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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929679/-identification-of-six-species-of-medicinal-diospyros-plants-based-on-leaf-macro-and-micro-morphology
#1
Ze Yi, Juan-Juan Qiao, Geng-Yu Lu, Gang Wu, Guo-Yong Xie, Min-Jian Qin
To establish a method for the identification of five species and one variety of medicinal plants from Diospyros, their leaf veins, epidermis, anatomic and powder characters were observed and compared with macro-morphological and microscopic methods. The results indicated the differences of secondary and tertiary veins among those Diospyros species. The single cell non-glandular hair and glandular hair exist in most species' epidermis while stone cells were only found in the leaf powders of two species. Through the study, the main differences of leaf macro- and micro-morphology of these species were obtained and practical keys were also established, which can provide scientific base not only for identification of these species during their vegetative stages, but also for accuracy authentication of the source of Kaki Folium...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922762/three-myb-genes-co-regulate-the-phloem-based-defence-against-english-grain-aphid-in-wheat
#2
Yan Zhai, Ping Li, Yu Mei, Mingye Chen, Xiaochen Chen, Heng Xu, Xuan Zhou, Hansong Dong, Chunling Zhang, Weihua Jiang
Plant phloem-based defence (PBD) against phloem-feeding insects is characteristic of the sieve occlusion by phloem lectins and β-1,3-glucan callose, both of which are produced under regulation by ethylene and MYB transcription factors. Wheat PBD requires β-1,3-glucan synthase-like proteins GSL2, GSL10, and GSL12, and may also require insect-resistant mannose-binding lectins Hfr-1 and Wci-1, which can accumulate in the phloem upon aphid feeding. This study elucidates whether any of the 73 MYB genes identified previously in the common wheat Triticum aestivum genome plays a role in wheat PBD activation with regard to the GSLs and lectins...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914360/adaptive-variation-in-vein-placement-underpins-diversity-in-a-major-neotropical-plant-radiation
#3
Jamie Males
Vein placement has been hypothesised to control leaf hydraulic properties, but the ecophysiological significance of variation in vein placement in the angiosperms has remained poorly understood. The highly diverse Neotropical Bromeliaceae offers an excellent system for exploring understudied relationships between leaf vein placement, physiological functions, and species ecology. To test key hypotheses regarding the links between vein placement, functional type divergences, and ecological diversity in the Bromeliaceae, I characterised the ratio of interveinal distance (IVD) to vein-epidermis distance (VED) in 376 species, representing all major functional types and 10% of the species diversity in the family, as well as bioclimatic properties and key leaf traits for subsets of species...
September 15, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901804/histological-and-antimicrobial-study-of-ononis-arvensis-l
#4
Tünde Dénes, Sámuel Gergely Bartha, Mónika Kerényi, Erzsébet Varga, Viktória Lilla Balázs, Rita Csepregi, Nóra Papp
In this study field restharrow (Ononis arvensis) was investigated for histological and antimicrobial features. The aerial part and the root were embedded in synthetic resin and investigated following sectioning by a rotation microtome. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of the solvent fractions of the aerial part were studied against four bacterial strains and one fungus. According to histology, the root covered by rhizodermis contains contiguous vascular elements, which are surrounded by sclerenchyma cells...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898654/plant-cell-walls
#5
Herman Höfte, Aline Voxeur
Plants are able to generate large leaf surfaces that act as two-dimensional solar panels with a minimum investment in building material, thanks to a hydrostatic skeleton. This requires high intracellular pressures (up to 1 MPa), which depend on the presence of strong cell walls. The walls of growing cells (also called primary walls), are remarkably able to reconcile extreme tensile strength (up to 100 MPa) with the extensibility necessary for growth. All walled organisms are confronted with this dilemma - the need to balance strength and extensibility - and bacteria, fungi and plants have evolved independent solutions to cope...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857671/effect-of-cuscuta-campestris-parasitism-on-the-physiological-and-anatomical-changes-in-untreated-and-herbicide-treated-sugar-beet
#6
Marija M Saric-Krsmanovic, Dragana M Bozic, Ljiljana M Radivojevic, Jelena S Gajic Umiljendic, Sava P Vrbnicanin
The effects of field dodder on physiological and anatomical processes in untreated sugar beet plants and the effects of propyzamide on field dodder were examined under controlled conditions. The experiment included the following variants: N-noninfested sugar beet plants (control); I - infested sugar beet plants (untreated), and infested plants treated with propyzamide (1500 g a.i. ha(-1) (T1) and 2000 g a.i. ha(-1)(T2)). The following parameters were checked: physiological-pigment contents (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total carotenoids); anatomical -leaf parameters: thickness of epidermis, parenchyma and spongy tissue, mesophyll and underside leaf epidermis, and diameter of bundle sheath cells; petiole parameters: diameter of tracheid, petiole hydraulic conductance, xylem surface, phloem cell diameter and phloem area in sugar beet plants...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776293/effects-of-an-oil-spill-on-the-leaf-anatomical-characteristics-of-a-beach-plant-terminalia-catappa-l
#7
Paramita Punwong, Yotin Juprasong, Paweena Traiperm
This study investigated the short-term impacts of an oil spill on the leaf anatomical structures of Terminalia catappa L. from crude oil leakage in Rayong province, Thailand, in 2013. Approximately 3 weeks after the oil spill, leaves of T. catappa were collected along the coastline of Rayong from one affected site, five adjacent sites, and a control site. Slides of the leaf epidermis were prepared by the peeling method, while leaf and petiole transverse sections were prepared by paraffin embedding. Cell walls of adaxial epidermal cell on leaves in the affected site were straight instead of the jigsaw shape found in leaves from the adjacent and control sites...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769937/juvenile-coffee-leaves-acclimated-to-low-light-are-unable-to-cope-with-a-moderate-light-increase
#8
Claudine Campa, Laurent Urban, Laurence Mondolot, Denis Fabre, Sandrine Roques, Yves Lizzi, Jawad Aarrouf, Sylvie Doulbeau, Jean-Christophe Breitler, Céline Letrez, Lucile Toniutti, Benoit Bertrand, Philippe La Fisca, Luc P R Bidel, Hervé Etienne
The understorey origin of coffee trees and the strong plasticity of Coffea arabica leaves in relation to contrasting light environments have been largely shown. The adaptability of coffee leaves to changes in light was tested under controlled conditions by increasing the illumination rate on C. arabica var. Naryelis seedlings acclimated to low light conditions and observing leaf responses at three different developmental stages (juvenile, growing and mature). Only mature leaves proved capable of adapting to new light conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721521/expression-patterns-of-the-native-shrunken-2-promoter-in-sorghum-bicolor-visualised-through-use-of-the-gfp-reporter-gene
#9
Kyle C Lamont, Stephen R Mudge, Guoquan Liu, Ian D Godwin
The AGPase large subunit (shrunken-2) promoter was demonstrated to be active in the placentochalaza and endosperm of developing grain as well as the root tips in transgenic sorghum. The temporal and spatial expression patterns of the Sorghum bicolor Shrunken-2 (Sh2) promoter were evaluated using the green fluorescence protein reporter gene (gfp) in transgenic sorghum, within the context of upregulating starch biosynthesis in the developing grain. GFP fluorescence was analysed throughout development in various tissue types using confocal laser scanning microscopy techniques...
July 18, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698906/comparative-ultrastructure-of-fruit-plastids-in-three-genetically-diverse-genotypes-of-apple-malus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-domestica-borkh-during-development
#10
Scott M Schaeffer, Ryan Christian, Nohely Castro-Velasquez, Brennan Hyden, Valerie Lynch-Holm, Amit Dhingra
Comparative ultrastructural developmental time-course analysis has identified discrete stages at which the fruit plastids undergo structural and consequently functional transitions to facilitate subsequent development-guided understanding of the complex plastid biology. Plastids are the defining organelle for a plant cell and are critical for myriad metabolic functions. The role of leaf plastid, chloroplast, is extensively documented; however, fruit plastids-chromoplasts-are poorly understood, especially in the context of the diverse metabolic processes operating in these diverse plant organs...
July 11, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652343/local-auxin-production-underlies-a-spatially-restricted-neighbor-detection-response-in-arabidopsis
#11
Olivier Michaud, Anne-Sophie Fiorucci, Ioannis Xenarios, Christian Fankhauser
Competition for light triggers numerous developmental adaptations known as the "shade-avoidance syndrome" (SAS). Important molecular events underlying specific SAS responses have been identified. However, in natural environments light is often heterogeneous, and it is currently unknown how shading affecting part of a plant leads to local responses. To study this question, we analyzed upwards leaf movement (hyponasty), a rapid adaptation to neighbor proximity, in Arabidopsis We show that manipulation of the light environment at the leaf tip triggers a hyponastic response that is restricted to the treated leaf...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644708/the-arabidopsis-mind-mutation-causes-aberrant-ftsz1-ring-placement-and-moderate-heterogeneity-of-chloroplasts-in-the-leaf-epidermis
#12
Makoto T Fujiwara, Mana Yasuzawa, Shun Sasaki, Takeshi Nakano, Yasuo Niwa, Shigeo Yoshida, Tomoko Abe, Ryuuichi D Itoh
Symmetric division of leaf mesophyll chloroplasts requires MinD and MinE, which work together to suppress division other than at the mid-chloroplast. arc11 is a MinD loss-of-function mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. In arc11 plants, asymmetric chloroplast division, as well as its delay or arrest, results in extreme size polymorphism of chloroplasts in mature mesophyll cells. The current study examined chloroplast phenotypes in the epidermis of arc11 leaves. Fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed that epidermal chloroplasts in mature leaves exhibited moderate heterogeneity in size...
July 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606082/expression-and-functional-analyses-of-a-kinesin-gene-ghkis13a1-from-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-fiber
#13
Yan-Jun Li, Shou-Hong Zhu, Xin-Yu Zhang, Yong-Chang Liu, Fei Xue, Lan-Jie Zhao, Jie Sun
BACKGROUND: Cotton fiber, a natural fiber widely used in the textile industry, is differentiated from single cell of ovule epidermis. A large number of genes are believed to be involved in fiber formation, but so far only a few fiber genes have been isolated and functionally characterized in this developmental process. The Kinesin13 subfamily was found to play key roles during cell division and cell elongation, and was considered to be involved in the regulation of cotton fiber development...
June 12, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597435/micro-morphological-study-of-evolvulus-spp-convolvulaceae-the-old-world-medicinal-plants
#14
Kanapol Ketjarun, George W Staples, Sasivimon C Swangpol, Paweena Traiperm
BACKGROUND: Several medicinal properties have been reported for plants in the genus Evolvulus, such as a brain tonic and antifungal from Evolvulus alsinoides, and a sedative and an anthelmintic from Evolvulus nummularius. Therefore, the correct identification of the source plants is critically important. The aim of this research was to investigate the micromorphology of two Evolvulus taxa used for herbal medicines compared with one worldwide ornamental species by using peeling, paraffin embedding, acetolysis, and SEM methods in order to support species identification...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577195/identification-among-morphologically-similar-argyreia-convolvulaceae-based-on-leaf-anatomy-and-phenetic-analyses
#15
Paweena Traiperm, Janene Chow, Possathorn Nopun, G Staples, Sasivimon C Swangpol
BACKGROUND: The genus Argyreia Lour. is one of the species-rich Asian genera in the family Convolvulaceae. Several species complexes were recognized in which taxon delimitation was imprecise, especially when examining herbarium materials without fully developed open flowers. The main goal of this study is to investigate and describe leaf anatomy for some morphologically similar Argyreia using epidermal peeling, leaf and petiole transverse sections, and scanning electron microscopy. Phenetic analyses including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to investigate the similarity of these morpho-types...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573169/surface-inoculation-and-quantification-of-pseudomonas-syringae-population-in-the-arabidopsis-leaf-apoplast
#16
Cristián Jacob, Shweta Panchal, Maeli Melotto
Bacterial pathogens must enter the plant tissue in order to cause a successful infection. Foliar bacterial pathogens that are not able to directly penetrate the plant epidermis rely on wounds or natural openings to internalize leaves. This protocol describes a procedure to estimate the population size of Pseudomonas syringae in the leaf apoplast after surface inoculation of Arabidopsis rosettes.
March 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510195/meso-or-xeromorphic-foliar-characters-of-asteraceae-in-a-xeric-scrub-of-mexico
#17
Patricia Rivera, José Luis Villaseñor, Teresa Terrazas
BACKGROUND: The anatomical traits associated with water deficit are also observed in plants growing in poor soils. The species may resist water deficit through three main strategies: escape, avoid or tolerate. The Pedregal de San Ángel Ecological Reserve (REPSA), Mexico, is an environment with low nutrient soil and low water availability. It is set on the basalt formation derived from the Xitle volcano eruption. The main vegetation type is characterized as xerophytic shrub. Thus we expect that species growing in this community will show leaf xeromorphic traits and may have any of the three response strategies...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437138/epidemiology-of-basil-downy-mildew
#18
Yigal Cohen, Yariv Ben-Naim, Lidan Falach, Evgenia Rubin
Basil downy mildew (BDM) caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii is a destructive disease of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) worldwide. It has originated in Uganda in the 1930's and recently spread to Europe, Middle East, Americas and the Far East. Seed transmission may be responsible to its quick global spread. The pathogen attacks leaf blades, producing chlorotic lesions with ample dark asexual spores on the lower leaf surface. Oospores may occur in the mesophyll of infected leaves. The asexual spores germinate on a wet leaf surface within 2h and penetrate into the epidermis within 4h...
April 24, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407190/selection-of-morphoagronomic-descriptors-for-the-characterization-of-accessions-of-cassava-of-the-eastern-brazilian-amazon
#19
R S Silva, E F Moura, J T Farias-Neto, C A S Ledo, J E Sampaio
The aim of this study was to select morphoagronomic descriptors to characterize cassava accessions representative of Eastern Brazilian Amazonia. It was characterized 262 accessions using 21 qualitative descriptors. The multiple-correspondence analysis (MCA) technique was applied using the criteria: contribution of the descriptor in the last factorial axis of analysis in successive cycles (SMCA); reverse order of the descriptor's contribution in the last factorial axis of analysis with all descriptors ('O'´p') of Jolliffe's method; mean of the contribution orders of the descriptor in the first three factorial axes in the analysis with all descriptors ('Os') together with ('O'´p'); and order of contribution of weighted mean in the first three factorial axes in the analysis of all descriptors ('Oz')...
April 13, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373681/atmospheric-pressure-pulsed-plasma-induces-cell-death-in-photosynthetic-organs-via-intracellularly-generated-ros
#20
You-Bin Seol, Jaewook Kim, Se-Hong Park, Hong Young Chang
The toxicity of atmospheric-pressure pulsed plasma on plant leaf tissues is studied. A nanosecond-pulsed plasma jet is applied to Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. In case of cotyledon, cell death is induced by treatment of only a few seconds. Cell death is also induced in the adult leaf by only 5 seconds of plasma treatment. Plasma induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation across the tissues within plasma-treated area. Plasma also induced direct physical damage to epidermis tissue of treated area but merely no damage to mesophyll...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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