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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721521/expression-patterns-of-the-native-shrunken-2-promoter-in-sorghum-bicolor-visualised-through-use-of-the-gfp-reporter-gene
#1
Kyle C Lamont, Stephen R Mudge, Guoquan Liu, Ian D Godwin
The AGPase large subunit (shrunken-2) promoter was demonstrated to be active in the placentochalaza and endosperm of developing grain as well as the root tips in transgenic sorghum. The temporal and spatial expression patterns of the Sorghum bicolor Shrunken-2 (Sh2) promoter were evaluated using the green fluorescence protein reporter gene (gfp) in transgenic sorghum, within the context of upregulating starch biosynthesis in the developing grain. GFP fluorescence was analysed throughout development in various tissue types using confocal laser scanning microscopy techniques...
July 18, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698906/comparative-ultrastructure-of-fruit-plastids-in-three-genetically-diverse-genotypes-of-apple-malus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-domestica-borkh-during-development
#2
Scott M Schaeffer, Ryan Christian, Nohely Castro-Velasquez, Brennan Hyden, Valerie Lynch-Holm, Amit Dhingra
Comparative ultrastructural developmental time-course analysis has identified discrete stages at which the fruit plastids undergo structural and consequently functional transitions to facilitate subsequent development-guided understanding of the complex plastid biology. Plastids are the defining organelle for a plant cell and are critical for myriad metabolic functions. The role of leaf plastid, chloroplast, is extensively documented; however, fruit plastids-chromoplasts-are poorly understood, especially in the context of the diverse metabolic processes operating in these diverse plant organs...
July 11, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652343/local-auxin-production-underlies-a-spatially-restricted-neighbor-detection-response-in-arabidopsis
#3
Olivier Michaud, Anne-Sophie Fiorucci, Ioannis Xenarios, Christian Fankhauser
Competition for light triggers numerous developmental adaptations known as the "shade-avoidance syndrome" (SAS). Important molecular events underlying specific SAS responses have been identified. However, in natural environments light is often heterogeneous, and it is currently unknown how shading affecting part of a plant leads to local responses. To study this question, we analyzed upwards leaf movement (hyponasty), a rapid adaptation to neighbor proximity, in Arabidopsis We show that manipulation of the light environment at the leaf tip triggers a hyponastic response that is restricted to the treated leaf...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644708/the-arabidopsis-mind-mutation-causes-aberrant-ftsz1-ring-placement-and-moderate-heterogeneity-of-chloroplasts-in-the-leaf-epidermis
#4
Makoto T Fujiwara, Mana Yasuzawa, Shun Sasaki, Takeshi Nakano, Yasuo Niwa, Shigeo Yoshida, Tomoko Abe, Ryuuichi D Itoh
Symmetric division of leaf mesophyll chloroplasts requires MinD and MinE, which work together to suppress division other than at the mid-chloroplast. arc11 is a MinD loss-of-function mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. In arc11 plants, asymmetric chloroplast division, as well as its delay or arrest, results in extreme size polymorphism of chloroplasts in mature mesophyll cells. The current study examined chloroplast phenotypes in the epidermis of arc11 leaves. Fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed that epidermal chloroplasts in mature leaves exhibited moderate heterogeneity in size...
June 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606082/expression-and-functional-analyses-of-a-kinesin-gene-ghkis13a1-from-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-fiber
#5
Yan-Jun Li, Shou-Hong Zhu, Xin-Yu Zhang, Yong-Chang Liu, Fei Xue, Lan-Jie Zhao, Jie Sun
BACKGROUND: Cotton fiber, a natural fiber widely used in the textile industry, is differentiated from single cell of ovule epidermis. A large number of genes are believed to be involved in fiber formation, but so far only a few fiber genes have been isolated and functionally characterized in this developmental process. The Kinesin13 subfamily was found to play key roles during cell division and cell elongation, and was considered to be involved in the regulation of cotton fiber development...
June 12, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597435/micro-morphological-study-of-evolvulus-spp-convolvulaceae-the-old-world-medicinal-plants
#6
Kanapol Ketjarun, George W Staples, Sasivimon C Swangpol, Paweena Traiperm
BACKGROUND: Several medicinal properties have been reported for plants in the genus Evolvulus, such as a brain tonic and antifungal from Evolvulus alsinoides, and a sedative and an anthelmintic from Evolvulus nummularius. Therefore, the correct identification of the source plants is critically important. The aim of this research was to investigate the micromorphology of two Evolvulus taxa used for herbal medicines compared with one worldwide ornamental species by using peeling, paraffin embedding, acetolysis, and SEM methods in order to support species identification...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577195/identification-among-morphologically-similar-argyreia-convolvulaceae-based-on-leaf-anatomy-and-phenetic-analyses
#7
Paweena Traiperm, Janene Chow, Possathorn Nopun, G Staples, Sasivimon C Swangpol
BACKGROUND: The genus Argyreia Lour. is one of the species-rich Asian genera in the family Convolvulaceae. Several species complexes were recognized in which taxon delimitation was imprecise, especially when examining herbarium materials without fully developed open flowers. The main goal of this study is to investigate and describe leaf anatomy for some morphologically similar Argyreia using epidermal peeling, leaf and petiole transverse sections, and scanning electron microscopy. Phenetic analyses including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to investigate the similarity of these morpho-types...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573169/surface-inoculation-and-quantification-of-pseudomonas-syringae-population-in-the-arabidopsis-leaf-apoplast
#8
Cristián Jacob, Shweta Panchal, Maeli Melotto
Bacterial pathogens must enter the plant tissue in order to cause a successful infection. Foliar bacterial pathogens that are not able to directly penetrate the plant epidermis rely on wounds or natural openings to internalize leaves. This protocol describes a procedure to estimate the population size of Pseudomonas syringae in the leaf apoplast after surface inoculation of Arabidopsis rosettes.
March 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510195/meso-or-xeromorphic-foliar-characters-of-asteraceae-in-a-xeric-scrub-of-mexico
#9
Patricia Rivera, José Luis Villaseñor, Teresa Terrazas
BACKGROUND: The anatomical traits associated with water deficit are also observed in plants growing in poor soils. The species may resist water deficit through three main strategies: escape, avoid or tolerate. The Pedregal de San Ángel Ecological Reserve (REPSA), Mexico, is an environment with low nutrient soil and low water availability. It is set on the basalt formation derived from the Xitle volcano eruption. The main vegetation type is characterized as xerophytic shrub. Thus we expect that species growing in this community will show leaf xeromorphic traits and may have any of the three response strategies...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437138/epidemiology-of-basil-downy-mildew
#10
Yigal Cohen, Yariv Ben-Naim, Lidan Falach, Evgenia Rubin
Basil downy mildew (BDM) caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii is a destructive disease of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) worldwide. It has originated in Uganda in the 1930's and recently spread to Europe, Middle East, Americas and the Far East. Seed transmission may be responsible to its quick global spread. The pathogen attacks leaf blades, producing chlorotic lesions with ample dark asexual spores on the lower leaf surface. Oospores may occur in the mesophyll of infected leaves. The asexual spores germinate on a wet leaf surface within 2h and penetrate into the epidermis within 4h...
April 24, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407190/selection-of-morphoagronomic-descriptors-for-the-characterization-of-accessions-of-cassava-of-the-eastern-brazilian-amazon
#11
R S Silva, E F Moura, J T Farias-Neto, C A S Ledo, J E Sampaio
The aim of this study was to select morphoagronomic descriptors to characterize cassava accessions representative of Eastern Brazilian Amazonia. It was characterized 262 accessions using 21 qualitative descriptors. The multiple-correspondence analysis (MCA) technique was applied using the criteria: contribution of the descriptor in the last factorial axis of analysis in successive cycles (SMCA); reverse order of the descriptor's contribution in the last factorial axis of analysis with all descriptors ('O'´p') of Jolliffe's method; mean of the contribution orders of the descriptor in the first three factorial axes in the analysis with all descriptors ('Os') together with ('O'´p'); and order of contribution of weighted mean in the first three factorial axes in the analysis of all descriptors ('Oz')...
April 13, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373681/atmospheric-pressure-pulsed-plasma-induces-cell-death-in-photosynthetic-organs-via-intracellularly-generated-ros
#12
You-Bin Seol, Jaewook Kim, Se-Hong Park, Hong Young Chang
The toxicity of atmospheric-pressure pulsed plasma on plant leaf tissues is studied. A nanosecond-pulsed plasma jet is applied to Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. In case of cotyledon, cell death is induced by treatment of only a few seconds. Cell death is also induced in the adult leaf by only 5 seconds of plasma treatment. Plasma induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation across the tissues within plasma-treated area. Plasma also induced direct physical damage to epidermis tissue of treated area but merely no damage to mesophyll...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369641/stomatal-clustering-in-begonia-associates-with-the-kinetics-of-leaf-gaseous-exchange-and-influences-water-use-efficiency
#13
Maria Papanatsiou, Anna Amtmann, Michael R Blatt
Stomata are microscopic pores formed by specialized cells in the leaf epidermis and permit gaseous exchange between the interior of the leaf and the atmosphere. Stomata in most plants are separated by at least one epidermal pavement cell and, individually, overlay a single substomatal cavity within the leaf. This spacing is thought to enhance stomatal function. Yet, there are several genera naturally exhibiting stomata in clusters and therefore deviating from the one-cell spacing rule with multiple stomata overlaying a single substomatal cavity...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361257/induction-of-anthocyanin-in-the-inner-epidermis-of-red-onion-leaves-by-environmental-stimuli-and-transient-expression-of-transcription-factors
#14
Elizabeth J Wiltshire, Colin C Eady, David A Collings
Novel imaging approaches have allowed measurements of the anthocyanin induction in onion epidermal cells that can be induced through water stress or transient expression of exogenous transcription factors. Environmental and genetic mechanisms that allow the normally colourless inner epidermal cells of red onion (Allium cepa) bulbs to accumulate anthocyanin were quantified by both absorbance ratios and fluorescence. We observed that water-stressing excised leaf segments induced anthocyanin formation, and fluorescence indicated that this anthocyanin was spectrally similar to the anthocyanin in the outer epidermal cells...
March 30, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359990/morphoanatomical-and-physiological-changes-in-bauhinia-variegata-l-as-indicators-of-herbicide-diuron-action
#15
Dêmily Andrômeda de Lima, Caroline Müller, Alan Carlos Costa, Priscila Ferreira Batista, Valdnéa Casagrande Dalvi, Marisa Domingos
The wide use of the herbicide diuron has compromised surrounding uncultivated areas, resulting in acute and/or chronic damage to non-target plants. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate physiological and morphoanatomical responses in Bauhinia variegata L. plants to different doses of diuron. Seedlings of 90-day-old B. variegata were transplanted into 10liter pots. After an acclimation period (about 30 days), treatments consisting of different diuron doses were applied: 0 (control), 400, 800, 1600, and 2400g ai ha(-1)...
July 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343257/leaf-ontogeny-of-schinus-molle-l-plants-under-cadmium-contamination-the-meristematic-origin-of-leaf-structural-changes
#16
Marcio Paulo Pereira, Felipe Fogaroli Corrêa, Evaristo Mauro de Castro, Jean Paulo Vitor de Oliveira, Fabricio José Pereira
Previous works show the development of thicker leaves on tolerant plants growing under cadmium (Cd(2+)) contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Cd(2+) effects on the leaf meristems of the tolerant species Schinus molle. Plants were grown in nutrient solution containing 0, 10, and 50 μM of Cd(2+). Anatomical analysis was performed on leaf primordia sampled at regular time intervals. Under the lowest Cd(2+) level (10 μM), increased ground meristem thickness, diameter of the cells, cell elongation rate, and leaf dry mass were found...
March 25, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334303/characterization-of-direct-current-electrical-penetration-graph-waveforms-and-correlation-with-the-probing-behavior-of-matsumuratettix-hiroglyphicus-hemiptera-cicadellidae-the-insect-vector-of-sugarcane-white-leaf-phytoplasma
#17
J Roddee, Y Kobori, H Yorozuya, Y Hanboonsong
The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is an important vector of phytoplasma causing white leaf disease in sugarcane. Thus, the aim of our study was to understand and describe the stylet-probing activities of this vector while feeding on sugarcane plants, by using direct current (DC) electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring. The EPG signals were classified into six distinct waveforms, according to amplitude, frequency, voltage level, and electrical origin of the observed traces during stylet penetration into the host plant tissues (probing)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334207/oviposition-preference-and-larval-performance-of-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-lepidoptera-pyralidae-on-rice-genotypes
#18
Chung-Ta Liao, Chung-Li Chen
Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée is a noxious rice pest during cultivated periods. Cnaphalocrocis medinalis moths lay eggs on leaf surfaces, and larvae longitudinally roll the leaves to hide inside the leaf buds and feed on the upper epidermis and mesophyll tissues. In this study, we evaluated the female oviposition preference and larval performance of C. medinalis on six insect-resistant and six insect-susceptible rice genotypes. Female moth choice and no-choice oviposition preferences were studied. The number of eggs laid on the leaf varies among selected rice genotypes; however, female adults prefer to lay more eggs on both some resistant and susceptible rice genotypes...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322478/comparative-morphology-of-the-leaf-epidermis-in-lobelia-lobelioideae-from-china
#19
Chunjiao Li, Jingmei Lu, Yan Li, Junyi Zhu, Lifan Zhang
The leaf epidermal morphology of 38 samples, representing 22 Lobelia species from China, was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The stomata and other epidermal features were largely consistent within species, and therefore represented good characters for taxonomic purposes. Diagnostic characters of the leaf epidermis were used to differentiate species of Lobelia. The species pairs L. clavata and L. pyramidalis, L. alsinoides and L. terminalis, and L. davidii and L. erectiuscula, were differentiated using leaf epidermal characters...
March 21, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290365/metabolomic-profiling-delineate-taste-qualities-of-tea-leaf-pubescence
#20
Mingzhi Zhu, Na Li, Ming Zhao, Wenliang Yu, Jian-Lin Wu
The amount of pubescence on leaf epidermis is an important morphological marker for the quality of green tea, and the tea with plenty of pubescence is generally recognized as having a better taste. However, there is no systematic study on chemical compositions of tea leaf pubescence. The contributions of pubescence to taste properties are far from clear. In this research, 114 components were identified from the tea leaf pubescence of yunkang 10, a broad-leaf tea cultivar with plenty leaf pubescence, for the first time with a non-targeted metabolomics approach using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS)...
April 2017: Food Research International
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