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oxidative stress in critically ill patients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633000/nutrition-support-for-critically-ill-patients-with-cancer
#1
Kristen Lach, Sarah J Peterson
Oncology patients often experience the classic signs of malnutrition-weight loss as well as fat and muscle wasting, which have been associated with poor tolerance to treatment and increased morbidity and mortality. Nutrition status may be an important factor in determining tolerance to treatment and outcomes associated with it. Thus, identification of those with preexisting malnutrition or who are at risk for developing malnutrition is crucial not only at time of cancer diagnosis but also throughout the treatment course so that nutrition interventions may be implemented to prevent development or worsening of malnutrition in this high-risk population...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584432/the-effect-of-high-dose-parenteral-sodium-selenite-in-critically-ill-patients-following-sepsis-a-clinical-and-mechanistic-study
#2
Legese Chelkeba, Arezoo Ahmadi, Mohammad Abdollahi, Atabak Najafi, Mohammad Hosein Ghadimi, Reza Mosaed, Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh
INTRODUCTION: Severe sepsis and septic shock is characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress. Selenium levels have been reported to be low due to loss or increased requirements during severe sepsis and septic shock. We investigated the effect of high-dose parenteral selenium administration in septic patients. METHODS: A prospective, randomized control clinical trial was performed in septic patients. After randomization, patients in selenium group received high-dose parenteral sodium selenite (2 mg intravenous [IV] bolus followed by 1...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432843/vitamin-b1-in-critically-ill-patients-needs-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Jake T B Collie, Ronda F Greaves, Oliver A H Jones, Que Lam, Glenn M Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: Thiamine has a crucial role in energy production, and consequently thiamine deficiency (TD) has been associated with cardiac failure, neurological disorders, oxidative stress (lactic acidosis and sepsis) and refeeding syndrome (RFS). This review aims to explore analytical methodologies of thiamine compound quantification and highlight similarities, variances and limitations of current techniques and how they may be relevant to patients. CONTENT: An electronic search of Medline, PubMed and Embase databases for original articles published in peer-reviewed journals was conducted...
April 22, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368352/melatonin-pharmacological-blood-levels-increase-total-antioxidant-capacity-in-critically-ill-patients
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Giovanni Mistraletti, Rita Paroni, Michele Umbrello, Lara D'Amato, Giovanni Sabbatini, Martina Taverna, Paolo Formenti, Elena Finati, Gaia Favero, Francesca Bonomini, Rita Rezzani, Russel J Reiter, Gaetano Iapichino
In this study, the aim was to test the biochemical effects of melatonin supplementation in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, since their blood levels are decreased. Sixty-four patients were enrolled in the study. From the evening of the 3rd ICU day, patients were randomized to receive oral melatonin (3 mg, group M) or placebo (group P) twice daily, at 20:00 and 24:00, until discharged. Blood was taken (at 00:00 and 14:00), on the 3rd ICU day to assess basal nocturnal melatonin values, and then during the treatment period on the 4th and 8th ICU days...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286784/the-influence-of-metabolic-imbalances-and-oxidative-stress-on-the-outcome-of-critically-ill-polytrauma-patients-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Alexandru Florin Rogobete, Dorel Sandesc, Marius Papurica, Emil Robert Stoicescu, Sonia Elena Popovici, Lavinia Melania Bratu, Corina Vernic, Adriana Mariana Sas, Adrian Tudor Stan, Ovidiu Horea Bedreag
The critically ill polytrauma patient presents with a series of associated pathophysiologies secondary to the traumatic injuries. The most important include systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, oxidative stress (OS), metabolic disorders, and finally multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. The poor outcome of these patients is related to the association of the aforementioned pathologies. The nutrition of the critically ill polytrauma patient is a distinct challenge because of the rapid changes in terms of energetic needs associated with hypermetabolism, sepsis, SIRS, and OS...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238004/effects-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-for-neuroprotection-from-the-viewpoint-of-redox-regulation
#6
REVIEW
Nobuyuki Nosaka, Ayumi Okada, Hirokazu Tsukahara
Redox regulation has recently been recognized as an important factor in acute illnesses as well as in chronic diseases. It has also become a target for neuroprotection in acute intensive care. Despite its well-known therapeutic effects, therapeutic hypothermia has recently been re-evaluated for its potential use in emergency and critical care medicine. Hypothermia is an undesirable physiological condition that can increase oxidative stress and decrease anti-oxidative potency. However, many studies have shown that under ischemia/reperfusion conditions, therapeutic hypothermia actually suppresses enhanced oxidative stress and maintains or increases anti-oxidative potency...
February 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164593/modulation-of-the-redox-expression-and-inflammation-response-in-the-critically-ill-polytrauma-patient-with-thoracic-injury-statistical-correlations-between-antioxidant-therapy
#7
Ovidiu H Bedreag, Alexandru F Rogobete, Dorel Sandesc, Carmen A Cradigati, Mirela Sarandan, Sonia E Popovici, Raluca Dumache, Florin G Horhat, Corina Vernic, Laurentiu V Sima, Loredana Luca, Marius Papurica
BACKGROUND: One of the major causes of mortality in the world is represented by multiple traumas. Thoracic trauma is commonly associated with polytraumas. A series of physiopathological complications follow polytraumas, leading to a significant decrease in the survival rate. As a result of injuries, significant quantities of free radicals (FR) are produced, responsible for oxidative stress (OS). To minimize the effects of OS, we recommend the administration of antioxidant substances. In this study we want to highlight statistically significant correlations between antioxidant therapy and a series of clinical variables...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164582/the-use-of-lipid-peroxidation-expression-as-a-biomarker-for-the-molecular-damage-in-the-critically-ill-polytrauma-patient
#8
REVIEW
Florin G Horhat, Alexandru F Rogobete, Marius Papurica, Dorel Sandesc, Sonia Tanasescu, Victor Dumitrascu, Monica Licker, Razvan Nitu, Carmen A Cradigati, Mirela Sarandan, Ovidiu Boruga, Ciprian D Crisan, Emil Ungureanu, Daniela M Popa, Sonia E Popovici, Ovidiu H Bedreag
BACKGROUND: The critically ill polytrauma patient, apart from the primary, traumatic injuries and the secondary, port-traumatic injuries, presents with a series of molecular disasters. Dysfunctions of the biochemical pathways and molecular damage add to the worsening of the clinical status of these patients, one of the most well-known molecular phenomena being oxidative stress (OS), responsible for an escalation of the inflammatory status, multiple infections, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164521/using-the-expression-of-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-damp-for-the-evaluation-and-monitoring-of-the-critically-ill-polytrauma-patient
#9
REVIEW
Marius Papurica, Alexandru F Rogobete, Dorel Sandesc, Carmen A Cradigati, Mirela Sarandan, Raluca Dumache, Florin G Horhat, Lavinia M Bratu, Razvan Nitu, Dan C Crisan, Delia I Horhat, Elena S Popovici, Sonia Tanasescu, Vlad Daliborca, Ovidiu Boruga, Ovidiu H Bedreag
BACKGROUND: The critically ill polytrauma patient continues to be one of the most complex cases in the intensive care unit (ICU). The molecular damage is closely connected with the severe, specific pathophysiological imbalances, such as severe inflammation, infections, hypermetabolism, oxidative stress, and ultimately multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). METHODS: The literature available on PubMed and Scopus was analysed for this study. The key words used in the search were "biomarkers in critically ill patients", "molecular damage", "sepsis biomarkers", "miRNAs biomarkers", and "oxidative stress"...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139396/heme-oxygenase-1-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-acute-kidney-injury
#10
Subhashini Bolisetty, Abolfazl Zarjou, Anupam Agarwal
A common clinical condition, acute kidney injury (AKI) significantly influences morbidity and mortality, particularly in critically ill patients. The pathophysiology of AKI is complex and involves multiple pathways, including inflammation, autophagy, cell-cycle progression, and oxidative stress. Recent evidence suggests that a single insult to the kidney significantly enhances the propensity to develop chronic kidney disease. Therefore, the generation of effective therapies against AKI is timely. In this context, the cytoprotective effects of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in animal models of AKI are well documented...
April 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129265/parenteral-and-enteral-nutrition-in-surgical-critical-care-plasma-metabolomics-demonstrates-divergent-effects-on-nitrogen-fatty-acid-ribonucleotide-and-oxidative-metabolism
#11
Brodie A Parent, Max Seaton, Danijel Djukovic, Haiwei Gu, Brittany Wheelock, Sandi L Navarro, Daniel Raftery, Grant E O'Keefe
BACKGROUND: Artificial nutrition support is central to the care of critically ill patients and is primarily provided enterally (EN). There are circumstances when parenteral nutrition (PN) is considered necessary. We are uncertain how each of these approaches confer clinical benefits beyond simply providing calories. We sought to better understand how each of these techniques influence metabolism in critically ill patients using a broad-based metabolomics approach. Metabolic responses to EN and PN may differ in ways that could help us understand how to optimize use of these therapies...
April 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112061/inflammation-and-depression-a-causal-or-coincidental-link-to-the-pathophysiology
#12
Brian E Leonard
This review summarises the evidence that chronic low grade inflammation triggers changes that contribute to the mental and physical ill health of patients with major depression. Inflammation, and the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis by stress, are normal components of the stress response but when stress is prolonged and the endocrine and immune system become chronic resulting in the activation of the peripheral macrophages, the central microglia and hypercortisolemia, the neuronal networks are damaged and become dysfunctional...
January 23, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093238/a-model-of-the-mitochondrial-basis-of-bipolar-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Ken Walder, Sean L McGee, Olivia M Dean, Susannah J Tye, Michael Maes, Michael Berk
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder phenomenologically is a biphasic disorder of energy availability; increased in mania and decreased in depression. In consort, there is accumulating evidence indicating increased mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in bipolar mania which contrasts with decreased mitochondrial function in patients in the euthymic or depressive phase of the illness. Consequently, the central thesis of this paper is that bipolar disorder is due to a phasic dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenergetics...
January 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088628/methods-needed-to-measure-predictive-accuracy-a-study-of-diabetic-patients
#14
Hafiz M R Khan, Sarah Mende, Aamrin Rafiq, Kemesha Gabbidon, P Hemachandra Reddy
Diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and it can result in several complications such as kidney failure, heart failure, stroke, and blindness making it a major medical and public health concern in the United States. Statistical methods are important to detect risk factors and identify the best sampling plan to determine predictive bounds for diabetic patients' data. The main objective of this paper is to identify the best fit bootstrapping sampling method and to draw the predictive bound considering diabetes patient data...
May 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068288/monitoring-of-breath-vocs-and-electrical-impedance-tomography-under-pulmonary-recruitment-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#15
Beate Brock, Svend Kamysek, Josephine Silz, Phillip Trefz, Jochen K Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Analysis of exhaled VOCs can provide information on physiology, metabolic processes, oxidative stress and lung diseases. In critically ill patients, VOC analysis may be used to gain complimentary information beyond global clinical parameters. This seems especially attractive in mechanically ventilated patients frequently suffering from impairment of gas exchange. This study was intended to assess (a) the effects of recruitment maneuvers onto VOC profiles, (b) the correlations between electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data and VOC profiles and (c) the effects of recruitment onto distribution of ventilation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039838/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-its-novel-association-with-oxidative-stress
#16
REVIEW
Miguel Ángel Gómez-Sámano, Mariana Grajales-Gómez, Julia María Zuarth-Vázquez, Ma Fernanda Navarro-Flores, Mayela Martínez-Saavedra, Óscar Alfredo Juárez-León, Mariana G Morales-García, Víctor Manuel Enríquez-Estrada, Francisco J Gómez-Pérez, Daniel Cuevas-Ramos
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine-member of the FGF family. It is synthesized mainly in the liver, but it is also expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and many other organs. It has a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as in energy balance. FGF21 concentration in plasma is increased in patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that such increment protects tissue from an increased oxidative stress environment. Different types of physical stress, such as strenuous exercising, lactation, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and critical illnesses, also increase FGF21 circulating concentration...
April 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034666/oxidative-stress-in-sepsis-pathophysiological-implications-justifying-antioxidant-co-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Carlos André Prauchner
Sepsis is one of the main causes of death among critically ill patients. Sepsis pathogenesis includes infection by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, fungi, or both; exacerbated inflammatory response; hypotension, with potential to cause vasodilatory shock; and lesser delivery of oxygen to tissues due to impairment of oxygen utilization by cells. The participation of reactive species and/or free radicals such as nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), superoxide (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (OH) has been reported to underlie these effects...
May 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922495/toxic-and-endocrine-myopathies
#18
Hans D Katzberg, Charles D Kassardjian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of toxic and endocrine myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Early detection and expeditious correction of metabolic disturbances in endocrinopathies such as Cushing syndrome, thyroid and parathyroid diseases, and acromegaly can minimize and prevent neurologic complications including myopathy. Recently proposed mechanisms of injury in patients with critical illness myopathy include inhibition of protein synthesis, mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, oxidative stress, and disruption of intramuscular calcium homeostasis, which can cause a myosin-loss myopathy...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879562/effects-of-transport-temperature-on-the-stability-of-inflammatory-hemostasis-endothelial-function-and-oxidative-stress-plasma-biomarker-concentrations
#19
Octavia M Peck Palmer, Melinda Carter, Chung-Chou H Chang, Nicole Lucko, Vanessa M Jackson, Qian Sun, Xinyan Xie, Melanie Scott, John A Kellum, Arvind Venkat, Sachin Yende
BACKGROUND: A number of studies in critically ill patients are conducted outside the hospital. Specimens should ideally be transported from out-of-hospital setting to a laboratory using dry ice, but this approach is expensive and may not be feasible in some circumstances. We, therefore, examined the impact of temperature during transport of specimens on the precision of biomarker concentrations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of transport temperature conditions on biomarker concentrations in specimens processed within 1 h of collection...
June 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867755/nutritional-aspects-of-gastrointestinal-wound-healing
#20
REVIEW
Kaushik Mukherjee, Sandra L Kavalukas, Adrian Barbul
Significance: Although the wound healing cascade is similar in many tissues, in the gastrointestinal tract mucosal healing is critical for processes such as inflammatory bowel disease and ulcers and healing of the mucosa, submucosa, and serosal layers is needed for surgical anastomoses and for enterocutaneous fistula. Failure of wound healing can result in complications including infection, prolonged hospitalization, critical illness, organ failure, readmission, new or worsening enterocutaneous fistula, and even death...
November 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
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