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leaf epidermis

Haifei Chen, Quan Zhang, Hongmei Cai, Wei Zhou, Fangsen Xu
The uptake of nitrate by plant roots causes a pH increment in rhizosphere and leads to iron (Fe) deficiency in rice. However, little is known about the mechanism how the nitrate uptake-induced high rhizosphere pH causes Fe deficiency. Here, we found that rice showed severe leaf chlorosis and large amounts of Fe plaque were aggregated on the root surface and intercellular space outside the exodermis in a form of ferrihydrite under alkaline conditions. In this case, there was significantly decreased Fe concentration in shoots and the Fe deficiency responsive genes were strongly induced in the roots...
January 16, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Hehe Wang, Christine McTavish, William W Turechek
Xanthomonas fragariae causes angular leaf spot of strawberry, an important disease in strawberry growing regions worldwide. To better understand how X. fragariae multiplies and moves in strawberry plants, a GFP-labelled strain was constructed and used to monitor the pathogen's presence in leaf, petiole, and crown tissue with fluorescence microscopy following natural and wound inoculation in three strawberry cultivars. Taqman PCR was used to quantify bacterial densities in these same tissues regardless of the presence of GFP signal...
January 3, 2018: Phytopathology
Marisia Pannia Esposito, Ricardo Keiichi Nakazato, Andrea Nunes Vaz Pedroso, Marcos Enoque Leite Lima, Maurílio Assis Figueiredo, Adriana Pedrosa Diniz, Alessandra Rodrigues Kozovits, Marisa Domingos
The extensive land occupation in Southeast Brazil has resulted in climatic disturbances and environmental contamination by air pollutants, threatening the Atlantic forest remnants that still exist in that region. Based on previous results, we assumed that pioneer tree species are potentially more tolerant against environmental oxidative stress than non-pioneer tree species from that Brazilian biome. We also assumed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are accumulated in higher proportions in leaves of non-pioneer trees, resulting in changes in the oxidant-antioxidant balance and in more severe oxidative damage at the cellular level than in the leaves of pioneer trees...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jessica L Erickson, Norman Adlung, Christina Lampe, Ulla Bonas, Martin H Schattat
Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria type III secreted effectors were screened for candidates influencing plant cell processes relevant to the formation and maintenance of stromules in Nicotiana benthamiana lower leaf epidermis. Transient expression of XopL, a unique type of E3 ubiquitin ligase, led to a nearly complete elimination of stromules and the relocation of plastids to the nucleus. Further characterization of XopL revealed that the E3 ligase activity is essential for the two plastid phenotypes. In contrast to XopL wild type, a mutant XopL lacking E3 ligase activity specifically localized to microtubules...
December 29, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Nguyen Manh Linh, Carla Verna, Enrico Scarpella
During development, the behavior of cells in tissues is coordinated along specific orientations or directions by coordinating the polar localization of components in those cells. The coordination of such cell polarity is perhaps nowhere more spectacular than in developing leaves, where the polarity of hundreds of cells is coordinated in the leaf epidermis and inner tissue to pattern vein networks. Available evidence suggests that the spectacular coordination of cell polarity that patterns vein networks is controlled by auxin transport and levels, and by genes that have been implicated in the polar localization of auxin transporters...
December 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Samuel Belteton, Megan G Sawchuk, Bryon S Donohoe, Enrico Scarpella, Daniel B Szymanski
The leaf epidermis is a biomechanical shell that influences the size and shape of the organ. Its morphogenesis is a multiscale process in which nanometer-scale cytoskeletal protein complexes, individual cells, and groups of cells pattern growth and define macroscopic leaf traits. Interdigitated growth of neighboring cells is an evolutionarily conserved developmental strategy. Understanding how signaling pathways and cytoskeletal proteins pattern cell walls during this form of tissue morphogenesis is an important research challenge...
November 30, 2017: Plant Physiology
D Boanares, B G Ferreira, A R Kozovits, H C Sousa, R M S Isaias, M G C França
Leaf water uptake (LWU) has been observed in plants of different ecosystems and this process is distinct among different species. Four plant species from the Brazilian fog mountain fields were evaluated in order to detect if leaf water uptake capacity is related to the cell wall composition of leaf epidermis. LWU measurements and their relation to anatomical and biochemical traits were analyzed. Cell wall composition was verified through immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies recognizing pectin compounds, and histochemistry with calcofluor white to track cellulose...
November 11, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Alvydas Šimkūnas, Sandra Valašinaitė, Vitalij Denisov
The comparative cytological analysis of the leaf/root growth of Lolium multiflorum has been performed. It revealed differences of the mentioned above/under-ground organs that express the whole plant's polarity. To perform accurate and simultaneous growth comparison a climatic-hydroponics system has been implemented. A sharp increase in the epidermis cell length of the leaf meristem has been detected for the first time. It allows the proposal of a new way to demarcate the boundary of the meristem and suggests a lengthed leaf meristem, that is 4 times longer than the root meristem...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Shuguang Wang
Culm sheath has always been considered a modified leaf. In this study, the anatomical structure of the culm sheath from Fargesia yunnanensis was analyzed to determine whether it originated from the foliage leaf blade or from the branch. The vascular bundles of the culm sheath showed greater similarity to the branches in shape and anatomical structure. In contrast to foliage blades, there are no midribs in culm sheaths. Stomatal density in the culm sheath is greater in the adaxial than it is in the abaxial epidermis, which is the opposite of that found in foliage leaf blades, and that density shows greater similarity to branches than it does to foliage blades...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
B Vijaya Lakshmi Vadde, Krishna Reddy Challa, Utpal Nath
Trichomes are the first cell type to be differentiated during the morphogenesis of leaf epidermis and serve as an ideal model to study cellular differentiation. A large number of genes involved in the patterning and differentiation of trichome cells have been studied over past decades, and the majority of these genes encode transcription factors that specifically regulate epidermal cell development. However, the upstream regulators of these genes that link early leaf morphogenesis with cell type differentiation are less studied...
November 22, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Wendy Aragón, José Juan Reina-Pinto, Mario Serrano, Eva Dominguez
The plant epidermis or cuticle is constantly exposed to external and internal environmental factors, including an enriched and diverse community of bacteria, yeast, fungi, viruses, and mites. It is not only where the plant has its first physical barrier, but also where organisms can be recognized and potentially where the plant defense responses can be triggered. The plant cuticle is a polymeric composite formed by an array of structurally and chemically heterogeneous compounds, including cutin and wax. A few studies have shown that cuticular components are essential and important drivers of the structure and size of the bacterial community...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mateusz Majda, Peter Grones, Ida-Maria Sintorn, Thomas Vain, Pascale Milani, Pawel Krupinski, Beata Zagórska-Marek, Corrado Viotti, Henrik Jönsson, Ewa J Mellerowicz, Olivier Hamant, Stéphanie Robert
The epidermis of aerial plant organs is thought to be limiting for growth, because it acts as a continuous load-bearing layer, resisting tension. Leaf epidermis contains jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells whose shape has been proposed to be a result of subcellular variations in expansion rate that induce local buckling events. Paradoxically, such local compressive buckling should not occur given the tensile stresses across the epidermis. Using computational modeling, we show that the simplest scenario to explain pavement cell shapes within an epidermis under tension must involve mechanical wall heterogeneities across and along the anticlinal pavement cell walls between adjacent cells...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Daniel von Wangenheim, Darren M Wells, Malcolm J Bennett
The jigsaw puzzle-shaped pavement cells in the leaf epidermis collectively function as a load-bearing tissue that controls organ growth. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Majda et al. (2017) shed light on how the jigsaw shape can arise from localized variations in wall stiffness between adjacent epidermal cells.
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Shuming Ju, Liping Wang, Cuiying Zhang, Tingchao Yin, Siliang Shao
Silicon (Si) is a macroelement in plants. The biological effects and mitigation mechanisms of silicon under environmental stress have become hot topics. The main objectives of this study were to elucidate the roles of Si in alleviating the effects on the phenotype, micromorphology and anatomy of the leaves of rice seedlings under acid rain stress. The results indicated that the combined or single effects of Si and simulated acid rain (SAR) stress on rice roots depended on the concentration of Si and the intensity of the SAR stress...
2017: PloS One
Hideyuki Honta, Takuya Inamura, Teruko Konishi, Shinobu Satoh, Hiroaki Iwai
Plant cell walls are composed of polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins, whose location and function differ depending on plant type. Arabinose is a constituent of many different cell wall components, including pectic rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and II (RG-II), glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAX), and arabinoxyloglucan (AXG). Arabinose is found predominantly in the furanose rather than in the thermodynamically more stable pyranose form. The UDP-arabinopyranose mutases (UAMs) have been demonstrated to convert UDP-arabinopyranose (UDP-Arap) to UDP-arabinofuranose (UDP-Araf) in rice (Oryza sativa L...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Filis Morina, Marija Vidović, Tatjana Srećković, Vesela Radović, Sonja Veljović-Jovanović
We investigated metal accumulation in bamboo leaves during three seasons at three urban locations differing in pollution levels. The higher content of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the leaves was in correlation with the highest bioavailable content of these elements in the soil at the most polluted location. The content of leaf trace elements was higher in summer and autumn compared to spring. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that Si accumulation in bamboo leaves was the highest in epidermis and vascular tissue, and was co-localized with trace metals...
October 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ok Ran Lee, Ngoc Quy Nguyen, Kwang Ho Lee, Young Chang Kim, Jiho Seo
BACKGROUND: Both Panax ginseng Meyer and Panax quinquefolius are obligate shade-loving plants whose natural habitats are broadleaved forests of Eastern Asia and North America. Panax species are easily damaged by photoinhibition when they are exposed to high temperatures or insufficient shade. In this study, a cytohistological study of the leaf structures of two of the most well-known Panax species was performed to better understand the physiological processes that limit photosynthesis...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
Luzimar Campos da Silva, Talita Oliveira de Araújo, Advanio Inácio Siqueira-Silva, Tiago Augusto Rodrigues Pereira, Letícia Nalon Castro, Eduardo Chagas Silva, Marco Antonio Oliva, Aristéa Alves Azevedo
The objectives of this work were to evaluate if the pollution emitted by the pelletizing factory causes visual symptoms and/or anatomical changes in exposed Eugenia uniflora and Clusia hilariana, in active biomonitoring, at different distances from a pelletizing factory. We characterize the symptomatology, anatomical, and histochemistry alterations induced in the two species. There was no difference in the symptomatology in relation to the different distances of the emitting source. The foliar symptoms found in C...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wakana Azuma, Satoru Nakashima, Eri Yamakita, H Roaki Ishii, Keiko Kuroda
Recent studies in the tallest tree species suggest that physiological and anatomical traits of tree-top leaves are adapted to water-limited conditions. In order to examine water retention mechanism of leaves in a tall tree, infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy was conducted on mature leaf cross-sections of tall Cryptomeria japonica D. Don from four different heights (51, 43, 31 and 19 m). We measured IR transmission spectra and mainly analyzed OH (3700-3000 cm-1) and C-O (1190-845 cm-1) absorption bands, indicating water molecules and sugar groups, respectively...
October 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
Ryuuichi D Itoh, Hiroki Ishikawa, Kohdai P Nakajima, Shota Moriyama, Makoto T Fujiwara
Stromules, or stroma-filled tubules, are thin extensions of the plastid envelope membrane that are most frequently observed in undifferentiated or non-mesophyll cells. The formation of stromules is developmentally regulated and responsive to biotic and abiotic stress; however, the physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of the stromule formation remain enigmatic. Accordingly, we attempted to obtain Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with aberrant stromule biogenesis in the leaf epidermis. Here, we characterize one of the obtained mutants...
October 6, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
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