange can occur. The GCs derive through a specialised lineage of cell divisions which is specified by the transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH), the expression of which can be detected in undifferentiated epidermal cells prior to asymmetric division. Other transcription factors may act before GC specification and be required for correct GC patterning. Previously, the DOF transcription factor STOMATAL CARPENTER 1 (SCAP1) was shown to be involved in GC function, by activating a set of GC-specific genes required for GC maturation and activity...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Makoto Shirakawa, Haruko Ueda, Tomoo Shimada, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura
Plants use sophisticated defense strategies against herbivores, including the myrosinase-glucosinolate system in Brassicales plants. This system sequesters myrosinase in myrosin cells, which are idioblasts in inner leaf tissues, and produces a toxic compound when cells are damaged by herbivores. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying myrosin cell development are largely unknown, recent studies have revealed that two key components, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor (FAMA) and vesicle trafficking factors (such as SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 22), regulate the differentiation and fate determination of myrosin cells...
October 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Marcos Frías, Mario González, Celedonio González, Nélida Brito
BcIEB1 is a very abundant protein in the secretome of Botrytis cinerea but it has no known function and no similarity to any characterized protein family. Previous results suggested that this protein is an elicitor of the plant defense system. In this work we have generated loss-of-function B. cinerea mutants lacking BcIEB1 and we have expressed the protein in yeast to assay its activity on plants. Analysis of the Δbcieb1 mutants did not result in any observable phenotype, including no difference in the virulence on a variety of hosts...
September 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
N G Ribeiro-Júnior, A P R Ariano, I V Silva
The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso...
July 11, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Blazej Slazak, Małgorzata Kapusta, Sohaib Malik, Jerzy Bohdanowicz, Elżbieta Kuta, Przemysław Malec, Ulf Göransson
The distribution of cyclotides was visualized in plant cells, tissues and organs using immunohistochemistry. Finding of cyclotides in tissues potentially vulnerable to pathogen attacks supports their role as defense molecules. The cyclotide family of plant peptides is characterized by the cyclic cystine knot motif and its diverse biological activities. Given their insecticidal and antimicrobial properties, the role of cyclotides in planta is probably associated with host defense. Our current understanding of the cellular compartmentalization of cyclotides in the vacuole is based on indirect studies on transgenic model plants that do not express cyclotides naturally...
July 9, 2016: Planta
Motomu Endo, Hanako Shimizu, Takashi Araki
To understand physiological phenomena at the tissue level, elucidation of tissue-specific molecular functions in vivo is required. As an example of the current state of affairs, many genes in plants have been reported to have discordant levels of expression between bulk tissues and the specific tissues in which the respective gene product is principally functional. The principal challenge in deciphering such tissue-specific functions lies in separating tissues with high spatiotemporal resolution to evaluate accurate gene expression profiles...
August 2016: Nature Protocols
Wurina Tong, Akihiro Imai, Ryo Tabata, Shuji Shigenobu, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Masashi Yamada, Mitsuyasu Hasebe, Shinichiro Sawa, Hiroyasu Motose, Taku Takahashi
Polyamines are small basic compounds present in all living organisms and act in a variety of biological processes. However, the mechanism of polyamine sensing, signaling and response in relation to other metabolic pathways remains to be fully addressed in plant cells. As one approach, we isolated Arabidopsis mutants that show increased resistance to spermine in terms of chlorosis. We show here that two of the mutants have a point mutation in a nitrate transporter gene of the NRT1/PTR family (NPF), NRT1.3 (AtNPF6...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Martha Lima de Oliveira, Edésio José Tenório de Melo, Flávio Costa Miguens
Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure...
September 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
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