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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334303/characterization-of-direct-current-electrical-penetration-graph-waveforms-and-correlation-with-the-probing-behavior-of-matsumuratettix-hiroglyphicus-hemiptera-cicadellidae-the-insect-vector-of-sugarcane-white-leaf-phytoplasma
#1
J Roddee, Y Kobori, H Yorozuya, Y Hanboonsong
The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is an important vector of phytoplasma causing white leaf disease in sugarcane. Thus, the aim of our study was to understand and describe the stylet-probing activities of this vector while feeding on sugarcane plants, by using direct current (DC) electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring. The EPG signals were classified into six distinct waveforms, according to amplitude, frequency, voltage level, and electrical origin of the observed traces during stylet penetration into the host plant tissues (probing)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334207/oviposition-preference-and-larval-performance-of-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-lepidoptera-pyralidae-on-rice-genotypes
#2
Chung-Ta Liao, Chung-Li Chen
Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée is a noxious rice pest during cultivated periods. Cnaphalocrocis medinalis moths lay eggs on leaf surfaces, and larvae longitudinally roll the leaves to hide inside the leaf buds and feed on the upper epidermis and mesophyll tissues. In this study, we evaluated the female oviposition preference and larval performance of C. medinalis on six insect-resistant and six insect-susceptible rice genotypes. Female moth choice and no-choice oviposition preferences were studied. The number of eggs laid on the leaf varies among selected rice genotypes; however, female adults prefer to lay more eggs on both some resistant and susceptible rice genotypes...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322478/comparative-morphology-of-the-leaf-epidermis-in-lobelia-lobelioideae-from-china
#3
Chunjiao Li, Jingmei Lu, Yan Li, Junyi Zhu, Lifan Zhang
The leaf epidermal morphology of 38 samples, representing 22 Lobelia species from China, was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The stomata and other epidermal features were largely consistent within species, and therefore represented good characters for taxonomic purposes. Diagnostic characters of the leaf epidermis were used to differentiate species of Lobelia. The species pairs L. clavata and L. pyramidalis, L. alsinoides and L. terminalis, and L. davidii and L. erectiuscula, were differentiated using leaf epidermal characters...
March 21, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290365/metabolomic-profiling-delineate-taste-qualities-of-tea-leaf-pubescence
#4
Mingzhi Zhu, Na Li, Ming Zhao, Wenliang Yu, Jian-Lin Wu
The amount of pubescence on leaf epidermis is an important morphological marker for the quality of green tea, and the tea with plenty of pubescence is generally recognized as having a better taste. However, there is no systematic study on chemical compositions of tea leaf pubescence. The contributions of pubescence to taste properties are far from clear. In this research, 114 components were identified from the tea leaf pubescence of yunkang 10, a broad-leaf tea cultivar with plenty leaf pubescence, for the first time with a non-targeted metabolomics approach using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS)...
April 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285992/tissue-wide-mechanical-forces-influence-the-polarity-of-stomatal-stem-cells-in-arabidopsis
#5
Martin Bringmann, Dominique C Bergmann
Mechanical information is an important contributor to cell polarity in uni- and multicellular systems [1-3]. In planar tissues like the Drosophila wing, cell polarity reorients during growth as cells divide and reorganize [4]. In another planar tissue, the Arabidopsis leaf epidermis [5], polarized, asymmetric divisions of stomatal stem cells (meristemoid mother cells [MMCs]) are fundamental for the generation and patterning of multiple cell types, including stomata. The activity of key transcription factors, polarizing factors [6], and peptide signals [7] explains some local stomatal patterns emerging from the behavior of a few lineally related cells [6, 8-11]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285661/colonization-and-beneficial-effects-on-annual-ryegrass-by-mixed-inoculation-with-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria
#6
Nádia L Castanheira, Ana Catarina Dourado, Isabel Pais, José Semedo, Paula Scotti-Campos, Nuno Borges, Gilda Carvalho, Maria Teresa Barreto Crespo, Paula Fareleira
Multi-strain inoculants have increased potential to accomplish a diversity of plant needs, mainly attributed to its multi-functionality. This work evaluated the ability of a mixture of three bacteria to colonize and induce a beneficial response on the pasture crop annual ryegrass. Pseudomonas G1Dc10 and Paenibacillus G3Ac9 were previously isolated from annual ryegrass and were selected for their ability to perform multiple functions related to plant growth promotion. Sphingomonas azotifigens DSMZ 18530(T) was included due to nitrogen fixing ability...
May 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273106/implications-of-polyploidy-events-on-the-phenotype-microstructure-and-proteome-of-paulownia-australis
#7
Zhe Wang, Guoqiang Fan, Yanpeng Dong, Xiaoqiao Zhai, Minjie Deng, Zhenli Zhao, Wenshan Liu, Yabing Cao
Polyploidy events are believed to be responsible for increasing the size of plant organs and enhancing tolerance to environmental stresses. Autotetraploid Paulownia australis plants exhibit superior traits compared with their diploid progenitors. Although some transcriptomics studies have been performed and some relevant genes have been revealed, the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating the predominant characteristics and the effects of polyploidy events on P. australis remain unknown. In this study, we compared the phenotypes, microstructures, and proteomes of autotetraploid and diploid P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250101/strength-of-silk-attachment-to-ilex-chinensis-leaves-in-the-tea-bagworm-eumeta-minuscula-lepidoptera-psychidae
#8
Jonas O Wolff, Julia Lovtsova, Elena Gorb, Zhendong Dai, Aihong Ji, Zhihui Zhao, Nan Jiang, Stanislav N Gorb
Silks play an important role in the life of various arthropods. A highly neglected prerequisite to make versatile use of silks is sufficient attachment to substrates. Although there have been some studies on the structure and mechanics of silk anchorages of spiders, for insects only anecdotal reports on attachment-associated spinning behaviour exist. Here, we experimentally studied the silk attachment of the pupae and last instar caterpillars of the tea bagworm Eumeta minuscula (Butler 1881) (Lepidoptera, Psychidae) to the leaves of its host plant Ilex chinensis We found that the bagworms spin attachment discs, which share some structural features with those of spiders, like a plaque consisting of numerous overlaid, looped glue-coated silk fibres and the medially attaching suspension thread...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153921/the-sites-of-evaporation-within-leaves
#9
Thomas N Buckley, Grace P John, Christine Scoffoni, Lawren Sack
The sites of evaporation within leaves are unknown, but they have drawn attention for decades due to their perceived implications for many factors, including patterns of leaf isotopic enrichment, the maintenance of mesophyll water status, stomatal regulation, and the interpretation of measured stomatal and leaf hydraulic conductances. We used a spatially explicit model of coupled water and heat transport outside the xylem, MOFLO 2.0, to map the distribution of net evaporation across leaf tissues in relation to anatomy and environmental parameters...
March 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098339/the-effect-of-blue-light-on-stomatal-oscillations-and-leaf-turgor-pressure-in-banana-leaves
#10
Yotam Zait, Or Shapira, Amnon Schwartz
Stomatal oscillations are cyclic opening and closing of stomata, presumed to initiate from hydraulic mismatch between leaf water supply and transpiration rate. To test this assumption, mismatches between water supply and transpiration were induced using manipulations of VPD (vapor pressure deficit) and light spectrum in banana (Musa acuminata). Simultaneous measurements of gas exchange with changes in leaf turgor pressure were used to describe the hydraulic mismatches. An increase of VPD above a certain threshold, caused stomatal oscillations with variable amplitudes...
January 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076417/colonization-of-wheat-maize-and-cucumber-by-paenibacillus-polymyxa-wly78
#11
Tianyi Hao, Sanfeng Chen
Paenibacillus polymyxa WLY78 is a nitrogen fixer and it can be potentially applied to biofertilizer in agriculture. In this study, P. polymyxa WLY78 is labelled with gfp gene. The GFP-labelled P. polymyxa WLY78 is used to inoculate wheat, maize and cucumber seedlings grown in the gnotobiotic system and in soil, respectively. Observation by confocal laser scanning microscope reveals that the GFP-labeled bacterial cells are mainly located on the root surface and epidermis of wheat, and only a few cells are present within cortical cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064192/leaf-anatomy-bvoc-emission-and-co2-exchange-of-arctic-plants-following-snow-addition-and-summer-warming
#12
Michelle Schollert, Minna Kivimäenpää, Anders Michelsen, Daan Blok, Riikka Rinnan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate change in the Arctic is projected to increase temperature, precipitation and snowfall. This may alter leaf anatomy and gas exchange either directly or indirectly. Our aim was to assess whether increased snow depth and warming modify leaf anatomy and affect biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and CO2 exchange of the widespread arctic shrubs Betula nana and Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum METHODS: Measurements were conducted in a full-factorial field experiment in Central West Greenland, with passive summer warming by open-top chambers and snow addition using snow fences...
February 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056801/polyploidy-and-the-relationship-between-leaf-structure-and-function-implications-for-correlated-evolution-of-anatomy-morphology-and-physiology-in-brassica
#13
Robert L Baker, Yulia Yarkhunova, Katherine Vidal, Brent E Ewers, Cynthia Weinig
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is well studied from a genetic and genomic perspective, but the morphological, anatomical, and physiological consequences of polyploidy remain relatively uncharacterized. Whether these potential changes bear on functional integration or are idiosyncratic remains an open question. Repeated allotetraploid events and multiple genomic combinations as well as overlapping targets of artificial selection make the Brassica triangle an excellent system for exploring variation in the connection between plant structure (anatomy and morphology) and function (physiology)...
January 5, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039904/the-ocs-regulated-oxalate-and-its-distinct-effects-on-resistance-to-bacterial-blight-and-al-toxicity-in-rice
#14
Cheng Peng, Xiu Liang, E-E Liu, Jian-Jun Zhang, Xin-Xiang Peng
Oxalic acid is widely distributed in biological systems and known to play functional roles in plants. The gene AAE3 was recently identified to encode an oxalyl-CoA synthetase (OCS) in Arabidopsis that catalyzes the conversion of oxalate and CoA into oxalyl-CoA. It will be even particularly significant to characterize the homologous gene in rice since rice is not only a monocotyledonous model plant, but also a staple food crop. Our current study firstly defined that AAE3 in the rice genome (OsAAE3) also encodes an OCS enzyme...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018409/mechanical-behavior-of-cells-within-a-cell-based-model-of-wheat-leaf-growth
#15
Ulyana Zubairova, Sergey Nikolaev, Aleksey Penenko, Nikolay Podkolodnyy, Sergey Golushko, Dmitry Afonnikov, Nikolay Kolchanov
Understanding the principles and mechanisms of cell growth coordination in plant tissue remains an outstanding challenge for modern developmental biology. Cell-based modeling is a widely used technique for studying the geometric and topological features of plant tissue morphology during growth. We developed a quasi-one-dimensional model of unidirectional growth of a tissue layer in a linear leaf blade that takes cell autonomous growth mode into account. The model allows for fitting of the visible cell length using the experimental cell length distribution along the longitudinal axis of a wheat leaf epidermis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009887/responses-of-crepis-japonica-induced-by-supplemental-blue-light-and-uv-a-radiation
#16
L F da S Constantino, L B Dos S Nascimento, L M Casanova, N Dos S Moreira, E A Menezes, R L Esteves, S S Costa, E S Tavares
Crepis japonica (L.) D.C. (Asteraceae), a weed with antioxidant, antiallergenic, antiviral and antitumor properties displays both medicinal properties and nutritional value. This study aims to assess the effects of a supplementation of blue light and UV-A radiation on the growth, leaf anatomical structure and phenolic profile of the aerial parts of Crepis japonica. Plants were grown under two light treatments: W (control - white light), W + B (white light supplemented with blue light) and W + UV-A (white light supplemented with UV-A radiation)...
December 23, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995375/leaf-structure-affects-a-plant-s-appearance-combined-multiple-mechanisms-intensify-remarkable-foliar-variegation
#17
Yun-Shiuan Chen, Peter Chesson, Ho-Wei Wu, Shang-Hung Pao, Jian-Wei Liu, Lee-Feng Chien, Jean W H Yong, Chiou-Rong Sheue
The presence of foliar variegation challenges perceptions of leaf form and functioning. But variegation is often incorrectly identified and misinterpreted. The striking variegation found in juvenile Blastus cochinchinensis (Melastomataceae) provides an instructive case study of mechanisms and their ecophysiological implications. Variegated (white and green areas, vw and vg) and non-variegated leaves (normal green leaves, ng) of seedlings of Blastus were compared structurally with microtechniques, and characterized for chlorophyll content and fluorescence...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864277/molecular-characterization-of-ghpld%C3%AE-1-and-its-relationship-with-secondary-cell-wall-thickening-in-cotton-fibers
#18
Kai Tang, Jin-Yuan Liu
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes phospholipids to generate a free polar head group (e.g., choline) and a second messenger phosphatidic acid and plays diverse roles in plant growth and development, including seed germination, leaf senescence, root hair growth, and hypocotyl elongation. However, the function of PLD in cotton remains largely unexplored. Here, the comprehensive molecular characterization of GhPLDα1 was explored with its role in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development. The GhPLDα1 gene was cloned successfully, and a sequence alignment showed that GhPLDα1 contains one C2 domain and two HKD (HxKxxxxD) domains...
January 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808389/dissimilarity-between-mouriri-elliptica-mart-plants-cultivated-in-vitro-and-in-situ-through-anatomic-parameters
#19
E S Assis, A Rubio Neto, P D S Cabral, F G Silva, L R Lima, S C Vasconcelos Filho
Mouriri elliptica (Mart.) is a genetic resource of the Cerrado domain, which has potential for food and medicinal use. A few studies have been performed on its in vitro propagation, and no studies have examined dissimilarities between plants of this species when cultivated in situ or in vitro. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to identify in vitro cultivation conditions that permit the formation of plantlets with leaf anatomical features that are less dissimilar to those of plants grown in situ...
October 6, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784769/apparent-overinvestment-in-leaf-venation-relaxes-leaf-morphological-constraints-on-photosynthesis-in-arid-habitats
#20
Hugo J de Boer, Paul L Drake, Erin Wendt, Charles A Price, Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Neil C Turner, Dean Nicolle, Erik J Veneklaas
Leaf veins supply the mesophyll with water that evaporates when stomata are open to allow CO2 uptake for photosynthesis. Theoretical analyses suggest that water is optimally distributed in the mesophyll when the lateral distance between veins (dx) is equal to the distance from these veins to the epidermis (dy), expressed as dx:dy ≈ 1. Although this theory is supported by observations of many derived angiosperms, we hypothesize that plants in arid environments may reduce dx:dy below unity owing to climate-specific functional adaptations of increased leaf thickness and increased vein density...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
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